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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Aquatic ecology 8 (1974), S. 288-289 
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Skin Vessels ; Venomotor Tone ; Resistance Vessels ; Stress Relaxation ; Plethysmographic Technique
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using a plethysmographic technique, the distensibility characteristics of capacitance and resistance vessels at varying vasal tone were determined simultaneously in the rabbit's ear, which represents a uniform vascular bed of skin vessels. The pressure-volume curves of the capacitance vessels showed hysteresis loops. The hysteresis became greater at increasing venous tone. Stress-relaxation occurred with repeated congestion and could be demonstrated by the pressure-volume curves. At high venous tone stress-relaxation could be shown also by a decrease of the venous pressure-gradient indicating an increase of the venous cross section area. The distensibility characteristics of the resistance vessels resembled those of the capacitance vessels showing the same dependency on vasal tone. However, stress-relaxation could not be demonstrated in these vessels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Measurement of Venous Diameter ; Photoelectric Technique ; Venous Tone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The combined photoelectric-photographic and plethysmographic technique allows for the investigation of the distensibility characteristics and pharmacological influence on the capacitance vessels in an uniform vascular bed (skin veins of the isolated rabbit ear). Diameter changes of a vein segment are recorded continuously by means of a photoresistor and are photographed for calibration. Volume changes of the tissue are measured by a water filled plethysmograph and can be compared with diameter changes of the selected vein segment. The method allows for better interpretation of the results obtained by the plethysmographic technique. In particular, it is possible to distinguish between outward filtration and stress-relaxation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Capacitance System ; Skin Veins ; Stress-Relaxation ; Venous Distensibility ; Modulus of Volume Elasticity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The phenomena of stress-relaxation and capillary outward filtration were studied in the isolated rabbit ear, perfused with blood at constant flow. The volume increase, as measured by the plethysmograph, following elevation of venous outflow pressure to 20 mm Hg for 4 min was predominantly due to capillary outward filtration in the norepinephrine constricted vascular bed (0.5 μg/min). With papaverine induced dilatation (0.08 mg/min) this persistent volume increase could be attributed mainly to stress-relaxation of the veins. Engorgement of venous vessels as well as capillary outward filtration led to an increase of the ear volume that is measured by the plethysmographic technique. The photographic-photoelectric measurement of venous diameter changes was used in these experiments to distinguish intravascular from extravascular volume changes. The moduli of volume elasticity were calculated for smaller and larger veins (mean diameter 0.133 mm and 0.553 mm) with norepinephrine constriction. It has been demonstrated that the smaller veins were about seven times less distensible than the larger veins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A novel design for an airborne NOy converter was implemented, characterized in the laboratory, and used extensively for in situ tropospheric and stratospheric measurements of total reactive nitrogen (NOy). During field deployments, the converter is mounted outside the aircraft fuselage, avoiding the need for an inlet line. In flight, the converter can be calibrated by the addition of standard gases close to the sample inlet, compensating for any changes in the instrument sensitivity caused by changing operating conditions. The system has been used successfully during several Stratosphere Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements campaigns in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere for the measurement of total reactive nitrogen. The detection limit of the system is approximately 100 pptv for 10 s integrated data (2σ). The precision, deduced from the reproducibility of the in-flight calibrations, is 7% and the accuracy is about 30%. Laboratory studies demonstrate that interference from HCN, NH3, and CH3CN is negligible for background conditions. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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