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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Fumed silica ; Colloidal suspensions ; Non-linear viscoelasticity ; Rheological models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Suspensions of fumed silica exhibit a wide range of rheological properties depending on the nature and magnitude of the interparticle forces. In a non-polar fluid, the particles interact through hydrogen bonding and can form a three-dimensional network. The microstructure formation is responsible for the non-linear viscoelastic behavior of fumed silica suspensions, even at very small strain. These non-linear rheological properties have been studied in small amplitude oscillatory experiments as a function of particle size, surface treatment of particles, suspending medium polarity and solids concentration. The non-linear viscoelastic behavior is characterized by a non-sinusoidal waveform of the signal response. For suspensions in a non-polar fluid, both the elastic and the loss moduli are shown to be sensitive to the strain amplitude: the elastic modulus is decreasing with increasing strain whereas the loss moduli is initially increasing with strain. We have chosen to examine the dissipated energy which is clearly related to the breakup of the suspension structure. A comparison of model predictions and the experimental data shows the limitations of these models, recently proposed in the literature to describe the behavior of colloidal suspensions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: plant cell ; Catharanthus roseus ; suspension ; culture ; mixing ; helical ribbon impeller ; bioreactor ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A double helical-ribbon impeller (HRI) bioreactor with a 11-L working volume was developed to grow high-density Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions. The rheological behavior of this suspension was found to be shear-thinning for concentrations higher than 12 to 15 g DW · L-1. A granulated agar suspension of similar rheological properties was used as a model fluid for these suspensions. Mixing studies revealed that surface baffling and bottom profiling of the bioreactor and impeller speeds of 60 to 150 rpm ensured uniform mixing of suspensions. The HRI power requirement was found to increase singnificantly for agar suspensions higher than 13 g DW · L-1, in conjunction with the effective viscosity increase. Oxygen transfer studies showed high apparent surface oxygen transfer coefficients (kLa ∼4 to 45 h-1) from agar suspensions of 30 g DW · L-1 to water and for mixing speeds ranging from 120 to 150 rpm. These high surface kIa values were ascribed to the flow pattern of this bioreactor configuration combined with surface bubble generation and entrainment in the liquid phase caused by the presence of the surface baffles. High-density C. roseus cell suspension cultures were successfully grown in this bioreactor without gas sparging. Up to 70% oxygen enrichment of the head space was required to ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the cultures so that dissolved oxygen concentration would remain above the critical level (≥10% air saturation). The best mixing speed was 120 rpm. These cultures grew at the same rate (∼0.4 d-1) and attained the same high biomass concentrations (∼25 to 27 g DW · L-1, 450 to 500 g filtered wet biomass · L-1, and 92% to 100% settled wet biomass volume) as shake flask cultures. The scale-up potential of this bioreactor configuration is discussed.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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