HIV protease inhibitor
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract Purpose. To optimize the conditions for determining Caco-2 permeation of HIV protease inhibitors and other lipophilic compounds, and to compare cyclic urea HIV protease inhibitors with marketed compounds. Methods. Absorptive and secretory Caco-2 membrane permeation studies were performed with HIV protease inhibitors and various reference compounds, examining the effects of adding the solubilizing agents dimethylacetamide (DMAC) and albumin in donor and reservoir compartments, respectively. Results. DMAC was useful as an additive in the donor vehicles, increasing the dissolved concentrations of poorly water-soluble HIV protease inhibitors, and enabling more reliable determination of Papp values. Donor vehicles containing up to 5% DMAC could be used without altering Caco-2 barrier function, as indicated by the lack of effect on permeabilities of reference compounds with diverse absorption characteristics. The utilization of a reservoir containing albumin resulted in marked increases in absorptive Papp values for some HIV protease inhibitors as well as other lipophilic, highly protein bound compounds, consistent with albumin increasing the release of these compounds from the cell monolayer. Conclusions. Poorly soluble, lipophilic, highly bound compounds may require using solubilizing agents in the donor and reservoir compartments of Caco-2 permeation experiments for estimating in vivo absorption potential. If the reservoir does not provide adequate sink conditions, cellular retention could over-emphasize the contributions of secretory transport. The cyclic ureas, DMP 450, DMP 850, and DMP 851, have Caco-2 permeabilities suggestive of moderate-to-high oral absorption potential in humans.
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