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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Survival for ovarian cancer is the poorest of all gynaecological cancer sites. Our aim was to present the most up-to-date survival estimate for ovarian cancer by age and morphology and to answer the question whether survival for ovarian cancer improved in Europe during the 1990s. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This analysis was performed with data from the EUROCARE database. We considered all adult women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1995 and 2002 and life status followed up until the end of 2003. A total of 97 691 cases were contributed by 72 European cancer registries in 24 countries. We estimated the most up-to-date relative survival for a mean of 23 661 patients followed up in 2000-2003 using the period hybrid approach and described the relative survival trends from the beginning of 1990s. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Overall, the European age-standardised one-year, five-year and five-year conditional on surviving one-year relative survival were 67.2% (95% CI 66.6-67.8), 36.1% (95% CI 35.4-36.8) and 53.7% (95% CI 52.8-54.7), respectively. Five-year relative survival was 58.6% (95% CI 57.4-59.8), 37.1% (95% CI 36.1-38.1) and 20.5% (95% CI 19.1-21.9) in women aged 15-54, 55-74 and 75-99 years, respectively. The age-standardised five-year relative survival was 38.1% (95% CI 36.9-39.3) for serous tumours and 51.9% (95% CI 49.0-54.9) for mucinous cancers and the crude five-year relative survival was 85.6% (95% CI 81.2-90.0) for germ cell cancers. Overall, the age-standardised five-year relative survival increased from 32.4% (95% CI 31.7-33.2) in 1991-1993 to 36.3% (95% CI 35.5-37.0) in 2000-2003. There is a need to better understand the reasons for the wide variation in survival of ovarian cancer in Europe. Actions aiming to harmonise the protocols for therapy should contribute to narrowing the wide gap in survival and research on screening and early detection of ovarian cancer should be enforced.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22313338
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Doubly charged ion mass spectra have been obtained for 42 chlorinated and brominated n-alkane (methyl through octyl) hydrocarbons. A double focusing Hitachi RMU-7L mass spectrometer, operated at 1.6kV accelerating voltage, has been used to measure the spectra. Molecular doubly charged ions have not been observed. Intense fragment ions have been produced from extensive H and halogen loss as well as C—C bond rupture of the parent molecule. The most abundant ions in the doubly charged ion spectra observed in this investigation resulted from reactions of [Cl]2+·, [Br]2+·, [CCL2]2+, [C2H2Cl]2+·, [C3H2]2+, [C3HCl]2+, [C3HBr]2+, [C4H3]2+·, [C4H4]2+, [C4H6Br]2+·, [C4H8Br]2+·, [C5H2]2+, [C6H6]2+, [C6H8]2+ and [C7H8]2+. The prominent doubly charged fragment ions formed by electron impact of the smaller halogenated alkanes generally contained halogen, whereas ions of the type [CnHx]2+ were dominant in the spectra of higher molecular weight mono- and dihalogenated alkanes. Appearance energies of several ions have been measured. A geometry optimized quantum mechanical SCF treatment has been used to compute energies, charge densities and structures of doubly charged halogenated alkane ions.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 15 (1980), S. 312-316 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The doubly charged ion mass spectra for 12 aliphatic nitriles (1-9 carbon atoms) have been obtained using an Hitachi RMU-7L double focusing mass spectrometer. These spectra show some characteristic features such as extensive loss of hydrogen and the grouping of ions in the spectra into n-1 groups where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule (n〈6). There are no indications of HCN or CN loss in the doubly charged ion spectra of the monosubstituted nitriles. SCF calculations of the energy and structure of doubly charged ions in the propionitrile spectra have been carried out.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 19 (1984), S. 412-422 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Doubly charged ion mass spectra of 23 alkenes have been measured using a double focusing Hitachi RMU-7L mass spectrometer. Ion mass spectra were obtained using 100 eV electron energy and 3.2 kV ion accelerating voltage. Each 2E spectrum was determined using the olefinic compound under investigation as the target gas. In general, spectra are dominated by fragment ions which result from extensive hydrogen loss from the doubly charged molecular ion. Appearnce energies have been measured for intense fragment ions in each spectrum.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 21 (1986), S. 69-75 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The energetics, structures, stabilities and reactivities of[CnH2]2+ ions have been investigated using computational methods and experimental mass spectrometric techniques. Spontaneous decompositions of [CnH2]2+ into [CnH]+ + H+ products, observed for ions with odd-n values, have been explained by invoking the formation of excited triplet states. Even-n [CnH]+ ions possess triplet ground states with low-lying excited states, whereas odd-n ions have triplet states with energies several eV above ground singlet states. Radiationless transitions of vibrationally excited long-lived triplet state ions into singlet state continua are suggested as possible mechanisms for spontaneous deprotonation processes of odd-n [CnH2]2+ ions. Evidence for these long-lived excited states has been obtained in bimolecular single electron transfer reactions.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Potential energy curves have been computed for [C2H6]2+ ions and the results used to interpret the conspicuous absence of these ions in 2E mass spectra and in charge-stripping experiments. The energies and structures of geometry-optimized ground-state singlet and excited-state triplet [C2H6]2+ ions have been determined along with energies for different decomposition barriers and dissociation asymptotes. Although singlet and triplet [C2H6]2+ ions can exist as stable entities, they possess low energy barriers to decomposition. Vertical Franck-Condon transitions, involving electron impact ionization of ethane as well as charge-stripping collisions of [C2H6]+ ions, produce [C2H6]2+ ions which promptly dissociate since they are formed with energies in excess of various decomposition barriers. Appearance energies computed for doubly-charged ethane fragment ions are in accordance with experimental values.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cross sections for charge transfer reactions of organic ions containing oxygen have been obtained using time-of-flight techniques. Charge transfer cross sections have been determined for reactions of 2.0 to 3.4 keV ions produced by electron impact ionization of oxygen containing molecules such as methanol, ethanal and ethanol. Experimental cross section magnitudes have been correlated with reaction energy defects computed from ion recombination energies and target ionization energies. Large cross sections are observed for reacting systems with small energy defects.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Doubly charged ion mass spectra of alkyl-substituted furans and pyrroles were obtained using a double-focusing magnetic mass spectrometer operated at 3.2 kV accelerating voltage. Molecular ions were the dominant species found in doubly charged spectra of lower molecular weight heterocydic compounds, whereas the spectra of the higher weight homologues were typified by abundant fragment ions from extensive decomposition. Measured doubly charged ionization and appearance energies ranged from 22.8 to 47.9 eV. Ionization energies were correlated with values calculated using self-consistent field-molecular orbital techniques. A multichannel diabatic curve-crossing model was developed to investigate the fundamental organic ion reactions responsible for development of doubly charged ion mass spectra. Probabilities for Landau-Zener type transitions between reactant and product curves were determined and used in the collision model to predict charge-transfer cross-sections, which compared favorably with experimental cross-sections obtained using time-of-flight techniques.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of the collision gas on doubly charged ion mass spectra of a selected number of hydrocarbons has been examined. Relative abundances of various product ions in 2E spectra, resulting from charge exchange collisions of doubly charged hydrocarbon ions, do not vary drastically as the collision gas is varied. However, the absolute intensities of these doubly charged ion mass spectra increase significantly when the collision gas is changed from argon to methane to isobutane. Tbese observations are rationalized in terms of a multichannel diabatic curve crossing model.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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