A link between inflammatory disease and bone loss is now recognized. However, limited data exist on the impact of virus infection on bone loss and regeneration. Bone loss results from an imbalance in remodeling, the physiological process whereby the skeleton undergoes continual cycles of formation and resorption. The specific molecular and cellular mechanisms linking virus-induced inflammation to bone loss remain unclear. In the current study, we provide evidence that infection of mice with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) resulted in rapid and substantial loss of osteoblasts from the bone surface. Osteoblast ablation was associated with elevated levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IFN-, IL-6, and CCL2. Both LCMV and PVM infections resulted in reduced osteoblast-specific gene expression in bone, loss of osteoblasts, and reduced serum markers of bone formation, including osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 N propeptide. Infection of Rag-1–deficient mice (which lack adaptive immune cells) or specific depletion of CD8 + T lymphocytes limited osteoblast loss associated with LCMV infection. By contrast, CD8 + T cell depletion had no apparent impact on osteoblast ablation in association with PVM infection. In summary, our data demonstrate dramatic loss of osteoblasts in response to virus infection and associated systemic inflammation. Further, the inflammatory mechanisms mediating viral infection-induced bone loss depend on the specific inflammatory condition.