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  • 1
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Housane ; Norcaradiene ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cycloaddition of a Very Reactive Cyanovinylcarbene with Benzene and 3,4-Dichlorocyclobutene. Molecular and Crystal Structure of 2,3-Dichloro-5-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5-housanecarbonitrile and 7-(1-Cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-7-norcaradienecarbonitrileThe cyanovinylcarbene 2 has been generated by photolysis of 3,3-dimethyl-3H-pyrazole-4,5-dicarbonitril (1) and the cycloaddition products with benzene and with 3,4-dichlorocyclobutene have been isolated. The molecular structures of the cycloaddition products 7-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-7-norcaradienecarbonitrile (3) and 2,3-dichloro-5-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5-housanecarbonitrile (4) were determined by X-ray analyses. The bridging bond of the bicyclo[2.1.0]pentane group in 4 is shortened to 1.515 Å by the electronic interaction of this group with the cyano substituent. The vinyl substituent has no influence because of perpendicular orientation.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Mitochondria ; Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ; RNA splicing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (mLRS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in both mitochondrial protein synthesis and pre-mRNA splicing. We have created mutations in the regions HIGH, GWD and KMSKS, which are involved in ATP-, amino acid-and tRNA-binding respectively, and which have been conserved in the evolution of group I tRNA synthetases. The mutants GRD and NMSKS have no discernible phenotype. The mutants AWD and ARD act as null alleles and lead to the production of 100% cytoplasmic petites. The mutants HIGN, NIGH and KMSNS are unable to grown on glycerol even in the presence of an intronless mitochondrial genome and accumulate petites to a greater extent than the wild-type but less than 40%. Experiments with an imported bI4 maturase indicate that the lesion in these mutations primarily affects the synthetase and not the splicing functions.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ; RNA splicing ; Group I introns ; RNA maturase ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene NAM2 codes for mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (mLRS). Herbert et al. (1988, EMBO J 7:473–483) proposed that this protein is involved in mitochondrial RNA splicing. Here we present the construction and analyses of nine mutations obtained by creating two-codon insertions within the NAM2 gene. Three of these prevent respiration while maintaining the mitochondrial genome. These three mutants: (1) display in vitro a mLRS activity ranging from 0%–50% that of the wild type: (2) allow in vivo the synthesis of several mitochondrially encoded proteins; (3) prevent the synthesis of the COXII protein but not of its mRNA; (4) abolish the splicing of the group I introns bI4 and aI4; and (5) affect significantly the excision of the group I introns bI2, bI3 and aI3. Importation of the bI4 maturase from the cytoplasm into mitochondria in a nam2 − mutant strain does not restore the excision of the introns bI4 and aI4 implying that the splicing deficiency does not result from the absence of the bI4 maturase. We conclude that the mLRS is a splicing factor essential for the excision of the group I introns bI4 and aI4 and probably important for the excision of other group I introns.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: simulated moving bed technology ; chiral separation ; cellulose triacetate ; preparative scale liquid chromatography ; racemic epoxide ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The feasibility of using simulated moving bed technology (SMB) for chiral separation on cellulose triacetate is demonstrated on the preparative scale: 1 kg of a chiral epoxide has been separated. On comparing SMB technology with conventional liquid chromatography it turns out that the main advantage of SMB lies in the significant reduction of mobile phase consumption. The process design for SMB is made theoretically and the predictions are confirmed by our pilot study. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: propranolol ; enantiomers ; immunogen synthesis ; selective antibody ; ELISA ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A selective antibody to (S)-propranolol enantiomer was produced in rabbits by immunization with a new conjugate of N-aminopropylpropranolol-albumin. A hapten was first prepared by condensing (S)-propranolol or the racemate with 3-bromopropylphthalimide followed by hydrazinolysis, and the resulting compound conjugated to serum albumin by means of a glutaraldehyde- or carbodiimide-mediated reaction. Rabbits were immunized, and titres and specificity of antibodies were determined by ELISA. The antibodies obtained were tested with (S)-, (R)-, (R, S)-propranolol, and other structural analogs. Selective (S)-antibodies recognized (S)-propranolol 20 times more avidly than (R)-isomer while an antiserum against (R, S)-propranolol recognized both (S)- and (R)-isomers to about the same degree. ©1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: NSAID ; chirality ; enantiomers ; protein binding ; equilibrium dialysis ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Equilibrium dialysis was used to study in vitro the enantioselective binding of R, S, and racemic ketoprofen at physiological pH and temperature in human serum albumin (HSA) (1, 20, and 40 g/liter) and in plasma. The binding of enantiomers in a racemic mixture was studied to see the effect of each isomer on the other's interaction with the protein. The free fractions were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The binding of ketoprofen enantiomers to albumin was enantioselective, depending on both drug and protein concentrations. Enantioselectivity was observed in plasma too but was the opposite of that in HSA at 40 g/liter. The percentage of each isomer unbound was higher in the racemic mixture than with the isomer alone. The displacement of probes specific for HSA sites I and II, studied by spectrofluorimetry, suggests that all three preparations of ketoprofen are bound mainly to site I and secondarily to site II. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 5 (1993), S. 414-418 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: gallopamil ; enantiomers ; protein binding ; serum ; α1-acid glycoprotein ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The protein binding of the enantiomers of gallopamil has been investigated in solutions of human serum albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein and serum. Over the range of concentrations attained after oral gallopamil administration, the binding of both enantiomers to albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and serum proteins was independent of gallopamil concentration. The binding to both human serum albumin (40 g/liter) [range of fraction bound (fb) R: 0.624 to 0.699; S: 0.502 to 0.605] and α1-acid glycoprotein (0.5 g/liter) (range of fb R: 0.530 to 0.718; S: 0.502 to 0.620) was stereoselective, favoring the (R)-enantiomer (predialysis gallopamil concentrations 2.5 to 10,000 ng/ml). When the enantiomers (predialysis gallopamil concentration 10 ng/ml) were studied separately in drug-free serum samples from six healthy volunteers the fraction of (S)-gallopamil bound (fb: 0.943 ± 0.016) was lower (P 〈 0.05) than that of (R)-gallopamil (fb: 0.960 ± 0.010). The serum protein binding of both (R)- and (S)-gallopamil was unaffected by their optical antipodes (fb R: 0.963 ± 0.011; S: 0.948 ± 0.015) indicating that at therapeutic concentrations a protein binding enantiomer-enantiomer interaction does not occur. The protein binding of (R)- and (S)-gallopamil ex vivo 2 h after single dose oral administration of 50 mg pseudoracemic gallopamil (fb R: 0.960 ± 0.010: predialysis [R] 6.9 to 35.3 ng/ml; S: 0.943 ± 0.016: predialysis [S] 9.5 to 30.7 ng/ml) was comparable to that observed in vitro in drug-free serum. Gallopamil metabolites formed during first-pass following oral administration, therefore, do not influence the protein binding of (R)- or (S)-gallopamil. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral ; cyclodextrin ; drug ; electrophoresis ; micellar electrokinetic ; resolution ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) were applied to the resolution of racemic nonsteroidal antiaromatase drugs and intermediates. Successful results were obtained in both modes using α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), or 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) as chiral selectors. Depending on the structure of the solute, one of the cyclodextrins was generally better suited for resolution of the racemate. The basic solutes were analyzed under HPCE conditions, whereas the nonionizable compounds such as glutethimide (Doriden®) were analyzed in MECC mode. For the azole-type antiaromatase Fadrozole, both HPCE and MECC modes could be used to achieve the separation of the enantiomers. The influence of experimental factors such as pH, the presence of organic modifier, temperature, the micelle concentration, and the concentration of the chiral selector is also discussed on the basis of the results obtained with some chiral barbiturates. The possibility of analyzing the enantiomers directly in plasma samples was also demonstrated. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: An infrared spectroscopic study of the 1 : 1 hydrogen-bond association of amidates with both methanol and 4-fluorophenol showed that the site of complexation is the oxygen of the amidate function. However the formamidate HCON2Me3 forms a second 1 : 1 complex on the nitrogen of the amidate. The formation constants of the hydrogen-bond complexes of the amidates with the reference hydrogen-bond donor 4-FC6H4OH indicate that the amidates are stronger hydrogen-bond bases than are amides and amide vinylogues. As such, the amidates constitute the strongest carbonyl bases hitherto investigated on the hydrogen-bond basicity scale.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 6 (1990), S. 271-297 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; DNA-binding proteins ; transcription regulation ; RNA polymerase B ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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