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  • AGE  (29)
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY  (29)
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  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; TIME ; PATIENT ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; BETA ; DIET ; INDIVIDUALS ; time trends ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; DENMARK ; BREAST-CANCER RISK ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; STANDARD ; ADULT ; RE ; DETERMINANTS ; BODY-SIZE ; HEIGHT ; PARTICIPANTS ; BIRTH ; body height ; menarche ; SECULAR TRENDS ; URINE ESTROGENS
    Abstract: In the last two centuries, age at menarche has decreased in several European populations, whereas adult height has increased. It is unclear whether these trends have ceased in recent years or how age at menarche and height are related in individuals. In this study, the authors first investigated trends in age at menarche and adult height among 286,205 women from nine European countries by computing the mean age at menarche and height in 5-year birth cohorts, adjusted for differences in socioeconomic status. Second, the relation between age at menarche and height was estimated by linear regression models, adjusted for age at enrollment between 1992 and 1998 and socioeconomic status. Mean age at menarche decreased by 44 days per 5-year birth cohort (beta = -0.12, standard error = 0.002), varying from 18 days in the United Kingdom to 58 days in Spain and Germany. Women grew 0.29 cm taller per 5-year birth cohort (standard error = 0.007), varying from 0.42 cm in Italy to 0.98 cm in Denmark. Furthermore, women grew approximately 0.31 cm taller when menarche occurred 1 year later (range by country: 0.13-0.50 cm). Based on time trends, more recent birth cohorts have their menarche earlier and grow taller. However, women with earlier menarche reach a shorter adult height compared with women who have menarche at a later age
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16107566
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISKS ; TUMORS ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; ENERGY ; WOMEN ; etiology ; MEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; COLON-CANCER ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; UNITED-STATES ; BODY ; body mass index ; nutrition ; dietary fiber ; LEISURE-TIME ; physical activity ; RECTAL-CANCER ; MASS INDEX ; ASSOCIATIONS ; colon cancer ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; INTERVAL ; PARTICIPANTS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; ENERGY-BALANCE ; prospective ; BMI ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE ; ANATOMIC SUBSITE ; intake ; LARGE-BOWEL-CANCER ; OCCUPATIONAL RISK
    Abstract: We investigated several aspects of the role of physical activity in colon and rectal cancer etiology that remain unclear in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer. This cohort of 413,044 men and women had 1,094 cases of colon and 599 cases of rectal cancer diagnosed during an average of 6.4 years of follow-up. We analyzed baseline data on occupational, household, and recreational activity to examine associations by type of activity, tumor subsite, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. The multivariate hazard ratio for colon cancer was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-1.03] among the most active participants when compared with the inactive, with evidence of a dose-response effect (P-trend = 0.04). For right-sided colon tumors, the risk was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.43-1.00) in the highest quartile of activity with evidence of a linear trend (P-trend=0.004). Active participants with a BMI under 25 had a risk of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.39-1.01) for colon cancer compared with the inactive. Finally, an interaction between BMI and activity (P-interaction=0.03) was observed for right-sided colon cancers; among moderately active and active participants with a BMI under 25, a risk of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.21-0.68) was found as compared with inactive participants with BMI 〉 30. No comparable decreased risks were observed for rectal cancer for any type of physical activity for any subgroup analyses or interactions considered. We found that physical activity reduced colon cancer risk, specifically for right-sided tumors and for lean participants, but not rectal cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17164362
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; Germany ; COHORT ; RISK ; MICE ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; AGE ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; VALIDITY ; nutrition ; dehydroepiandrosterone ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; DETERMINANTS ; development ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; SERUM-LEVELS ; SULFATE ; HORMONES ; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE-SULFATE ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; STEROID-HORMONES ; INCREASED RISK ; odds ratio ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; BODY-MASS-INDEX
    Abstract: Few epidemiologic studies have examined the hypothesis that circulating androgens are involved in the development of ovarian cancer. We investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and ovarian cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One hundred and ninety-two ovarian cancer cases and 346 matched controls not using exogenous hormones at baseline blood donation were eligible for the study. Serum levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG were measured by direct immunoassays. Free testosterone (fT) was calculated according to mass action laws. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for possible confounders. Overall, there was no association between serum concentrations of androgens or SHBG and ovarian cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, fT concentrations were inversely related to risk [highest versus lowest tertile odds ratio 0.45 (0.24-0.86); P-trend = 0-01]. Among women diagnosed before the age of 55 years, there was a negative association with SHBG and a positive association with fT and ovarian cancer risk, although these associations were not statistically significant. The present study suggests that circulating androgens and SHBG levels are not strongly associated with ovarian cancer risk, although levels of fT may be associated with an increased risk among women diagnosed at relatively young age. The heterogeneity of results on the associations of fT with ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women deserves further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17220328
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; RISK ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; EPIC ; nutrition ; physical activity ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; prospective ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer
    Abstract: The evidence concerning the possible association between physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent and additional data are needed. We examined the association between risk of prostate cancer and physical activity at work and in leisure time in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In our study, including 127,923 men aged 20-97 years from 8 European countries, 2,458 cases of prostate cancer were identified during 8.5 years of followup. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we investigated the associations between prostate cancer incidence rate and occupational activity and leisure time activity in terms of participation in sports, cycling, walking and gardening; a metabolic equivalent (MET) score based on weekly time spent on the 4 activities; and a physical activity index. MET hours per week of leisure time activity, higher score in the physical activity index, participation in any of the 4 leisure time activities, and the number of leisure time activities in which the participants were active were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. However, higher level of occupational physical activity was associated with lower risk of advanced stage prostate cancer (p(trend) = 0.024). In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis of an inverse association between advanced prostate cancer risk and occupational physical activity, but we found no support for an association between prostate cancer risk and leisure time physical activity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19415749
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; AGENTS ; CELL ; MODEL ; MODELS ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; cohort study ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; HISTORY ; incidence ; RISK ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; T cell ; T-CELL ; ASSOCIATION ; DISORDER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; CARE ; DESIGN ; PLASMA ; AGE ; WOMEN ; etiology ; MEN ; risk factors ; leukemia ; Jun ; diabetes ; ABNORMALITIES ; INFECTIONS ; EPIC ; nutrition ; immunosuppression ; non-hodgkin's lymphoma ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; VIRAL-INFECTION ; insulin ; MELLITUS ; AGENT ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; multiple myeloma ; DISORDERS ; MEDICAL HISTORY ; INCREASE ; T-CELL LYMPHOMA ; prospective studies ; methods ; SUBTYPES ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; prospective study ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; B-CELL ; ENGLAND ; ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS ; host ; INCREASES ; viral ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; non-Hodgkin ; neoplasm ; INTERLEUKIN-6 GENE
    Abstract: Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the lymphopoietic system including a wide range of subtypes of either B-cell or T-cell lymphomas. The few established risk factors for the development of these neoplasms include viral infections and immunological abnormalities, but their etiology remains largely unknown. Evidence suggests that certain medical conditions may be linked, through immunosuppression, to the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Multiple myeloma is a neoplasm of plasma cells that accounts for approximately 15% of lymphopoietic cancers. Increases in the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in the past implicate environmental factors as potential causal agents. Design and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,213 histologically confirmed incident cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma (594 men; 619 women) were identified during a follow-up of 8.5 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between self-reported diabetes, diagnosed after 30 years of age, and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall and multiple myeloma and various lymphoma subtypes. Results We found no association between a personal history of diabetes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall in men (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.89-1.84), in women (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.41-1.24), or in men and women combined (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.80-1.47). Among the B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes, we observed a statistically significant increased risk of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.04-3.86) in men, but not in women (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.33-3.43). Conclusions This prospective study did not provide evidence for a role of self-reported diabetes in the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall or multiple myeloma. We found an increased risk of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men with diabetes, but not among women. We hypothesize that diabetes may not play a causal role in the etiology of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, though the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of both disorders may include shared genetic, host and/or environmental susceptibility factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18443270
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SUPPORT ; DEATH ; RISK ; RISKS ; TIME ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RECRUITMENT ; PREDICTION ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; EUROPE ; RELATIVE RISK ; BODIES ; REGRESSION ; WEIGHT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY ; alcohol consumption ; USA ; prospective ; BMI ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION ; MEDICINE ; NOV ; body mass ; RATIO ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; PREDICTING MORTALITY ; ROC CURVE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND Previous studies have relied predominantly on the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) to assess the association of adiposity with the risk of death, but few have examined whether the distribution of body fat contributes to the prediction of death. METHODS We examined the association of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of death among 359,387 participants from nine countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We used a Cox regression analysis, with age as the time variable, and stratified the models according to study center and age at recruitment, with further adjustment for educational level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and height. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 14,723 participants died. The lowest risks of death related to BMI were observed at a BMI of 25.3 for men and 24.3 for women. After adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were strongly associated with the risk of death. Relative risks among men and women in the highest quintile of waist circumference were 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 2.33) and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.56 to 2.04), respectively, and in the highest quintile of waist-to-hip ratio, the relative risks were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.53 to 1.84) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.66), respectively. BMI remained significantly associated with the risk of death in models that included waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (P〈0.001). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are associated with the risk of death and support the use of waist circumference or waist-tohip ratio in addition to BMI in assessing the risk of death
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19005195
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  • 7
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PROSTATE ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISKS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; HEALTH ; PLASMA ; ENERGY ; AGE ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; ethanol ; MULTIVARIATE ; RECRUITMENT ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; RELATIVE RISK ; ONCOLOGY ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; biomarker ; USA ; cancer research ; RISK-FACTOR ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; energy intake ; WINE ; BEVERAGES
    Abstract: Alcohol is a risk factor for several types of cancer. However, the results for prostate cancer have been inconsistent, with most studies showing no association. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, detailed information were collected from 142,607 male participants on the intake of alcoholic beverages at recruitment (for 100% of the cohort) and over lifetime (for 76% of the cohort) between 1992 and 2000. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, 2,655 prostate cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of alcohol consumption at recruitment and average lifetime alcohol consumption with prostate cancer adjusted for age, center, smoking, height, weight, physical activity, and nonalcohol energy intake. Overall, neither alcohol consumption at baseline nor average lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with the risk for prostate cancer in this cohort of men. Men who consumed 〉= 60 g alcohol per day had a relative risk of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72-1.081 compared with men with an intake of 0.1-4.9 g/d; the respective relative risk for average lifetime intake was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.86-1.39). For advanced prostate cancer (n=537), the relative risks for 〉= 60 and 0.1-4.9 g alcohol per day at baseline were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.66-1.44) and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.79-2-07), respectively, for average lifetime intake. No statistically significant association was observed for alcohol intake from specific alcoholic beverages. Our results indicate no association between the consumption of alcohol and prostate cancer in this cohort of European men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18483352
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; RISK ; INFECTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; HEALTH ; MEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; NETHERLANDS ; STOMACH ; adenocarcinoma ; EPIC ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; nutrition ; physical activity ; ONCOLOGY ; POPULATION-BASED COHORT ; SCALE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; SUBTYPES ; prospective ; CANCERS ; VARIABLES ; Helicobacter pylori ; stomach cancer ; BODY-MASS ; tumours ; gastric adenocarcinoma ; Type ; EURGAST ; REGISTER ; Oesophagus cancer
    Abstract: To analyse the association between types of physical activity (occupational, recreational and household, vigorous and overall) and risk of primary oesophageal (OAC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). From nine European countries, 420,449 participants were recruited between 1991 and 2000 and followed-up for a mean of 8.8 years to register incident GAC and OAC. Information on physical activity (PA), diet, lifestyle and health-related variables was obtained at baseline. Helicobacter pylori infection status was considered in a subset of 1,211 participants. Analyses were repeated by tumour site (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type (intestinal/diffuse). During the follow-up, 410 GAC and 80 OAC occurred. A lower risk of overall and non-cardia GAC was found for increasing levels of a PA index which combined occupational PA with weekly time spent in sports and cycling. The hazard ratio (HR) of GAC was 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94, for the comparison between active and inactive participants according to the PA index (HR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.26-0.74, for non-cardia GAC). No effect was found for cardia tumours or histological subtypes of GAC. PA of any kind was not associated with OAC. Overall and distal (non-cardia) gastric tumours were inversely associated with time spent on cycling and sports and a total PA index. No association was found for any type of PA and risk of cardia cancers of the stomach
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20052611
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; REQUIRES ; RISK FACTOR ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVES ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; menopause ; ONCOLOGY ; LIFE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; ESTROGEN ; PREGNANCY ; BIRTH ; parity ; prospective ; menarche ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; CORPUS ; oral contraceptive
    Abstract: Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among the 302,618 women eligible for the study, 1,017 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in women with late menarche, early menopause, past OC use, high parity and a shorter time since last full-term pregnancy (FTP). No association was observed for duration of breast feeding after adjustment for number of FTP or for abortion (spontaneous or induced). After mutual adjustment, late age at menarche, early age at menopause and duration of OC use showed similar risk reductions of 7-8% per year of menstrual life, whereas the decreased risk associated with cumulative duration of FTPs was stronger (22% per year). In conclusion, our findings confirmed a reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan and, therefore, support an important role of hormonal mechanisms in endometrial carcinogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19924816
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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