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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-08
    Description: The intestinal microflora, typically equated with bacteria, influences diseases such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show that the mammalian gut contains a rich fungal community that interacts with the immune system through the innate immune receptor Dectin-1. Mice lacking Dectin-1 exhibited increased susceptibility to chemically induced colitis, which was the result of altered responses to indigenous fungi. In humans, we identified a polymorphism in the gene for Dectin-1 (CLEC7A) that is strongly linked to a severe form of ulcerative colitis. Together, our findings reveal a eukaryotic fungal community in the gut (the "mycobiome") that coexists with bacteria and substantially expands the repertoire of organisms interacting with the intestinal immune system to influence health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432565/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432565/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Iliev, Iliyan D -- Funari, Vincent A -- Taylor, Kent D -- Nguyen, Quoclinh -- Reyes, Christopher N -- Strom, Samuel P -- Brown, Jordan -- Becker, Courtney A -- Fleshner, Phillip R -- Dubinsky, Marla -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Wang, Hanlin L -- McGovern, Dermot P B -- Brown, Gordon D -- Underhill, David M -- 086558/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AI071116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01-DK046763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK093426/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR033176/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1RR033176/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1314-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1221789. Epub 2012 Jun 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674328" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Fungal/blood ; Candida tropicalis/immunology/isolation & purification/pathogenicity/physiology ; Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced/*immunology/*microbiology ; Colon/immunology/*microbiology ; Colony Count, Microbial ; Dextran Sulfate ; Disease Susceptibility ; Female ; Fungi/classification/*immunology/isolation & purification/*physiology ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/immunology/*microbiology ; Intestines/immunology/microbiology ; Lectins, C-Type/deficiency/*genetics/*metabolism ; Metagenome ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-11-07
    Description: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491803/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491803/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jostins, Luke -- Ripke, Stephan -- Weersma, Rinse K -- Duerr, Richard H -- McGovern, Dermot P -- Hui, Ken Y -- Lee, James C -- Schumm, L Philip -- Sharma, Yashoda -- Anderson, Carl A -- Essers, Jonah -- Mitrovic, Mitja -- Ning, Kaida -- Cleynen, Isabelle -- Theatre, Emilie -- Spain, Sarah L -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Goyette, Philippe -- Wei, Zhi -- Abraham, Clara -- Achkar, Jean-Paul -- Ahmad, Tariq -- Amininejad, Leila -- Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N -- Andersen, Vibeke -- Andrews, Jane M -- Baidoo, Leonard -- Balschun, Tobias -- Bampton, Peter A -- Bitton, Alain -- Boucher, Gabrielle -- Brand, Stephan -- Buning, Carsten -- Cohain, Ariella -- Cichon, Sven -- D'Amato, Mauro -- De Jong, Dirk -- Devaney, Kathy L -- Dubinsky, Marla -- Edwards, Cathryn -- Ellinghaus, David -- Ferguson, Lynnette R -- Franchimont, Denis -- Fransen, Karin -- Gearry, Richard -- Georges, Michel -- Gieger, Christian -- Glas, Jurgen -- Haritunians, Talin -- Hart, Ailsa -- Hawkey, Chris -- Hedl, Matija -- Hu, Xinli -- Karlsen, Tom H -- Kupcinskas, Limas -- Kugathasan, Subra -- Latiano, Anna -- Laukens, Debby -- Lawrance, Ian C -- Lees, Charlie W -- Louis, Edouard -- Mahy, Gillian -- Mansfield, John -- Morgan, Angharad R -- Mowat, Craig -- Newman, William -- Palmieri, Orazio -- Ponsioen, Cyriel Y -- Potocnik, Uros -- Prescott, Natalie J -- Regueiro, Miguel -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Russell, Richard K -- Sanderson, Jeremy D -- Sans, Miquel -- Satsangi, Jack -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Simms, Lisa A -- Sventoraityte, Jurgita -- Targan, Stephan R -- Taylor, Kent D -- Tremelling, Mark -- Verspaget, Hein W -- De Vos, Martine -- Wijmenga, Cisca -- Wilson, David C -- Winkelmann, Juliane -- Xavier, Ramnik J -- Zeissig, Sebastian -- Zhang, Bin -- Zhang, Clarence K -- Zhao, Hongyu -- International IBD Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC) -- Silverberg, Mark S -- Annese, Vito -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Brant, Steven R -- Radford-Smith, Graham -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Rioux, John D -- Schadt, Eric E -- Daly, Mark J -- Franke, Andre -- Parkes, Miles -- Vermeire, Severine -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Cho, Judy H -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083948/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/B/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089120/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AI062773/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA141743/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CZB/4/540/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DK043351/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062413/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062420/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062422/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062423/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062429/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062429-S1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062431/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK062432/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK076984/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK084554/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK83756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ETM/137/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/75/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0000934/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- G0600329/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800675/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0800759/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1002033/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K23 DK097142/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- M01-RR00425/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK046763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01DK046763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK043351/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA141743/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK055731/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM07205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062420/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062422/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062429/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062431/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062432/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000005/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124-01/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):119-24. doi: 10.1038/nature11582.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128233" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics/immunology/microbiology/physiopathology ; Crohn Disease/genetics/immunology/microbiology/physiopathology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Haplotypes/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics/immunology ; Humans ; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/*genetics/immunology/*microbiology/physiopathology ; Mycobacterium/*immunology/pathogenicity ; Mycobacterium Infections/genetics/microbiology ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology/pathogenicity ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Intestinal fungi are an important component of the microbiota, and recent studies have unveiled their potential in modulating host immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease. Nonetheless, the mechanisms governing immunity to gut fungal communities (mycobiota) remain unknown. We identified CX3CR1 + mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) as being essential for the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal fungi. CX3CR1 + MNPs express antifungal receptors and activate antifungal responses in a Syk-dependent manner. Genetic ablation of CX3CR1 + MNPs in mice led to changes in gut fungal communities and to severe colitis that was rescued by antifungal treatment. In Crohn’s disease patients, a missense mutation in the gene encoding CX3CR1 was identified and found to be associated with impaired antifungal responses. These results unravel a role of CX3CR1 + MNPs in mediating interactions between intestinal mycobiota and host immunity at steady state and during inflammatory disease.
    Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Background and aim Disease activity for Crohn's disease (CD) and UC is typically defined based on symptoms at a moment in time, and ignores the long-term burden of disease. The aims of this study were to select the attributes determining overall disease severity, to rank the importance of and to score these individual attributes for both CD and UC. Methods Using a modified Delphi panel, 14 members of the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD) selected the most important attributes related to IBD. Eighteen IOIBD members then completed a statistical exercise (conjoint analysis) to create a relative ranking of these attributes. Adjusted utilities were developed by creating proportions for each level within an attribute. Results For CD, 15.8% of overall disease severity was attributed to the presence of mucosal lesions, 10.9% to history of a fistula, 9.7% to history of abscess and 7.4% to history of intestinal resection. For UC, 18.1% of overall disease severity was attributed to mucosal lesions, followed by 14.0% for impact on daily activities, 11.2% C reactive protein and 10.1% for prior experience with biologics. Overall disease severity indices were created on a 100-point scale by applying each attribute's average importance to the adjusted utilities. Conclusions Based on specialist opinion, overall CD severity was associated more with intestinal damage, in contrast to overall UC disease severity, which was more dependent on symptoms and impact on daily life. Once validated, disease severity indices may provide a useful tool for consistent assessment of overall disease severity in patients with IBD.
    Print ISSN: 0017-5749
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-3288
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease, has a higher prevalence in Ashkenazi Jewish than in non-Jewish European populations. To define the role of nonsynonymous mutations, we performed exome sequencing of Ashkenazi Jewish patients with CD, followed by array-based genotyping and association analysis in 2066 CD cases and 3633 healthy controls. We detected association signals in the LRRK2 gene that conferred risk for CD (N2081D variant, P = 9.5 x 10 –10 ) or protection from CD (N551K variant, tagging R1398H-associated haplotype, P = 3.3 x 10 –8 ). These variants affected CD age of onset, disease location, LRRK2 activity, and autophagy. Bayesian network analysis of CD patient intestinal tissue further implicated LRRK2 in CD pathogenesis. Analysis of the extended LRRK2 locus in 24,570 CD cases, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and healthy controls revealed extensive pleiotropy, with shared genetic effects between CD and PD in both Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Jewish cohorts. The LRRK2 N2081D CD risk allele is located in the same kinase domain as G2019S, a mutation that is the major genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Like the G2019S mutation, the N2081D variant was associated with increased kinase activity, whereas neither N551K nor R1398H variants on the protective haplotype altered kinase activity. We also confirmed that R1398H, but not N551K, increased guanosine triphosphate binding and hydrolyzing enzyme (GTPase) activity, thereby deactivating LRRK2. The presence of shared LRRK2 alleles in CD and PD provides refined insight into disease mechanisms and may have major implications for the treatment of these two seemingly unrelated diseases.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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