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  • 2000-2004  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The regulation of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type cytokine patterns is important in the final outcome of leishmaniasis in human and murine models. We examined the efficacy of garlic therapy or a combination of garlic and an antimonial drug (glucantime) in promoting healing and regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine patterns in highly susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Separate groups of infected mice received 20 mg/kg/day garlic, 60 mg/kg/day glucantime or a combination of the two, from day 30 after infection for 2 weeks. An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay ( ELISA) was performed on spleen cell culture supernatants for interferon(IFN)-γ interleukin(IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10. The results indicate that garlic therapy is more effective than the usual antileishmanial drug in curing the infection. Garlic-treated mice developed Th1-type cytokine responses. In contrast, glucantime therapy led to a Th2-type response in the control group with a lower level of IL-2. However, a combination of garlic and glucantime treatment was more effective than either treatment alone, and resulted in a Th1-type response similar to that which developed with garlic treatment. These results suggest that garlic extract in combination with an antimonial drug, may provide effective therapy against L. major. The immunomodulatory properties of garlic were elucidated in terms of shifting the cytokine response to a Th1-type pattern and therefore causing the protective response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: ERIC-PCR ; PFGE ; S. chincol ; S. weltevreden
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Genomic DNA of Salmonella weltevreden (10 isolates from poultry, two isolates each from raw vegetables and river water) and S. chincol (15 isolates from poultry) were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from a single location in Kajang, Selangor. The results of the PFGE and ERIC-PCR were analysed and comparisons were made using GelCompar software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the S. weltevreden into five clusters and two single isolates and S. chincol into two clusters and two single isolates at a similarity level of 80%, respectively. PFGE produced a single cluster and eight single isolates for S. weltevreden, and one cluster and 11 single isolates for S. chincol at a similarity level of 80% after digestion with the restriction enzyme XbaI, respectively. These results demonstrate that both PFGE and ERIC-PCR are suitable tools for molecular typing of the isolates examined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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