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  • 1
    ISSN: 1534-4681
    Keywords: CTL ; Peptide ; Vaccine ; Folate binding protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) isolated from ovarian cancer patients contain cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) capable of recognizing specific HLA/peptide complexes on tumor cells leading to tumor cell lysis. Currently, HER2/neu, overexpressed in only 30% of breast and ovarian cancers, is the only known source of CTL-recognized peptides in epithelial cancers. Therefore, we have investigated peptides derived from folate binding protein (FBP), which is over-expressed in more than 90% of ovarian cancers and in the majority of other epithelial tumors. Methods: TAL were isolated from the malignant ascites of four consecutive HLA-A2+ ovarian cancer patients and incubated in IL-2. Initial chromium-release assays were performed within 1 week. T2 cells, incubated with peptide, were used to reconstitute T cell epitopes. The FBP sequence was interrogated for HLA-A2 binding peptides, and five were synthesized (E37–41). Results: Freshly cultured, unstimulated ovarian TAL recognize peptides derived from FBP. These peptides are presented in the context of HLA-A2, and are specifically recognized in a HLA class I-restricted fashion. TAL recognition of these reconstituted T cell epitopes is concentration dependent. Furthermore, the FBP peptides are shown by cold target inhibition studies to be naturally processed and presented antigens. Conclusions: FBP peptides are recognized by freshly isolated TAL from ovarian cancer patients, suggesting in vivo expression and sensitization. Because FBP is over-expressed 20-fold in most adenocarcinomas, these peptides may be used in a widely applicable peptide-based vaccine for epithelial tumors.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of a bombesin-like immunoreactive peptide in the avian gastro-intestinal tract was analysed by combined radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts showed that the largest quantities of bombesin-like immunoreactivity were present in the proventriculus (64.5±6.0 pmol/g) with smaller but still considerable amounts in the gizzard (40.0±6.0 pmol/g). Immunocytochemically the extractable bombesin-like immunoreactivity was localised in numerous endocrine cells. These, in the proventriculus, were found mainly in the deeper layers of the mucosa. Further study of these cells by the semi-thin/thin technique revealed the presence of characteristic secretory granules. The functional name BN is proposed for this cell type.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP-like immunoreactive material is present in the female reproductive tract, with a distinct pattern of distribution. The highest concentrations of extractable material and immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the cervix and vagina. In the cervix these fibres were seen below the surface epithelium and around cervical glands as well as in association with blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles. In the vagina the nerve fibres were most abundant in the superficial regions of the lamina propria. Scattered fibres were also present in the rest of the uterus and in the fallopian tubes. Chromatographic evidence indicates that this VIP-like material is of a similar molecular size to that extracted from other organs. Possible roles for VIP in the regulation of myometrial activity and of cervical and vaginal dilation and secretion are proposed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The guinea pig uterus is supplied by different populations of nerves which can be demonstrated by specific immunocytochemical and histochemical techniques. So far, there has been no single marker displaying entire peripheral innervation patterns. Recently, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, a cytoplasmic protein in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, was found to visualize both different populations and subtypes of nerves. This prompted the present study of using PGP 9.5 for visualization of the whole uterine innervation. This was performed by the indirect immunofluorescence method using antiserum to PGP 9.5 raised in rabbits. PGP-immunoreactivity was present in all neuronal parts of the extrinsic and intrinsic uterine innervation, including different subpopulations of nerves. This was verified by chemical sympathectomy and sensory denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine and capsaicin-treatment respectively, and double immunostaining. By term a disappearance of uterine PGP-nerve-immunoreactivity was observed which was almost complete in fetus-bearing uterine tissue and further strengthens previous assumptions of a general, pregnancy-induced uterine neuronal degeneration. The developmental time-course and morphology of PGP-immunoreactive nerve structures was similar to that for other neuronal markers and support the suggestion of PGP-immunoreactivity as a general marker for the entire uterine innervation, and suggests that the presence of PGP 9.5-immunoreactivity may coincide with functional maturation of uterine innervation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ontogenetic development of the guinea pig uterine autonomic innervation was studied immunohistochemically using neurofibrillary protein (NF) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) as general neuronal markers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) as specific markers for adrenergic innervation and S-100 protein as marker for Schwann cell structure and/or function. In addition, comparisons were made of the development of the different populations of peptide-containing nerves. The structure and time of appearance were similar for nerves with NF-, NSE-, TH- and DBH-immunoreactivities, which were first present in the organ periphery as coarse nerve trunks, then extending centrally and branching into non-varicose nerves. From these, varicose nerves developed first in relation to vessels and then in association with the myometrial smooth musculature. Development was completed carlier in the cervix than in the uterine horns suggesting differences in local environment. In comparison, S-100 nerve-immunoreactivity appeared later but attained complete development more rapidly than axonal structures. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves showed a similar developmental pattern to presumed adrenergic nerves, further verifying the assumption of intraneuronal localization of NPY in uterine adrenergic nerves. Other peptide-containing nerves were developed later probably reflecting differences in neuronal growth properties.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide ; Ventricular myocytes ; Atrial myocytes ; Cell culture ; Secretion ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have demonstrated that atrial natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity is stored and secreted by ventricular and atrial myocytes in dissociated cell culture preparations from the heart of newborn rat. Culture preparations were maintained in either foetal calf serum-supplemented medium 199 or in hormone-supplemented, serum-free medium 199. The presence of atrial natriuretic peptidelike immunoreactivity in the cultured myocytes was demonstrated at both light-and electron-microscopical levels. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity into the culture medium was measured by radioimmunoassay; molecular forms of the stored and secreted peptide were determined by gel column chromatography. The atrial natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity of cultured atrial and ventricular myocytes was concentrated in the perinuclear cytoplasm and was localised to electron-dense secretory granules. The number of immunoreactive ventricular myocytes and the intensity of their immunofluorescence changed with time in culture and was higher in cultures in foetal calf serum-supplemented medium than in serum-free medium. Gamma-atrial natriuretic peptide was stored and released by cultured atrial and ventricular myocytes, but was broken down to alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide in the growth medium. This process was foetal calf serum-independent, since it occurred in both the media used, indicating that cardiac myocytes in culture may release a factor that cleaves gamma-atrial natriuretic peptide to form alphaatrial natriuretic peptide.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied the biological responses of six ovarian cancer patients after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of virus-modified tumor cell extracts (VMTE) and autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected by leukapheresis after two injections of VMTE. VMTE was prepared from allogeneic ovarian cell lines, OV2774 and CaOV3, modified by influenza virus, A/PR8/34. A dose of 9 mg VMTE was given i.p. in total of 2–4 injections, and (1−9) × 108 autologous mononuclear cells were infused i.p., 24 h after the second VMTE injection, and 24 h and 72 h after the third VMTE injection. Both peripheral blood (PB) and peritoneal cavity (PC) effector cell cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced against the K562 cell line in the majority of patients, 24–48 h after the second and third VMTE injections. This was accompanied by a dramatic influx of neutrophils into PC (57-550-fold), increase in absolute numbers of lymphocytes, (including large granular lymphocytes) and monocytes, and resulted also in a significant decrease in the number of ascitic tumor cells (98% reduction). The infusion of autologous mononuclear cells did not appear to influence either cytotoxicity or cell infiltration of the peritoneal cavity. We also investigated the in vitro effect of recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) on effector cells from PB and PC from patients before and after VMTE treatment. Cytotoxicity of both of these compartments was significantly potentiated after culture with IL-2. In three out of five VMTE-treated patients, PC cytotoxicity was significantly higher after activation with IL-2 than that of patients before VMTE treatment. These data suggest that VMTE induces regional cellular immunity, which could be further potentiated by culture of PC effector cells with IL-2. Thus, combination of VMTE and IL-2 after regional administration could represent the effective therapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight patients with squamous carcinoma of the vulva and two or more positive nodes have received adjunctive immunotherapy with a virus modified homologous cell extract. Seven of eight patients received radiation therapy in addition. Cells derived from the SW962 vulvar carcinoma cell line were infected with PR8/A/34 strain of influenza and a membrane extract was used for immunization. The extract was administered by the intradermal route weekly for three doses and then biweekly for up to 2 years. Each dose is equivalent to 1.5 mg protein. None of the patients have recurred and durations of remission are 24, 24, 22, 22, 21, 16, 7, and 2 months respectively. This compares favourably with similar groups of patients who were treated with surgery alone (22/33 recurred, median recurrence time 14.8 months) or surgery plus radiation therapy (8/9 recurrences, median recurrence time 11.0 months). No serious side effects have occurred with more than 200 doses of extract. Post immunization monitoring has indicated good in vitro and in vivo immunological responses and antibody titers to PR8 increased significantly in five of eight patients.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 43 (1987), S. 821-832 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Peptides ; cardiovascular system ; immunocytochemistry ; neuropeptide Y ; calcitonin gene-related peptide ; tachykinins ; substance P ; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ; atrial natriuretic peptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ample immunocytochemical evidence is now available demonstrating that several peptides are present in the mammalian cardiovascular system where they are localised to nerve fibres and myocardial cells. The neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, tachykinins and vasoctive intestinal polypeptide) are localised to large secretory vesicles in subpopulations of afferent or efferent nerves supplying the heart and vasculature of several mammals, including man. Although they often exert potent pharmacological effects on the tissues in which they occur their physiological significance has still to be established. They may act directly via specific receptors and/or indirectly by influencing the release and action of other cardiovascular transmitters. In marked contrast, atrial natriuretic peptide is produced by cardiac myocytes and considered to act as a circulating hormone.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0009-8981
    Keywords: Atrium ; Cardiodilatin ; Chromatography ; N-terminal pro-ANP ; Radioimmunoassay
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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