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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  83. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20120516-20120520; Mainz; DOC12hnod337 /20120404/
    Publication Date: 2012-04-05
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Graves, Tina -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Buhay, Christian J -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Shen, Hua -- Holder, Michael -- Villasana, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Cree, Andrew -- Courtney, Laura -- Veizer, Joelle -- Kotkiewicz, Holland -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- R01 HG000257/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG000257-17/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;483(7387):82-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. jhughes@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Amplification/genetics ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Radiation Hybrid Mapping ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Time Factors ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):407-8. doi: 10.1038/507407a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670737" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Cannabidiol/analysis ; Cannabinol/analysis ; Cannabis/chemistry/classification/growth & development ; Child ; Colorado/epidemiology ; Data Collection/trends ; Dronabinol/analysis ; *Federal Government ; Female ; Humans ; Marijuana Smoking/economics/epidemiology/legislation & jurisprudence/psychology ; National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.) ; Pregnancy ; United States ; Washington/epidemiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-12-24
    Description: A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input power is higher than the forward input. The silicon optical diode is ultracompact and is compatible with current complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fan, Li -- Wang, Jian -- Varghese, Leo T -- Shen, Hao -- Niu, Ben -- Xuan, Yi -- Weiner, Andrew M -- Qi, Minghao -- 1R01RR026273-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM103401/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jan 27;335(6067):447-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1214383. Epub 2011 Dec 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194410" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Equipment Design ; *Lasers, Semiconductor ; Optical Phenomena ; Semiconductors ; *Silicon
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-09-25
    Description: Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its small nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behaviour. Extensive work on the nematode has identified the neurons that are necessary for the different locomotory behaviours underlying chemotaxis through the use of laser ablation, activity recording in immobilized animals and the study of mutants. However, we do not know the neural activity patterns in C. elegans that are sufficient to control its complex chemotactic behaviour. To understand how the activity in its interneurons coordinate different motor programs to lead the animal to food, here we used optogenetics and new optical tools to manipulate neural activity directly in freely moving animals to evoke chemotactic behaviour. By deducing the classes of activity patterns triggered during chemotaxis and exciting individual neurons with these patterns, we identified interneurons that control the essential locomotory programs for this behaviour. Notably, we discovered that controlling the dynamics of activity in just one interneuron pair (AIY) was sufficient to force the animal to locate, turn towards and track virtual light gradients. Two distinct activity patterns triggered in AIY as the animal moved through the gradient controlled reversals and gradual turns to drive chemotactic behaviour. Because AIY neurons are post-synaptic to most chemosensory and thermosensory neurons, it is probable that these activity patterns in AIY have an important role in controlling and coordinating different taxis behaviours of the animal.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229948/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229948/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kocabas, Askin -- Shen, Ching-Han -- Guo, Zengcai V -- Ramanathan, Sharad -- DP1 MH099906/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):273-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11431. Epub 2012 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. akocabas@cgr.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000898" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology ; Chemotaxis/*physiology ; Electric Stimulation ; Interneurons/physiology ; Neurons/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):17. doi: 10.1038/492017a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23222583" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Climate Change ; *Federal Government ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Patents as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence ; Science/economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Texas ; United States ; United States Environmental Protection Agency
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-10-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morello, Lauren -- Ledford, Heidi -- Shen, Helen -- Tollefson, Jeff -- Witze, Alexandra -- Zhang, Sarah -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 24;502(7472):419. doi: 10.1038/502419a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24153271" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antarctic Regions ; *Budgets ; Ecology/economics ; Expeditions/economics ; *Federal Government ; Morale ; Research/*economics ; Research Personnel/economics/psychology ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-05-03
    Description: We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and approximately 25% of high-grade endometrioid tumours had extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumours had few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations, but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A and KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumours that we identified had a markedly increased transversion mutation frequency and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may affect post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumours.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704730/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704730/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network -- Kandoth, Cyriac -- Schultz, Nikolaus -- Cherniack, Andrew D -- Akbani, Rehan -- Liu, Yuexin -- Shen, Hui -- Robertson, A Gordon -- Pashtan, Itai -- Shen, Ronglai -- Benz, Christopher C -- Yau, Christina -- Laird, Peter W -- Ding, Li -- Zhang, Wei -- Mills, Gordon B -- Kucherlapati, Raju -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Levine, Douglas A -- 5U24CA143799-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143835-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143840-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143843-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143845-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143848-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143858-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143866-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143867-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143882-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA143883-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5U24CA144025-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016086/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA098258/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143799/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143835/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143840/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143843/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143845/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143848/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143858/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143867/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143882/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143883/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA144025/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003067-11/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003079-10/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003273-10/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 2;497(7447):67-73. doi: 10.1038/nature12113.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636398" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Breast Neoplasms/genetics ; Chromosome Aberrations ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; DNA Polymerase II/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Endometrial Neoplasms/*classification/*genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factors/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-11-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 7;503(7474):14-5. doi: 10.1038/503014a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24201259" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified/*genetics ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Gene Targeting/methods ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; Haplorhini/*genetics ; Humans ; Huntington Disease/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2013-08-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):261-2. doi: 10.1038/500261a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955211" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/physiology ; Deep Brain Stimulation/ethics ; *Ethics, Research ; Humans ; Neurosciences/*ethics ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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