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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-06-25
    Description: An epidemic of Ebola virus disease of unprecedented scale has been ongoing for more than a year in West Africa. As of 29 April 2015, there have been 26,277 reported total cases (of which 14,895 have been laboratory confirmed) resulting in 10,899 deaths. The source of the outbreak was traced to the prefecture of Gueckedou in the forested region of southeastern Guinea. The virus later spread to the capital, Conakry, and to the neighbouring countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal and Mali. In March 2014, when the first cases were detected in Conakry, the Institut Pasteur of Dakar, Senegal, deployed a mobile laboratory in Donka hospital to provide diagnostic services to the greater Conakry urban area and other regions of Guinea. Through this process we sampled 85 Ebola viruses (EBOV) from patients infected from July to November 2014, and report their full genome sequences here. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the sustained transmission of three distinct viral lineages co-circulating in Guinea, including the urban setting of Conakry and its surroundings. One lineage is unique to Guinea and closely related to the earliest sampled viruses of the epidemic. A second lineage contains viruses probably reintroduced from neighbouring Sierra Leone on multiple occasions, while a third lineage later spread from Guinea to Mali. Each lineage is defined by multiple mutations, including non-synonymous changes in the virion protein 35 (VP35), glycoprotein (GP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) proteins. The viral GP is characterized by a glycosylation site modification and mutations in the mucin-like domain that could modify the outer shape of the virion. These data illustrate the ongoing ability of EBOV to develop lineage-specific and potentially phenotypically important variation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Simon-Loriere, Etienne -- Faye, Ousmane -- Faye, Oumar -- Koivogui, Lamine -- Magassouba, Nfaly -- Keita, Sakoba -- Thiberge, Jean-Michel -- Diancourt, Laure -- Bouchier, Christiane -- Vandenbogaert, Matthias -- Caro, Valerie -- Fall, Gamou -- Buchmann, Jan P -- Matranga, Christan B -- Sabeti, Pardis C -- Manuguerra, Jean-Claude -- Holmes, Edward C -- Sall, Amadou A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 6;524(7563):102-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14612. Epub 2015 Jun 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institut Pasteur, Functional Genetics of Infectious Diseases Unit, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France [2] CNRS URA3012, Paris 75015, France. ; Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Arbovirus and Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Unit, BP 220, Dakar, Senegal. ; Institut National de Sante Publique de Guinee, Conakry, Guinea. ; Projet de fievres hemorragiques de Guinee, Universite Gamal Abdel Nasser, BP 1147, Conakry, Guinea. ; Ministry of Health, BP 585 Conakry, Guinea. ; Institut Pasteur, Unite Environnement et Risques Infectieux, Cellule d'Intervention Biologique d'Urgence, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. ; Institut Pasteur, Genomic platform, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. ; Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. ; Broad Institute, 75 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute, 75 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] FAS Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106863" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Four influenza C virus strains, isolated in France in 1991, were used as a source for a kinetic study of the enzyme O-acetylesterase (EC 3.1.1.53) related to another strain, C/JHB/1/66, considered as the reference strain. Similarities, but also differences, in their haemagglutination titres were detected. Remarkable differences were found for enzyme activity and the Km, Vmax, and the V max/Km ratio between certain strains, as well as for their thermostability at 40 °C when methylumbelliferyl acetate was used as substrate. By contrast, their optimum pH, stability at different pH values, and stability at 4 °C over 14 days were very similar. The effect of some compounds on O-acetylesterase activity was studied. The peculiarities of these factors are discussed in relation to the functional variation of the virus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: BHK-21/BRS ; MDCK ; non-animal-derived ; serum-free medium ; Vero ; virus-production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The development of media free of serum and animal or human proteins is of utmost importance for increasing the safety of biologicals produced for therapy and vaccination. In order to reduce the risk of contamination, we have modified the serum free medium MDSS2, a very efficient serum free medium for the production of various biologicals including experimental vaccines using different cell lines (Merten et al., 1994), by replacing the animal derived products by plant extracts. The new serum and animal protein free medium (MDSS2N) can be efficiently used for biomass production of various cell lines. These cells grow equally well or better in this new serum-free medium than in the old formulation (MDSS2): • BHK-21/BRS cells, adapted to MDSS2N, showed an overall specific growth rate of 0.0197 h-1 (μ_max = 0.0510±0.0058 h-1), whereas those cultivated in MDSS2 grew with an average specific growth rate of 0.0179 h-1 (μ_max = 0.0305±0.0177 h-1). • Vero cells grew with an average specific growth rate of 0.0159 h-1 and 0.0153 h-1 in MDSS2 and MDSS2N, respectively. Very similar growth rates were obtained in microcarrier cultures in stirred tank reactors: the specific growth rates were 0.0161 h-1 and 0.0166 h-1 for MDSS2 and MDSS2N cultures, respectively. • For MDCK cells, when cultured on microcarriers in bioreactors, a higher average specific growth rate was observed in MDSS2N than in MDSS2; values of 0.0248 h-1 and 0.0168 h-1, respectively, were obtained. The capacity of MDSS2N to support the production of different viruses was equally evaluated and it could be established that for certain viruses there are no or insignificant differences between MDSS2N and MDSS2 (influenza and polio virus), whereas, the production of rabies virus is somewhat reduced in MDSS2N when compared to MDSS2. The use of MDSS2N for cell culture and the production of various viruses is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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