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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; IMATINIB MESYLATE
    Abstract: Histiocytoses are rare disorders of unknown origin with highly heterogeneous prognosis. BRAF mutations have been observed in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We investigated the frequency of BRAF mutations in several types of histiocytoses. Histology from 127 patients with histiocytoses were reviewed. Detection of BRAF(V600) mutations was performed by pyrosequencing of DNA extracted from paraffin embedded samples. Diagnoses of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), LCH, Rosai-Dorfman disease, juvenile xanthogranuloma, histiocytic sarcoma, xanthoma disseminatum, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma were performed in 46, 39, 23, 12, 3, 2, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. BRAF status was obtained in 93 cases. BRAF(V600E) mutations were detected in 13 of 24 (54%) ECD, 11 of 29 (38%) LCH, and none of the other histiocytoses. Four patients with ECD died of disease. The high frequency of BRAF(V600E) in LCH and ECD suggests a common origin of these diseases. Treatment with vemurafenib should be investigated in patients with malignant BRAF(V600E) histiocytosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22879539
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: monotherapy ; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; oxaliplatin ; salvage therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Many patients with advanced NHL ultimately relapse and require salvage treatment. Oxaliplatin, a diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum, has shown a differential spectrum of cytotoxicity with cisplatin, with activity in primary or secondary cisplatin-resistant solid tumors (colon and ovarian cancer). We report the tolerance/activity of this platinum derivate in previously-treated NHL patients. Patients and methods: From July 1988 to February 1994, 22 patients (11 men, 11 women) with recurrent NHL received single-agent oxaliplatin (100–130 mg /m2 i.v. over two hours with antiemetic premedication, q three weeks). All had been previously treated (median number of prior chemotherapy regimens 2, range 1–7) ≥1 alkylating agent: 22 patients, anthracyclines: 18 patients, cisplatin: four patients, and radiation: 11 patients. Fourteen patients (63%) had progessive disease as best response to their last chemotherapy, and were considered treatment-refractory. All histologies were centrally reviewed in accord with the R.E.A.L. Classification; they were: eight follicular, five MCL, three diffuse large cell, two MALT, one lymphoplasmocytoid, and three other. Results: A total of 144 cycles were administered for a median number of 6 (range 1–30) per patient. The objective response rate was 40% (95% CI: 21–64), including one CR (MCL) and eight PRs (four follicular, two MCL, two MALT). The median response duration was 27 months (range 5–44). Treatment-related toxicity was limited to grade 1–2 nausea/vomiting and reversible grade 1–2 peripheral neuropathy in most of the patients. Conclusion: Oxaliplatin is an active agent in relapsed/refractory NHL, including the MCL type. Its safety profile makes this agent a good candidate for the development of combined salvage regimens. Further phase II studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Langerhans cell ; Histiocytosis ; Human ; Immunohistochemistry ; GM-CSF receptor ; CDw116
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by the proliferation of large mononucleated cells containing Birbeck granules and expressing CD1a. Recent studies have demonstrated that LCH is a clonal proliferation; however, its aetiology is still unknown. Growth and differentiation of bone-marrow-derived cells are controlled by cytokines. The proliferation, differentiation and activation of normal Langerhans cells are controlled by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in vitro. Therefore, GM-CSF could be implicated in the pathogenesis of LCH. Indeed, LCH cells contain GM-CSF, and children with disseminated LCH have an elevated GM-CSF serum level. As a cytokine only acts on cells expressing a specific receptor, we investigated the presence of GM-CSF receptor on LCH cells. Fourteen frozen tissue samples from children with LCH were studied by in situ immunohistochemistry with two mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for the α chain of the GM-CSF receptor (CDw116). LCH cells of all the samples were positively stained with both antibodies. This study suggests that GM-CSF may be a growth factor for LCH cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: GM-CSF induces proliferation and activation of Langerhans’ cells in vitro. The density of Langerhans’ cells in human tumours is correlated to the in situ density of GM-CSF, and intradermal injection of GM-CSF induces local accumulation of Langerhans’ cells. Therefore, we investigated the presence of GM-CSF in the sera of children with Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH). We detected GM-CSF in the sera of all children with disseminated and active LCH, but not in the sera of patients with localized (i.e. bone) LCH. These results suggest that GM-CSF level is related to extent and the activity of LCH.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Histopathology 27 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the study was to determine whether clear cell type hepatocellular carcinoma should still be regarded as a separate uniform diagnostic entity.We retrospectively studied 118 cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by orthotopic liver transplantation, and 31 noncirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by either liver surgical resection or transplantation. The pathology of all liver resections was reviewed. Microsatellite instability was performed on paraffin-embedded samples at loci located on chromosomes 2p, 3p, 5q, 8q, 9p, 13q, 16q and 17p. Among the 118 cirrhotic patients, 10 (8.5%) had a clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma; these had clinical characteristics and prognosis similar to the other cirrhotic patients. No genetic alterations were detected in these tumours. Among the 31 noncirrhotic patients, one (3.2%) had a clear cell hepatocellular tumour. This 170-mm tumour had a lipid density on computed tomography, and its histology resembled chromophobe cell renal carcinoma. Furthermore, this tumour had unusual genomic alterations, with microsatellite instability in 6/8 chromosome loci.Clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma is a heterogeneous entity in which a chromophobe cell subtype should be identified.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a severe complication in primary immunodeficiency and post-transplant patients. In primary immunodeficiency patients, LPDs are not well-known and, thus, we tried to evaluate their distinctive features and to determine prognostic factors predictive of clinical outcome by comparison with LPDs in post-transplant children.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods and results:Clinical records and histopathology of 18 LPDs occurring in primary immunodeficieny children were compared with those of 10 LPDs in post-transplant children, together with results of in-situ hybridization for the detection of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-RNA and molecular biological techniques. LPDs were frequently extranodal, EBV-associated, and were more commonly pleomorphic in primary immunodeficiency than in post-transplant patients. A low T-cell count and abnormal T-cell function indicated bad prognosis in both groups. Polymorphic LPDs (PLPDs) were most frequent (n = 19), whereas lymphomas were rare (n = 7), and pseudo-tumoral lymphoid hyperplasias (n = 2) were observed only in primary immunodeficiency. Comparative p53/bcl-2 staining revealed a p53 overexpression in lymphomas compared with PLPDs; CD20/CD79a showed a similar staining in lymphomas, whereas PLPD expressed mainly CD20. TCR and IgH rearrangements did not help in distinguishing PLPDs from lymphomas, but detection of IgH clonality by Southern blot indicated poor prognosis, whereas oligoclonality by Southern blot regardless of PCR clonality and especially a polyclonal profile by Southern blot and PCR indicated a relatively good prognosis.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions:This study documents the pleomorphism of LPDs in primary immunodeficiency compared to post-transplant children, even if some LPDs are similar in both groups (PLPDs). No criteria are useful enough to ascertain the diagnosis of malignancy in this series. Some molecular biological criteria help to predict the clinical outcome which, nevertheless, seems to depend more on the degree of immunosuppression and on T-lymphocyte presence and function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Histopathology 39 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Carcinomas with lymphoid stroma arising in non-liver-organs have a better prognosis than other carcinomas and may be associated with Epstein–Barr virus. We determined the frequency, characteristics and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinomas with lymphoid stroma.Histology of the livers of 162 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, who underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation, was reviewed independently by three pathologists. Hepatocellular carcinoma with lymphoid stroma was diagnosed when all tumour samples contained more lymphocytes than tumour cells. Epstein–Barr virus was detected by in-situ hybridization and by polymerase chain reaction. Five patients (3.6%) were classified as hepatocellular carcinomas with lymphoid stroma. All patients were males. Cirrhosis was present in four/five patients. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were normal. Inter-observer histological reproducibility was good. Tumour cells did not contain Epstein–Barr virus. The five patients were alive without tumour at three years, although two of them had adverse prognostic factors at the time of transplantation (more than one tumour with a diameter ≥40 mm). Only one patient had tumour recurrence, but he survived 7.6 years post-transplantation. The 5-year survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with lymphoid stroma was better than that of the patients with other types of hepatocellular carcinomas (P = 0.04).: Hepatocellular carcinoma with lymphoid stroma should be considered as a distinct clinicopathological and prognostic entity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease (RDD) is a rare non–Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by accumulation of activated histiocytes within affected tissues. RDD, which now belongs to the R group of the 2016 revised histiocytosis classification, is a widely heterogeneous entity with a range of clinical phenotypes occurring in isolation or in association with autoimmune or malignant diseases. Recent studies have found NRAS , KRAS , MAP2K1 , and ARAF mutations in lesional tissues, raising the possibility of a clonal origin in some forms of RDD. More than 1000 reports have been published in the English literature; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding approach for the clinical management of RDD. Although in most cases RDD can be observed or treated with local therapies, some patients with refractory or multifocal disease experience morbidity and mortality. Here we provide the first consensus multidisciplinary recommendations for the diagnosis and management of RDD. These recommendations were discussed at the 32nd Histiocyte Society Meeting by an international group of academic clinicians and pathologists with expertise in RDD. We include guidelines for clinical, laboratory, pathologic, and radiographic evaluation of patients with RDD together with treatment recommendations based on clinical experience and review of the literature.
    Keywords: Pediatric Hematology, Special Reports, Free Research Articles, Myeloid Neoplasia, Clinical Trials and Observations
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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