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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hammondia hammondi gen.nov.,sp.nov. (Eimeriorina:Sarcocystidae) is described as an obligate heteroxenous protozoon of domestic cats (final host) and laboratory mice (experimental intermediate host). Oocysts from the final host are infectious only for the intermediate host; and cysts from the intermediate host are infectious only for the final host. Intracellular cysts develop principally in striated muscle of mice that ingest oocysts, with a few cysts in the brain and perhaps elsewhere. Cysts are without septa or radial spines; bradyzoites are slender, there is no evidence of metrocytes. Cysts are not infectious for mice. After the ingestion of cysts by cats, a multiplicative cycle precedes the development of gametocytes in the epithelium of the small intestine. Oocysts are shed unsporulated, sporogony is outside of the host, resulting in two sporocysts with four sporozoites each. Oocysts of the species average 11×13 μm. The prepatent period is 5 to 8 days, and oocyst shedding persists for 10 to 28 days followed by immunity. Cysts in skeletal muscle measured between 100 and 340 μm in length and 40 and 95 μm in width. Experimental intermediate hosts are laboratory mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, Peromyscus and Mastomys. Some of the intermediate hosts develop low levels of antibody and some cross-immunity against Toxoplasma; however, this has not been observed in cats.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An unidentified coccidium was found in the brain and the heart of a 6-year-old female cat. Tissue cysts measured 40–130×40–112 μm and contained hundreds of bradyzoites measuring 4.2–5.2×1.2–1.8 μm. The cyst wall was 0.26–0.53 μm thick. Tissue cysts reacted positively with anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum but not with anti-Neospora caninum serum in an immunohistochemical test. Ultrastructurally, the cyst was aseptate and contained banana-shaped bradyzoites. Micronemes and rhoptries in bradyzoites were unlike those found inT. gondii bradyzoites. In the unidentified coccidium, the micronemes were arranged in rows and the rhoptries extended from the anterior tip to the posterior end.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5192
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The technique of isoenzyme (enzyme isotype) electrophoresis was used to compare genetic profiles of extracts of zoites of sarcocysts from North America and Australasia. The species examined were Sarcocystis muris (Railliet, 1886) from mice, S. gigantea (Railliet, 1886) (syn. S. ovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975) from sheep, S. capracanis Fischer, 1979 from goats and S. cruzi (Hasselmann, 1923) (syn. S. bovicanis Heydorn et al., 1975) from cattle. Sarcocysts from the four host animals had different alleles at almost all loci studied. This was not affected by having a common definitive host. Extracts of two cat-borne Sarcocystis species shared alleles at only 3 out of 16 loci, while two dog-borne Sarcocystis species had different alleles at 8 out of 16 loci. The extent of genetic divergence among sarcocysts confirmed the existance of distinct species in each host sampled. By contrast, the isolates from the United States of America and Australasia for any particular host were essentially identical, sharing at least one allele at every locus tested. ac]19860908
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The antigens recognized by hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against tachyzoites of the NC-1 isolate ofNeospora caninum were characterized using chemiluminescent Western blotting, immunogold-silver staining and immunoelectron microscopy. Approximately 20 immunodominant antigens whose relative rates of migration were 16–80 kDa were recognized by the serum in Western blots using reduced or nonreduced parasite antigen preparations. The nonreduced parasite antigens were more strongly recognized by the serum than were the reduced antigen preparations. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the rabbit-serum-labeled antigens were localized to some organelles ofN. caninum tachyzoites and to the parasitophorous vacuole surrounding them. In particular, antigens found in the dense granules, in the micronemes, and in the posterior portion of the rhoptries were strongly labeled by an indirect immunogold-labeling technique
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We enumerate identical and divergent findings concerning the obligate heteroxenous Hammondia hammondi and the facultatively homoxenous or heteroxenous Toxoplasma gondii. Differences exist in life-cycles, transmission, and host range, especially transmissibility to birds and mammals other than rodents, in ultrastructural morphology, immunity and serology in cats and to lesser degree in rodents, in DNA sequences and in isoenzymes. Because the recognition of obligate heteroxeny is essential to study these organisms and to recognize them as taxa, it is advantageous to give heteroxeny a generic rather than a specific value. Characterization of organisms with the life-cycle patterns of Hammondia, Sarcocystis, Frenkelia, and Toxoplasma is best achieved by means of the genera presently used.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A method for isolation of enteroepithelial stages of Toxoplasma gondii from the intestinal mucosa of experimentally infected cats was developed using Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Gamonts and merozoites were obtained essentially free of host-cell debris. A recovery rate of nearly 30% of the parasites in the original preparations was obtained by this method. Merozoites were separated from gamonts by filtration through a 3-μm polycarbonate filter.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A direct agglutination test was evaluated for the detection and quantitation of IgG antibodies to Neospora caninum in both experimental and natural infections in various animal species. As compared with results obtained by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the direct agglutination test appeared reliable for the serologic diagnosis of neosporosis in a variety of animal species. The direct agglutination test should provide easily available and inexpensive tools for serologic testing for antibodies to N. caninum in many host species.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Laboratory-reared gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were found to be highly susceptible to oral infection with Neospora caninum (NC-Liv strain) oocysts. Gerbils fed ∼1000 oocysts became sick or died at 6–13 days post feeding of oocysts (PFO). N. caninum was isolated in cell culture and from γ-interferon-knockout mice inoculated with homogenates of mesenteric lymph nodes of gerbils examined as early as 1 day PFO. Numerous N. caninum tachyzoites were found in ulcerative lesions in the intestines of gerbils examined at 7–9 days PFO. In a gerbil fed 10 oocysts, N. caninum tachyzoites were found in lesions in the brain. Gerbils fed 10 oocysts developed antibodies to N. caninum by 18 days PFO as determined by the Neospora agglutination test (titers ≥1:500). All gerbils remained negative for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii as determined by the Toxoplasma agglutination test.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 262 (1976), S. 213-214 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Twelve cats (four litters) were raised by their mothers from birth in my laboratory. Daily faecal examinations from birth did not reveal coccidian oocysts. Cats were weaned and bled for antibody determination at 83106 d of age. Antibody to Toxoplasma was not detected in the sera of weaned cats by ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 211 (1966), S. 992-992 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Singh2'3 developed a method for the culture of small free-living amoebae; this enabled him to obtain without any difficulty all stages of nuclear division in nine species of amoebae. The amoebae were grown on thin films of non-nutrient agar on slides. They were then fixed according to normal ...
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