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  • 2015-2019  (67)
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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Human Genetics ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Bioinformatics ; Biochemistry ; Biomedicine ; Human Genetics ; Epidemiology ; Biochemistry, general ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Public Health ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction -- 1. Toward new tools -- 2. Models of development -- 3. Groupoid symmetries -- 4. Epigenetic catalysis -- 5. Developmental disorders -- 6. An interim perspective -- 7. The obesity pandemic in the US -- 8. Coronary heart disease in the US. - 9. Cancer: a developmental perspective -- 10. Autoimmune disorders -- 11. Demoralization and obesity in Upper Manhattan -- 12. Death at an early age: AIDS and related mortality in New York City -- 13. Mental Disorders I: Western atomism and its culture-bound syndromes -- 14. Mental Disorders II: Psychopathology and sleep -- 15. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer in Manhattan's Chinatown -- 16. Right-To-Work Laws and Alzheimer's Disease -- 17. Stress as an Environmental Exposure -- 18. Final Thoughts -- 19. Mathematical Appendix
    Abstract: This book describes how epigenetic context, in a large sense, affects gene expression and the development of an organism, using the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to construct statistical models useful in data analysis. The approach allows deep understanding of how embedding context affects development. We find that epigenetic information sources act as tunable catalysts, directing ontogeny into characteristic pathways, a perspective having important implications for epigenetic epidemiology. In sum, environmental stressors can induce a broad spectrum of developmental dysfunctions, and the book explores a number of pandemic chronic diseases, using U.S. data at different scales and levels of organization. In particular, we find the legacy of slavery has been grossly compounded by accelerating industrial decline and urban decay. Individual chapters are dedicated to obesity and its sequelae, coronary heart disease, cancer, mental disorders, autoimmune dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions. Developmental disorders are driven by environmental factors channeled by historical trajectory and are unlikely to respond to medical interventions at the population level in the face of persistent individual and community stress. Drugs powerful enough to affect deleterious epigenetic programming will likely have side effects leading to shortened lifespan. Addressing chronic conditions and developmental disorders requires significant large-scale changes in public policy and resource allocation
    Pages: XIII, 344 p. 52 illus. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2017.
    ISBN: 9783319480787
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  • 2
    Keywords: Popular works ; Gene Expression ; Evolutionary Biology ; Medicine ; Health ; Popular Science ; Popular Life Sciences ; Evolutionary Biology ; Popular Science in Medicine and Health ; Gene Expression ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Part I: The Novel -- Part II: The Science behind the fiction
    Abstract: Genetics professor Michelle Murphy loses her husband under mysterious circumstances and without warning, while their brilliant eight-year-old daughter Avalon, adopted in Kazakhstan, stubbornly believes she is a mutant. As if this were not enough, she soon finds herself thrown into the middle of a quickly thickening plot, where the legacy of Genghis Khan meets the hunt for FOXP5, a genetic transcription factor that could herald the dawn of new human species. Initially caught helplessly between well-meaning fellow scientists, the government, and more sinister agents, Michelle eventually takes control with the help of a host of unlikely heroes and finds the courage to confront the decision of whether to save human lives or humanity. The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot – in particular aspects of FOX proteins, genetic mutations, viruses, and cancer as well as the relation between intelligence and cortical complexity – are introduced and discussed by the authors in an extensive, non-technical appendix. Science writer Wallace Kaufman’s work has appeared in major magazines and newspapers in the U.S., England, and Kazakhstan. After Duke University he earned an M.Litt. from Oxford. His writing has taken him to Central and South America, to European Russia and the coasts of Siberia. He worked in most of Central Asia and served as resident adviser on housing and land reform in Kazakhstan. His books include Invasive Plants: Guide to Identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species (2nd edition, 2013), Coming Out of the Woods - A Memoir (2001), No Turning Back (1994), and The Beaches Are Moving: The Drowning of America's Shoreline, (1979/1983). David Deamer is a Research Professor of Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He recently published First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began (2011). Deamer's research concerns molecular self-assembly processes related to the origin and evolution of membrane structure. Over the past 25 years, he has been engaged in developing nanoscopic pores in lipid bilayers as a way to sequence DNA. This work came to fruition in 2015 when the first portable nanopore sequencing device was successfully tested by early users
    Pages: VII, 251 p. 1 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319289618
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  • 3
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Human Genetics ; Psychiatry ; Systems Biology ; Life sciences ; Systems Biology ; Human Genetics ; Psychiatry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Consciousness, Crosstalk, and the Mereological Fallacy -- A Cognitive Paradigm for Gene Expression -- Western Atomism and its Culture-Bound Syndromes -- Environmental Induction of Neurodevelopmental Disorders -- Sleep, Psychopathology and Culture -- Embodied cognition and its disorders -- Tools for the Future: Hidden Symmetries -- Psychopathologies of automata I: autonomous vehicle systems -- Psychopathologies of automata II: autonomous weapons and centaur systems -- The dynamics of environmental insult -- Social psychopathology: military doctrine and the madness of crowds -- Mathematical Appendix -- Index
    Abstract: This book explores mental disorders from a uniquely evolutionary perspective. Although there have been many attempts to mathematically model neural processes and, to some extent, their dysfunction, there is very little literature that models mental function within a sociocultural, socioeconomic, and environmental context. Addressing this gap in the extant literature, this book explores essential aspects of mental disorders, recognizing the ubiquitous role played by the exaptation of crosstalk between cognitive modules at many different scales and levels of organization, the missing heritability of complex diseases, and cultural epigenetics. Further, it introduces readers to valuable control theory tools that permit the exploration of the environmental induction of neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the study of the synergism between culture, psychopathology and sleep disorders, offering a distinctively unique resource
    Pages: XII, 236 p. 31 illus. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319539102
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  • 4
    Keywords: Otorhinolaryngology ; Neurosciences ; Otorhinolaryngology ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Visual Influence on Auditory Perception -- Cue Combination Within a Bayesian Framework -- Toward a Model of Auditory-Visual Speech Intelligibility -- An Object-Based Interpretation of Audiovisual Processing -- Hearing in a “Moving” Visual World: Coordinate Transformations Along the Auditory Pathway -- Multisensory Processing in the Auditory Cortex -- Audiovisual Integration in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex -- Using Multisensory Integration to Understand the Human Auditory Cortex -- Combining Voice and Face Content in the Primate Temporal Lobe -- Neural Network Dynamics and Audiovisual Integration -- Cross-Modal Learning in the Auditory System -- Multisensory Processing Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Abstract: Auditory behavior, perception, and cognition are all shaped by information from other sensory systems. This volume examines this multi-sensory view of auditory function at levels of analysis ranging from the single neuron to neuroimaging in human clinical populations. Visual Influence on Auditory Perception Adrian K.C. Lee and Mark T. Wallace Cue Combination within a Bayesian Framework David Alais and David Burr Toward a Model of Auditory-Visual Speech Intelligibility Ken W. Grant and Joshua G. W. Bernstein An Object-based Interpretation of Audiovisual Processing Adrian K.C. Lee, Ross K. Maddox, and Jennifer K. Bizley Hearing in a “Moving” Visual World: Coordinate Transformations Along the Auditory Pathway Shawn M. Willett, Jennifer M. Groh, Ross K. Maddox Multisensory Processing in the Auditory Cortex Andrew J. King, Amy Hammond-Kenny, Fernando R. Nodal Audiovisual Integration in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex Bethany Plakke and Lizabeth M. Romanski Using Multisensory Integration to Understand Human Auditory Cortex Michael S. Beauchamp Combining Voice and Face Content in the Primate Temporal Lobe Catherine Perrodin and Christopher I. Petkov Neural Network Dynamics and Audiovisual Integration Julian Keil and Daniel Senkowski Cross-Modal Learning in the Auditory System Patrick Bruns and Brigitte Röder Multisensory Processing Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Sarah H. Baum Miller, Mark T. Wallace Adrian K.C. Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences and the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle Mark T. Wallace is the Louise B McGavock Endowed Chair and Professor in the Departments of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Psychiatry, Psychology and Director of the Vanderbilt Brain Institute at Vanderbilt University, Nashville Allison B. Coffin is Associate Professor in the Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience at Washington State University, Vancouver, WA Arthur N. Popper is Professor Emeritus and research professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Maryland, College Park Richard R. Fay is Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology at Loyola University, Chicago
    Pages: XVI, 272 p. 70 illus., 49 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783030104610
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: It is often thought that the ability to control reaction rates with an applied electrical potential gradient is unique to redox systems. However, recent theoretical studies suggest that oriented electric fields could affect the outcomes of a range of chemical reactions, regardless of whether a redox system is involved. This possibility arises because many formally covalent species can be stabilized via minor charge-separated resonance contributors. When an applied electric field is aligned in such a way as to electrostatically stabilize one of these minor forms, the degree of resonance increases, resulting in the overall stabilization of the molecule or transition state. This means that it should be possible to manipulate the kinetics and thermodynamics of non-redox processes using an external electric field, as long as the orientation of the approaching reactants with respect to the field stimulus can be controlled. Here, we provide experimental evidence that the formation of carbon-carbon bonds is accelerated by an electric field. We have designed a surface model system to probe the Diels-Alder reaction, and coupled it with a scanning tunnelling microscopy break-junction approach. This technique, performed at the single-molecule level, is perfectly suited to deliver an electric-field stimulus across approaching reactants. We find a fivefold increase in the frequency of formation of single-molecule junctions, resulting from the reaction that occurs when the electric field is present and aligned so as to favour electron flow from the dienophile to the diene. Our results are qualitatively consistent with those predicted by quantum-chemical calculations in a theoretical model of this system, and herald a new approach to chemical catalysis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aragones, Albert C -- Haworth, Naomi L -- Darwish, Nadim -- Ciampi, Simone -- Bloomfield, Nathaniel J -- Wallace, Gordon G -- Diez-Perez, Ismael -- Coote, Michelle L -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):88-91. doi: 10.1038/nature16989.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departament de Quimica-Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, Barcelona 08028, Catalonia, Spain. ; Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, Barcelona 08028, Catalonia, Spain. ; Centro Investigacion Biomedica en Red (CIBER-BBN), Campus Rio Ebro-Edificio I+D, Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, Zaragoza 50018, Spain. ; ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia. ; ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935697" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-07
    Description: Nutrient pollution of freshwater ecosystems results in predictable increases in carbon (C) sequestration by algae. Tests of nutrient enrichment on the fates of terrestrial organic C, which supports riverine food webs and is a source of CO2, are lacking. Using whole-stream nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions spanning the equivalent of 27 years, we found that average terrestrial organic C residence time was reduced by ~50% as compared to reference conditions as a result of nutrient pollution. Annual inputs of terrestrial organic C were rapidly depleted via release of detrital food webs from N and P co-limitation. This magnitude of terrestrial C loss can potentially exceed predicted algal C gains with nutrient enrichment across large parts of river networks, diminishing associated ecosystem services.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rosemond, Amy D -- Benstead, Jonathan P -- Bumpers, Phillip M -- Gulis, Vladislav -- Kominoski, John S -- Manning, David W P -- Suberkropp, Keller -- Wallace, J Bruce -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1142-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1958.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. rosemond@uga.edu. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. ; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. ; Department of Biology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC 29528, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745171" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acer ; Biomass ; *Carbon Sequestration ; *Food Chain ; Liriodendron ; Nitrogen/chemistry ; Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Phosphorus/chemistry ; Plant Leaves ; Quercus ; Rhododendron ; Rivers/*chemistry ; *Water Pollution
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: An analysis of present-day global depth distributions of reef-building corals and underlying environmental drivers contradicts a commonly held belief that ocean warming will promote tropical coral expansion into temperate latitudes. Using a global data set of a major group of reef corals, we found that corals were confined to shallower depths at higher latitudes (up to 0.6 meters of predicted shallowing per additional degree of latitude). Latitudinal attenuation of the most important driver of this phenomenon-the dose of photosynthetically available radiation over winter-would severely constrain latitudinal coral range extension in response to ocean warming. Latitudinal gradients in species richness for the group also suggest that higher winter irradiance at depth in low latitudes allowed a deep-water fauna that was not viable at higher latitudes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Muir, Paul R -- Wallace, Carden C -- Done, Terence -- Aguirre, J David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1135-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1259911.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. paul.muir@qm.qld.gov.au. ; Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. ; Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB #3, Townsville MC, Queensland 4810, Australia. ; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand. School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa/*growth & development ; *Coral Reefs ; Datasets as Topic ; *Hot Temperature ; Seasons ; *Sunlight
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-12-15
    Description: Individual variation in social behavior seems ubiquitous, but we know little about how it relates to brain diversity. Among monogamous prairie voles, levels of vasopressin receptor (encoded by the gene avpr1a) in brain regions related to spatial memory predict male space use and sexual fidelity in the field. We find that trade-offs between the benefits of male fidelity and infidelity are reflected in patterns of territorial intrusion, offspring paternity, avpr1a expression, and the evolutionary fitness of alternative avpr1a alleles. DNA variation at the avpr1a locus includes polymorphisms that reliably predict the epigenetic status and neural expression of avpr1a, and patterns of DNA diversity demonstrate that avpr1a regulatory variation has been favored by selection. In prairie voles, trade-offs in the fitness consequences of social behaviors seem to promote neuronal and molecular diversity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okhovat, Mariam -- Berrio, Alejandro -- Wallace, Gerard -- Ophir, Alexander G -- Phelps, Steven M -- R21 HD059092/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 11;350(6266):1371-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Campus Code C0930, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Department of Psychology, Cornell University, 224 Uris Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Campus Code C0930, Austin, TX 78712, USA. sphelps@mail.utexas.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26659055" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Arvicolinae/genetics/metabolism/*psychology ; Biological Evolution ; Brain/*metabolism ; DNA/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; Grassland ; Male ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Receptors, Vasopressin/genetics/*metabolism ; Sexual Behavior/*physiology ; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; *Social Behavior ; Spatial Memory/*physiology ; Territoriality
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: Skinner and colleagues (Research Article, 23 January 2015, p. 395), based on metacarpal trabecular bone structure, argue that Australopithecus africanus employed human-like dexterity for stone tool making and use 3 million years ago. However, their evolutionary and biological assumptions are misinformed, failing to refute the previously existing hypothesis that human-like manipulation preceded systematized stone tool manufacture, as indicated by the fossil record.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Almecija, Sergio -- Wallace, Ian J -- Judex, Stefan -- Alba, David M -- Moya-Sola, Salvador -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1101. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8414.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Science and Engineering Hall, 800 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. sergio.almecija@gmail.com. ; Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. ; ICREA at Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont and Unitat d'Antropologia Biologica (Departament BABVE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-CP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Metacarpal Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Metacarpus/*anatomy & histology ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-08-15
    Description: Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 x 10(-6) and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, "hot-start" formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the "cold-start" core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Macintosh, B -- Graham, J R -- Barman, T -- De Rosa, R J -- Konopacky, Q -- Marley, M S -- Marois, C -- Nielsen, E L -- Pueyo, L -- Rajan, A -- Rameau, J -- Saumon, D -- Wang, J J -- Patience, J -- Ammons, M -- Arriaga, P -- Artigau, E -- Beckwith, S -- Brewster, J -- Bruzzone, S -- Bulger, J -- Burningham, B -- Burrows, A S -- Chen, C -- Chiang, E -- Chilcote, J K -- Dawson, R I -- Dong, R -- Doyon, R -- Draper, Z H -- Duchene, G -- Esposito, T M -- Fabrycky, D -- Fitzgerald, M P -- Follette, K B -- Fortney, J J -- Gerard, B -- Goodsell, S -- Greenbaum, A Z -- Hibon, P -- Hinkley, S -- Cotten, T H -- Hung, L-W -- Ingraham, P -- Johnson-Groh, M -- Kalas, P -- Lafreniere, D -- Larkin, J E -- Lee, J -- Line, M -- Long, D -- Maire, J -- Marchis, F -- Matthews, B C -- Max, C E -- Metchev, S -- Millar-Blanchaer, M A -- Mittal, T -- Morley, C V -- Morzinski, K M -- Murray-Clay, R -- Oppenheimer, R -- Palmer, D W -- Patel, R -- Perrin, M D -- Poyneer, L A -- Rafikov, R R -- Rantakyro, F T -- Rice, E L -- Rojo, P -- Rudy, A R -- Ruffio, J-B -- Ruiz, M T -- Sadakuni, N -- Saddlemyer, L -- Salama, M -- Savransky, D -- Schneider, A C -- Sivaramakrishnan, A -- Song, I -- Soummer, R -- Thomas, S -- Vasisht, G -- Wallace, J K -- Ward-Duong, K -- Wiktorowicz, S J -- Wolff, S G -- Zuckerman, B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 2;350(6256):64-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5891. Epub 2015 Aug 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040, USA. bmacintosh@stanford.edu. ; Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2, Canada. ; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Post Office Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanetes, Department de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. ; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Post Office Box 1663, MS F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. ; School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Post Office Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK. ; Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ; Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4, Canada. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2, Canada. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada. ; Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Universite Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38000 Grenoble, France. ; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; Department of Physics, Durham University, Stockton Road, Durham DH1, UK. Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3600 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile. ; University of Exeter, Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. ; Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA. ; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4, Canada. ; Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of California-Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530, USA. ; Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA. ; Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA. Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA. ; Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Casilla 36-D, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile. ; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2825 East Avenue P, Palmdale, CA 93550, USA. Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile. ; National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada. ; Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26272904" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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