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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-07-02
    Description: Lenalidomide is a highly effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)). Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination of casein kinase 1A1 (CK1alpha) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)), resulting in CK1alpha degradation. CK1alpha is encoded by a gene within the common deleted region for del(5q) MDS and haploinsufficient expression sensitizes cells to lenalidomide therapy, providing a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic window of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS. We found that mouse cells are resistant to lenalidomide but that changing a single amino acid in mouse Crbn to the corresponding human residue enables lenalidomide-dependent degradation of CK1alpha. We further demonstrate that minor side chain modifications in thalidomide and a novel analogue, CC-122, can modulate the spectrum of substrates targeted by CRL4(CRBN). These findings have implications for the clinical activity of lenalidomide and related compounds, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel modulators of E3 ubiquitin ligases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kronke, Jan -- Fink, Emma C -- Hollenbach, Paul W -- MacBeth, Kyle J -- Hurst, Slater N -- Udeshi, Namrata D -- Chamberlain, Philip P -- Mani, D R -- Man, Hon Wah -- Gandhi, Anita K -- Svinkina, Tanya -- Schneider, Rebekka K -- McConkey, Marie -- Jaras, Marcus -- Griffiths, Elizabeth -- Wetzler, Meir -- Bullinger, Lars -- Cathers, Brian E -- Carr, Steven A -- Chopra, Rajesh -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- P01 CA066996/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA108631/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 9;523(7559):183-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14610. Epub 2015 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, 89081 Ulm, Germany [3] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Celgene Corporation, San Diego, California 92121, USA. ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA. ; University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, 89081 Ulm, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Casein Kinase I/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Immunologic Factors/pharmacology ; Jurkat Cells ; K562 Cells ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Myelodysplastic Syndromes/*genetics/*physiopathology ; Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry ; Proteolysis/drug effects ; Sequence Alignment ; Sequence Deletion ; Species Specificity ; Thalidomide/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ; Ubiquitination/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-02-09
    Description: Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, the genes coding for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, are common in several human cancers, including leukemias, and result in overproduction of the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate [(R)-2HG]. Elucidation of the role of IDH mutations and (R)-2HG in leukemogenesis has been hampered by a lack of appropriate cell-based models. Here, we show that a canonical IDH1 mutant, IDH1 R132H, promotes cytokine independence and blocks differentiation in hematopoietic cells. These effects can be recapitulated by (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, despite the fact that (S)-2HG more potently inhibits enzymes, such as the 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylase TET2, that have previously been linked to the pathogenesis of IDH mutant tumors. We provide evidence that this paradox relates to the ability of (S)-2HG, but not (R)-2HG, to inhibit the EglN prolyl hydroxylases. Additionally, we show that transformation by (R)-2HG is reversible.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836459/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836459/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Losman, Julie-Aurore -- Looper, Ryan E -- Koivunen, Peppi -- Lee, Sungwoo -- Schneider, Rebekka K -- McMahon, Christine -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Root, David E -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- Kaelin, William G Jr -- P30 DK049216/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA068490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 29;339(6127):1621-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1231677. Epub 2013 Feb 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393090" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/*metabolism ; Glutarates/*metabolism ; *Hematopoiesis ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/genetics/*metabolism ; Leukemia/*enzymology/genetics ; Models, Biological ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/*antagonists & inhibitors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Equine ; Suprascapular nerve ; Demyelination ; Entrapment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The suprascapular nerve from 14 horses, which had no clinical evidence of spinatus muscle atrophy, were obtained to determine whether the nerve was sub-clinically compressed at the scapular edge. The nerves were divided into three portions, proximal and distal to the scapular edge and as it reflected around it. In nine horses there was evidence of a chronic neuropathy which varied in severity and which was most severe at the site of reflection, where the nerve appeared constricted by a tendinous band. At this site the predominant change was that of chronic demyelination and remyelination, with many scattered thinly myelinated fibres and occasionally profuse onion bulb formation. There were also occasional regenerating clusters, which were the only abnormalities seen in the distal nerve. Renaut bodies appeared to be more common and larger in nerves with chronic focal neuropathy. Teased fibres confirmed the chronic myelin sheath changes, and the presence of many paranodal swellings suggested a possible chronic compressive aetiology. This is the first reported spontaneous entrapment neuropathy in the domestic animals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The unknown parities of five strong dipole states between 6 and 8 MeV in88Sr are shown to be negative.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
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    American Society of Hematology (ASH)
    In: Blood
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Keywords: Free Research Articles
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), clonal disorders of hematopoiesis characterized by activated Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, a component of innate immunity, has been linked to thrombosis. We demonstrate that neutrophils from patients with MPNs are primed for NET formation, an effect blunted by pharmacological inhibition of JAK signaling. Mice with conditional knock-in of Jak2 V617F , the most common molecular driver of MPN, have an increased propensity for NET formation and thrombosis. Inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling with the clinically available JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib abrogated NET formation and reduced thrombosis in a deep vein stenosis murine model. We further show that expression of PAD4, a protein required for NET formation, is increased in JAK2 V617F -expressing neutrophils and that PAD4 is required for Jak2 V617F -driven NET formation and thrombosis in vivo. Finally, in a population study of more than 10,000 individuals without a known myeloid disorder, JAK2 V617F -positive clonal hematopoiesis was associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis. In aggregate, our results link JAK2 V617F expression to NET formation and thrombosis and suggest that JAK2 inhibition may reduce thrombosis in MPNs through cell-intrinsic effects on neutrophil function.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: Myofibroblasts are fibrosis-driving cells and are well characterized in solid organ fibrosis, but their role and cellular origin in bone marrow fibrosis remains obscure. Recent work has demonstrated that Gli1 + and LepR + mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are progenitors of fibrosis-causing myofibroblasts in the bone marrow. Genetic ablation of Gli1 + MSCs or pharmacologic targeting of hedgehog (Hh)-Gli signaling ameliorated fibrosis in mouse models of myelofibrosis (MF). Moreover, pharmacologic or genetic intervention in platelet-derived growth factor receptor α ( Pdgfrα ) signaling in Lepr + stromal cells suppressed their expansion and ameliorated MF. Improved understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms in the hematopoietic stem cell niche that govern the transition of MSCs to myofibroblasts and myofibroblast expansion in MF has led to new paradigms in the pathogenesis and treatment of MF. Here, we highlight the central role of malignant hematopoietic clone-derived megakaryocytes in reprogramming the hematopoietic stem cell niche in MF with potential detrimental consequences for hematopoietic reconstitution after allogenic stem cell transplantation, so far the only therapeutic approach in MF considered to be curative. We and others have reported that targeting Hh-Gli signaling is a therapeutic strategy in solid organ fibrosis. Data indicate that targeting Gli proteins directly inhibits Gli1 + cell proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation, which results in reduced fibrosis severity and improved organ function. Although canonical Hh inhibition (eg, smoothened [Smo] inhibition) failed to improve pulmonary fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, or MF, the direct inhibition of Gli proteins ameliorated fibrosis. Therefore, targeting Gli proteins directly might be an interesting and novel therapeutic approach in MF.
    Keywords: Perspectives, Hematopoiesis and Stem Cells, Myeloid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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