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  • Female  (18)
  • Amino Acid Sequence  (6)
  • Mutation  (6)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-06-27
    Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Winzer, Thilo -- Kern, Marcelo -- King, Andrew J -- Larson, Tony R -- Teodor, Roxana I -- Donninger, Samantha L -- Li, Yi -- Dowle, Adam A -- Cartwright, Jared -- Bates, Rachel -- Ashford, David -- Thomas, Jerry -- Walker, Carol -- Bowser, Tim A -- Graham, Ian A -- BB/K018809/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):309-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1852. Epub 2015 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; Bioscience Technology Facility, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; GlaxoSmithKline, 1061 Mountain Highway, Post Office Box 168, Boronia, Victoria 3155, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113639" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry/*metabolism ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics/*metabolism ; Genetic Loci ; Isoquinolines/chemistry/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Papaver/*enzymology/genetics ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-07-28
    Description: The essential bacterial protein FtsZ is a guanosine triphosphatase that self-assembles into a structure at the division site termed the "Z ring". During cytokinesis, the Z ring exerts a constrictive force on the membrane by using the chemical energy of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis. However, the structural basis of this constriction remains unresolved. Here, we present the crystal structure of a guanosine diphosphate-bound Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ protofilament, which exhibits a curved conformational state. The structure reveals a longitudinal interface that is important for function. The protofilament curvature highlights a hydrolysis-dependent conformational switch at the T3 loop that leads to longitudinal bending between subunits, which could generate sufficient force to drive cytokinesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816583/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816583/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Ying -- Hsin, Jen -- Zhao, Lingyun -- Cheng, Yiwen -- Shang, Weina -- Huang, Kerwyn Casey -- Wang, Hong-Wei -- Ye, Sheng -- 1F32GM100677-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DP2 OD006466/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP2OD006466/OD/NIH HHS/ -- F32 GM100677/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):392-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1239248.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 Zhejiang, P.R. China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23888039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/physiology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; *Cytokinesis ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Escherichia coli/chemistry ; Guanosine Diphosphate/chemistry/metabolism ; Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Hydrolysis ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/*chemistry/physiology ; Point Mutation ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Staphylococcus aureus/chemistry
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-23
    Description: A newly emerged H7N9 virus has caused 132 human infections with 37 deaths in China since 18 February 2013. Control measures in H7N9 virus-positive live poultry markets have reduced the number of infections; however, the character of the virus, including its pandemic potential, remains largely unknown. We systematically analyzed H7N9 viruses isolated from birds and humans. The viruses were genetically closely related and bound to human airway receptors; some also maintained the ability to bind to avian airway receptors. The viruses isolated from birds were nonpathogenic in chickens, ducks, and mice; however, the viruses isolated from humans caused up to 30% body weight loss in mice. Most importantly, one virus isolated from humans was highly transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Our findings indicate nothing to reduce the concern that these viruses can transmit between humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Qianyi -- Shi, Jianzhong -- Deng, Guohua -- Guo, Jing -- Zeng, Xianying -- He, Xijun -- Kong, Huihui -- Gu, Chunyang -- Li, Xuyong -- Liu, Jinxiong -- Wang, Guojun -- Chen, Yan -- Liu, Liling -- Liang, Libin -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Fan, Jun -- Wang, Jinliang -- Li, Wenhui -- Guan, Lizheng -- Li, Qimeng -- Yang, Huanliang -- Chen, Pucheng -- Jiang, Li -- Guan, Yuntao -- Xin, Xiaoguang -- Jiang, Yongping -- Tian, Guobin -- Wang, Xiurong -- Qiao, Chuanling -- Li, Chengjun -- Bu, Zhigao -- Chen, Hualan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):410-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1240532. Epub 2013 Jul 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, People's Republic of China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868922" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chickens/virology ; Columbidae/virology ; Ducks/virology ; Ferrets/*virology ; Genes, Viral ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A virus/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Influenza in Birds/virology ; Influenza, Human/*transmission/*virology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*transmission/*virology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Respiratory System/*virology ; Virus Replication
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-04-05
    Description: Adrenal Cushing's syndrome is caused by excess production of glucocorticoid from adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias, which leads to metabolic disorders. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 49 blood-tumor pairs and RNA sequencing of 44 tumors from cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasias (AIMAHs), and adrenocortical oncocytomas (ADOs). We identified a hotspot in the PRKACA gene with a L205R mutation in 69.2% (27 out of 39) of ACAs and validated in 65.5% of a total of 87 ACAs. Our data revealed that the activating L205R mutation, which locates in the P+1 loop of the protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit, promoted PKA substrate phosphorylation and target gene expression. Moreover, we discovered the recurrently mutated gene DOT1L in AIMAHs and CLASP2 in ADOs. Collectively, these data highlight potentially functional mutated genes in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cao, Yanan -- He, Minghui -- Gao, Zhibo -- Peng, Ying -- Li, Yanli -- Li, Lin -- Zhou, Weiwei -- Li, Xiangchun -- Zhong, Xu -- Lei, Yiming -- Su, Tingwei -- Wang, Hang -- Jiang, Yiran -- Yang, Lin -- Wei, Wei -- Yang, Xu -- Jiang, Xiuli -- Liu, Li -- He, Juan -- Ye, Junna -- Wei, Qing -- Li, Yingrui -- Wang, Weiqing -- Wang, Jun -- Ning, Guang -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):913-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1249480. Epub 2014 Apr 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumors, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. ; BGI-Shanghai, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. ; Department of Pathology, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. ; Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumors, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. guangning@medmail.com.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn wqingw@hotmail.com. ; BGI-Shanghai, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. guangning@medmail.com.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn wqingw@hotmail.com. ; Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumors, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Laboratory of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai, China. guangning@medmail.com.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn wqingw@hotmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/*genetics/*metabolism ; Adrenocortical Adenoma/*genetics/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Arginine/genetics ; Catalytic Domain/genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; Cushing Syndrome/*genetics ; Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry/*genetics ; Glucocorticoids/metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/*metabolism ; Leucine/genetics ; Methyltransferases/genetics ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Mutation
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-06-09
    Description: A fundamental feature of the mammalian neocortex is its columnar organization. In the visual cortex, functional columns consisting of neurons with similar orientation preferences have been characterized extensively, but how these columns are constructed during development remains unclear. The radial unit hypothesis posits that the ontogenetic columns formed by clonally related neurons migrating along the same radial glial fibre during corticogenesis provide the basis for functional columns in adult neocortex. However, a direct correspondence between the ontogenetic and functional columns has not been demonstrated. Here we show that, despite the lack of a discernible orientation map in mouse visual cortex, sister neurons in the same radial clone exhibit similar orientation preferences. Using a retroviral vector encoding green fluorescent protein to label radial clones of excitatory neurons, and in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to measure neuronal response properties, we found that sister neurons preferred similar orientations whereas nearby non-sister neurons showed no such relationship. Interestingly, disruption of gap junction coupling by viral expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cx26 (also known as Gjb2) or by daily administration of a gap junction blocker, carbenoxolone, during the first postnatal week greatly diminished the functional similarity between sister neurons, suggesting that the maturation of ontogenetic into functional columns requires intercellular communication through gap junctions. Together with the recent finding of preferential excitatory connections among sister neurons, our results support the radial unit hypothesis and unify the ontogenetic and functional columns in the visual cortex.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375857/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375857/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Ye -- Lu, Hui -- Cheng, Pei-lin -- Ge, Shaoyu -- Xu, Huatai -- Shi, Song-Hai -- Dan, Yang -- R01 DA024681/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018861/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS065915/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21NS072483/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 2;486(7401):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature11110.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678292" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Carbenoxolone/pharmacology ; *Cell Communication ; Clone Cells/cytology ; Connexins/genetics/metabolism ; Female ; Gap Junctions/drug effects/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Models, Neurological ; Neurons/*physiology ; Visual Cortex/*cytology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-09-13
    Description: Established infections with the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) are thought to be permanent with even the most effective immune responses and antiretroviral therapies only able to control, but not clear, these infections. Whether the residual virus that maintains these infections is vulnerable to clearance is a question of central importance to the future management of millions of HIV-infected individuals. We recently reported that approximately 50% of rhesus macaques (RM; Macaca mulatta) vaccinated with SIV protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV/SIV) vectors manifest durable, aviraemic control of infection with the highly pathogenic strain SIVmac239 (ref. 5). Here we show that regardless of the route of challenge, RhCMV/SIV vector-elicited immune responses control SIVmac239 after demonstrable lymphatic and haematogenous viral dissemination, and that replication-competent SIV persists in several sites for weeks to months. Over time, however, protected RM lost signs of SIV infection, showing a consistent lack of measurable plasma- or tissue-associated virus using ultrasensitive assays, and a loss of T-cell reactivity to SIV determinants not in the vaccine. Extensive ultrasensitive quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR with reverse transcription analyses of tissues from RhCMV/SIV vector-protected RM necropsied 69-172 weeks after challenge did not detect SIV RNA or DNA sequences above background levels, and replication-competent SIV was not detected in these RM by extensive co-culture analysis of tissues or by adoptive transfer of 60 million haematolymphoid cells to naive RM. These data provide compelling evidence for progressive clearance of a pathogenic lentiviral infection, and suggest that some lentiviral reservoirs may be susceptible to the continuous effector memory T-cell-mediated immune surveillance elicited and maintained by cytomegalovirus vectors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849456/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849456/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, Scott G -- Piatak, Michael Jr -- Ventura, Abigail B -- Hughes, Colette M -- Gilbride, Roxanne M -- Ford, Julia C -- Oswald, Kelli -- Shoemaker, Rebecca -- Li, Yuan -- Lewis, Matthew S -- Gilliam, Awbrey N -- Xu, Guangwu -- Whizin, Nathan -- Burwitz, Benjamin J -- Planer, Shannon L -- Turner, John M -- Legasse, Alfred W -- Axthelm, Michael K -- Nelson, Jay A -- Fruh, Klaus -- Sacha, Jonah B -- Estes, Jacob D -- Keele, Brandon F -- Edlefsen, Paul T -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Picker, Louis J -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI094417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51OD011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI060392/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE021291/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI054292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI096109/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U24 OD010850/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U42 OD010426/OD/NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 3;502(7469):100-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12519. Epub 2013 Sep 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24025770" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cytomegalovirus/genetics/immunology ; Female ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; SAIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*prevention & control/virology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology ; Time Factors ; Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology ; Viral Load ; Virus Replication/physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of chromatin. H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is deposited onto the nucleosomes in the transcribed regions after RNA polymerase II elongation. In yeast, this mark in turn recruits epigenetic regulators to reset the chromatin to a relatively repressive state, thus suppressing cryptic transcription. However, much less is known about the role of H3K36me3 in transcription regulation in mammals. This is further complicated by the transcription-coupled incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in gene bodies. Here we show that the candidate tumour suppressor ZMYND11 specifically recognizes H3K36me3 on H3.3 (H3.3K36me3) and regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. Structural studies show that in addition to the trimethyl-lysine binding by an aromatic cage within the PWWP domain, the H3.3-dependent recognition is mediated by the encapsulation of the H3.3-specific 'Ser 31' residue in a composite pocket formed by the tandem bromo-PWWP domains of ZMYND11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows a genome-wide co-localization of ZMYND11 with H3K36me3 and H3.3 in gene bodies, and its occupancy requires the pre-deposition of H3.3K36me3. Although ZMYND11 is associated with highly expressed genes, it functions as an unconventional transcription co-repressor by modulating RNA polymerase II at the elongation stage. ZMYND11 is critical for the repression of a transcriptional program that is essential for tumour cell growth; low expression levels of ZMYND11 in breast cancer patients correlate with worse prognosis. Consistently, overexpression of ZMYND11 suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and tumour formation in mice. Together, this study identifies ZMYND11 as an H3.3-specific reader of H3K36me3 that links the histone-variant-mediated transcription elongation control to tumour suppression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wen, Hong -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Xi, Yuanxin -- Jiang, Shiming -- Stratton, Sabrina -- Peng, Danni -- Tanaka, Kaori -- Ren, Yongfeng -- Xia, Zheng -- Wu, Jun -- Li, Bing -- Barton, Michelle C -- Li, Wei -- Li, Haitao -- Shi, Xiaobing -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):263-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13045. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [3]. ; 1] Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2]. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Genes and Development Graduate Program, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Teaxs 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Co-Repressor Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disease-Free Survival ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/*metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Crohn's disease is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can involve the entire digestive tract. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of ATG16L1 deletion or deficiency; however, the molecular consequences of the Thr300Ala (T300A) variant remains unknown. Here we show that amino acids 296-299 constitute a caspase cleavage motif in ATG16L1 and that the T300A variant (T316A in mice) significantly increases ATG16L1 sensitization to caspase-3-mediated processing. We observed that death-receptor activation or starvation-induced metabolic stress in human and murine macrophages increased degradation of the T300A or T316A variants of ATG16L1, respectively, resulting in diminished autophagy. Knock-in mice harbouring the T316A variant showed defective clearance of the ileal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica and an elevated inflammatory cytokine response. In turn, deletion of the caspase-3-encoding gene, Casp3, or elimination of the caspase cleavage site by site-directed mutagenesis rescued starvation-induced autophagy and pathogen clearance, respectively. These findings demonstrate that caspase 3 activation in the presence of a common risk allele leads to accelerated degradation of ATG16L1, placing cellular stress, apoptotic stimuli and impaired autophagy in a unified pathway that predisposes to Crohn's disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Murthy, Aditya -- Li, Yun -- Peng, Ivan -- Reichelt, Mike -- Katakam, Anand Kumar -- Noubade, Rajkumar -- Roose-Girma, Merone -- DeVoss, Jason -- Diehl, Lauri -- Graham, Robert R -- van Lookeren Campagne, Menno -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):456-62. doi: 10.1038/nature13044. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; ITGR Human Genetics, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553140" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Autophagy/genetics ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Caspase 3/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Crohn Disease/*genetics/pathology ; Cytokines/immunology ; Enzyme Activation ; Female ; Food Deprivation ; Humans ; Macrophages/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; *Proteolysis ; Stress, Physiological ; Yersinia enterocolitica/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Primary cilia are solitary, generally non-motile, hair-like protrusions that extend from the surface of cells between cell divisions. Their antenna-like structure leads naturally to the assumption that they sense the surrounding environment, the most common hypothesis being sensation of mechanical force through calcium-permeable ion channels within the cilium. This Ca(2+)-responsive mechanosensor hypothesis for primary cilia has been invoked to explain a large range of biological responses, from control of left-right axis determination in embryonic development to adult progression of polycystic kidney disease and some cancers. Here we report the complete lack of mechanically induced calcium increases in primary cilia, in tissues upon which this hypothesis has been based. We developed a transgenic mouse, Arl13b-mCherry-GECO1.2, expressing a ratiometric genetically encoded calcium indicator in all primary cilia. We then measured responses to flow in primary cilia of cultured kidney epithelial cells, kidney thick ascending tubules, crown cells of the embryonic node, kinocilia of inner ear hair cells, and several cell lines. Cilia-specific Ca(2+) influxes were not observed in physiological or even highly supraphysiological levels of fluid flow. We conclude that mechanosensation, if it originates in primary cilia, is not via calcium signalling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851444/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851444/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Delling, M -- Indzhykulian, A A -- Liu, X -- Li, Y -- Xie, T -- Corey, D P -- Clapham, D E -- 5R01 DC000304/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD 18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC000304/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):656-60. doi: 10.1038/nature17426. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cardiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Image and Data Analysis Core (IDAC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/analysis/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Cilia/*metabolism ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Female ; Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner/cytology ; Kidney/cytology ; Male ; *Mechanotransduction, Cellular ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Models, Biological
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-27
    Description: Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are benign tumors that affect millions of women worldwide and that can cause considerable morbidity. To study the genetic basis of this tumor type, we examined 18 uterine leiomyomas derived from 17 different patients by exome sequencing and identified tumor-specific mutations in the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) gene in 10. Through analysis of 207 additional tumors, we determined that MED12 is altered in 70% (159 of 225) of tumors from a total of 80 patients. The Mediator complex is a 26-subunit transcriptional regulator that bridges DNA regulatory sequences to the RNA polymerase II initiation complex. All mutations resided in exon 2, suggesting that aberrant function of this region of MED12 contributes to tumorigenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Makinen, Netta -- Mehine, Miika -- Tolvanen, Jaana -- Kaasinen, Eevi -- Li, Yilong -- Lehtonen, Heli J -- Gentile, Massimiliano -- Yan, Jian -- Enge, Martin -- Taipale, Minna -- Aavikko, Mervi -- Katainen, Riku -- Virolainen, Elina -- Bohling, Tom -- Koski, Taru A -- Launonen, Virpi -- Sjoberg, Jari -- Taipale, Jussi -- Vahteristo, Pia -- Aaltonen, Lauri A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):252-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1208930. Epub 2011 Aug 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Genetics, Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Codon ; Exons ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Humans ; INDEL Mutation ; Introns ; Leiomyoma/*genetics/metabolism ; Mediator Complex/*genetics ; Mutation ; Mutation, Missense ; Signal Transduction ; Uterine Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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