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  • Articles  (997)
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  • Articles  (997)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Cancer cells experience endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to activated oncogenes and conditions of nutrient deprivation and hypoxia. The ensuing unfolded protein response (UPR) is executed by ATF6, IRE1 and PERK pathways. Adaptation to mild ER stress promotes tumor cell survival and aggressiveness. Unmitigated ER stress, however, will result in cell death and is a potential avenue for cancer therapies. Because of this yin-yang nature of ER stress, it is imperative that we fully understand the mechanisms and dynamics of the UPR and its contribution to the complexity of tumor biology. The PERK pathway inhibits global protein synthesis while allowing translation of specific mRNAs, such as the ATF4 transcription factor. Using thapsigargin and tunicamycin to induce acute ER stress, we identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CEBPD) as a mediator of PERK signaling to secretion of tumor promoting chemokines. In melanoma and breast cancer cell lines, PERK mediated early induction of C/EBPδ through ATF4-independent pathways that involved at least in part Janus kinases and the STAT3 transcription factor. Transcriptional profiling revealed that C/EBPδ contributed to 20% of thapsigargin response genes including chaperones, components of ER-associated degradation, and apoptosis inhibitors. In addition, C/EBPδ supported the expression of the chemokines CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL20, which are known for their tumor promoting and immunosuppressive properties. With a paradigm of short-term exposure to thapsigargin, which was sufficient to trigger prolonged activation of the UPR in cancer cells, we found that conditioned media from such cells induced cytokine expression in myeloid cells. In addition, activation of the CXCL8 receptor CXCR1 during thapsigargin exposure supported subsequent sphere formation by cancer cells. Taken together, these investigations elucidated a novel mechanism of ER stress-induced transmissible signals in tumor cells that may be particularly relevant in the context of pharmacological interventions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Previous studies demonstrated that cGAS pathway is related to the inflammation amplification in a variety of autoimmune diseases. Lysine acetyltransferase family (KATs) can regulate the nuclear transcription or cytoplasmic activation of cGAS through different mechanisms. However, its role and related immunity patterns in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have not been explored. In this study, RNA-seq and scRNA-seq profiling were performed for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with SLE. R packages were used for bioinformatic analysis. Cell culture, RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA were used to explore gene expression in vitro or clinical specimens. Plasmid transfection and mass spectrometry were used to detect protein modifications. Eight acetyltransferase and deacetylase family members with significantly differential expression in SLE were found. Among them, KAT2A was abnormally upregulated and positively correlated with disease activity index. Further, KAT2A-cGAS pathway was aberrantly expressed in specific immune cell subsets in SLE. In vitro studies showed KAT2A modulated cGAS through increasing expression and post-translational modification. Our research provides novel insights for accurately positioning specific immune-cell subgroups in which KAT2A-cGAS reaction mainly works and KAT2A regulation patterns.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: In glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), downregulated osteogenic ability and damaged blood supply are two key pathogenic mechanisms. Studies suggested that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed in bone tissue and it plays a positive role in osteogenesis. However, whether CB2 could enhance bone formation and blood supply in GC-induced ONFH remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the effect of CB2 in GC-induced ONFH and possible mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. By using GC-induced ONFH rat model, rat-bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to address the interaction of CB2 in vitro and in vivo, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic effect variation and possible mechanisms. Micro-CT, histological staining, angiography, calcein labeling, Alizarin red staining (ARS), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, TUNEL staining, migration assay, scratch assay, and tube formation were applied in this study. Our results showed that selective activation of CB2 alleviates GC-induced ONFH. The activation of CB2 strengthened the osteogenic activity of BMSCs under the influence of GCs by promotion of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, CB2 promoted HUVECs migration and tube-forming capacities. Our findings indicated that CB2 may serve as a rational new treatment strategy against GC-induced ONFH by osteogenesis activation and maintenance of blood supply.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an important inflammatory mediator activates the innate/adaptive immune system. The existence of LPS in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been reported, however, its biological function in PDAC remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that circulating and tumoral LPS was significantly increased by intestinal leakage in the orthotopic murine PDAC model, and LPS administration promoted T cell infiltration but exhaustion paradoxically in the subcutaneous murine PDAC model. By bioinformatic analysis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), LPS receptor, was further found to enrich in immune tolerance signaling in PDAC tissues. Then, a significant positive correlation was found between TLR4 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in clinical PDAC tissues, as well as serum LPS and tumoral PD-L1. Meanwhile, LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo obviously upregulated tumor PD-L1 expression, and effectively promoted cancer cells resistance to T cell cytotoxicity. Mechanistically, the activation of TLR4/MyD88/AKT/NF-κB cascade was found to participate in LPS mediated PD-L1 transcription via binding to its promoter regions, which was enhanced by crosstalk between NF-κB and AKT pathways. Finally, PD-L1 blockade could significantly reverse LPS-induced immune escape, and synergized with LPS treatment. Taken together, LPS can remodel tumor microenvironment, and synergize with PD-L1 blockade to suppress tumor growth, which may be a promising comprehensive strategy for PDAC.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Autophagy-mediated lipotoxicity plays a critical role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the precise mechanism is not fully understood. Whether lipophagy, a selective type of autophagy participates in renal ectopic lipid deposition (ELD) and lipotoxicity in the kidney of DN is unknown. Here, decreased lipophagy, increased ELD and lipotoxcity were observed in tubular cells of patients with DN, which were accompanied with reduced expression of AdipoR1 and p-AMPK. Similar results were found in db/db mice, these changes were reversed by AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor activator that promotes autophagy. Additionally, a significantly decreased level of lipophagy was observed in HK-2 cells, a human proximal tubular cell line treated with high glucose, which was consistent with increased lipid deposition, apoptosis and fibrosis, while were partially alleviated by AdipoRon. However, these effects were abolished by pretreatment with ULK1 inhibitor SBI-0206965, autophagy inhibitor chloroquine and enhanced by AMPK activator AICAR. These data suggested by the first time that autophagy-mediated lipophagy deficiency plays a critical role in the ELD and lipid-related renal injury of DN.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Globally, lung cancer remains one of the most prevalent malignant cancers. However, molecular mechanisms and functions involved in its pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the specific regulatory mechanisms of exosomal miR-338-3p/CHL1/MAPK signaling pathway axis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Western blotting and qRT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) were used to determine the expression levels of CHL1 and exosomal miR-338-3p in NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer). The CHL1 gene was upregulated and downregulated to evaluate its functions in NSCLC progression. In vitro MTS and apoptotic assays were used to investigate the functions of CHL1 and exosomal miR-338-3p in NSCLC progression. The high-throughput sequencing was used to explore differently expressed exosomal miRNAs. The biological relationships between MAPK signaling pathway and CHL1 and exosomal miR-338-3p in NSCLC were predicted through bioinformatics analyses and verified by western blotting. Elevated CHL1 levels were observed in NSCLC tissues and cells. Upregulated CHL1 expression enhanced NSCLC cells’ progression by promoting tumor cells proliferation while suppressing their apoptosis. Conversely, the downregulation of the CHL1 gene inhibited NSCLC cells’ growth and promoted tumor cells’ apoptotic rate. Additionally, CHL1 activated the MAPK signaling pathway. Besides, we confirmed that miR-338-3p directly sponged with CHL1 to mediate tumor cells progression. Moreover, exosomal miR-338-3p serum levels in NSCLC patients were found to be low. BEAS-2B cells can transfer exosomal miR-338-3p to A549 cells and SK-MES-1 cells. In addition, elevated exosomal miR-338-3p levels significantly inhibited tumor cells proliferation and promoted their apoptosis by suppressing activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Exosomal miR-338-3p suppresses tumor cells' metastasis by downregulating the expression of CHL1 through MAPK signaling pathway inactivation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) is a newly discovered negative immunoregulatory protein that is involved in various cellular immune responses to infections. However, the underlying mechanism by which TIPE2 affects the immune function of dendritic cells (DCs) is not yet understood. This study aimed to determine the correlations among DCs TIPE2 expression, autophagic activity and immune function in the context of sepsis. In addition, the signaling pathway by which TIPE2 regulates autophagy in DCs was investigated. We reported for the first time that TIPE2 overexpression (knock-in, KI) exerted an inhibitory effect on autophagy in DCs and markedly suppressed the immune function of DCs upon septic challenge both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, TIPE2 knockout (KO) in DCs significantly enhanced autophagy and improved the immune response of DCs in sepsis. Of note, we found that the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase-1 (TAK1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was inhibited by TIPE2 in DCs, resulting in downregulated autophagic activity. Collectively, these results suggest that TIPE2 can suppress the autophagic activity of DCs by inhibiting the TAK1/JNK signaling pathway and further negatively regulate the immune function of DCs in the development of septic complications.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a common adverse reaction to antineoplastic treatment with few appropriate, specific interventions. We aimed to identify the role of the G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in CIM and its mechanism. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil to establish the CIM model. The selective GPER agonist G-1 significantly inhibited weight loss and histological damage in CIM mice and restored mucosal barrier dysfunction, including improving the expression of ZO-1, increasing the number of goblet cells, and decreasing mucosal permeability. Moreover, G-1 treatment did not alter the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil. In the CIM model, G-1 therapy reduced the expression of proapoptotic protein and cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, reversed the changes in the number of TUNEL+ cells, Ki67+ and bromodeoxyuridine+ cells in crypts. The selective GPER antagonist G15 eliminated all of the above effects caused by G-1 on CIM, and application of G15 alone increased the severity of CIM. GPER was predominantly expressed in ileal crypts, and G-1 inhibited the DNA damage induced by 5-fluorouracil in vivo and vitro, as confirmed by the decrease in the number of γH2AX+ cells in the crypts and the comet assay results. Referring to the data from GEO dataset we verified GPER activation restored ERK1/2 activity in CIM and 5-fluorouracil-treated IEC-6 cells. Once the effects of G-1 on ERK1/2 activity were abolished with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD0325901, the effects of G-1 on DNA damage both in vivo and in vitro were eliminated. Correspondingly, all of the manifestations of G-1 protection against CIM were inhibited by PD0325901, such as body weight and histological changes, the mucosal barrier, the apoptosis and proliferation of crypt cells. In conclusion, GPER activation prevents CIM by inhibiting crypt cell DNA damage in an ERK1/2-dependent manner, suggesting GPER might be a target preventing CIM.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-10-30
    Description: Bone metastasis is one of the most serious complications in lung cancer patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumour development, progression and metastasis. A previous study showed that miR-106a is highly expressed in the tissues of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we showed that miR-106a expression is dramatically increased in lung cancer patients with bone metastasis (BM) by immunohistochemical analysis. MiR-106a promoted A549 and SPC-A1 cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. The results of bioluminescence imaging (BLI), micro-CT and X-ray demonstrated that miR-106a promoted bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-106a upregulation promoted metastasis by targeting tumour protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1)-mediated metastatic progression, including cell migration, autophagy-dependent death and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Notably, autophagy partially attenuated the effects of miR-106a on promoting bone metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma. These findings demonstrated that restoring the expression of TP53INP1 by silencing miR-106a may be a novel therapeutic strategy for bone metastatic in lung adenocarcinoma.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-10-29
    Description: Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients are worsened by the presence of co-morbidities, especially cancer leading to elevated mortality rates. SARS-CoV-2 infection is known to alter immune system homeostasis. Whether cancer patients developing COVID-19 present alterations of immune functions which might contribute to worse outcomes have so far been poorly investigated. We conducted a multi-omic analysis of immunological parameters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients with and without cancer. Healthy donors and SARS-CoV-2-negative cancer patients were also included as controls. At the infection peak, cytokine multiplex analysis of blood samples, cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF) cell population analyses, and Nanostring gene expression using Pancancer array on PBMCs were performed. We found that eight pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-1ra, MIP-1a, IP-10) out of 27 analyzed serum cytokines were modulated in COVID-19 patients irrespective of cancer status. Diverse subpopulations of T lymphocytes such as CD8+T, CD4+T central memory, Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), natural killer (NK), and γδ T cells were reduced, while B plasmablasts were expanded in COVID-19 cancer patients. Our findings illustrate a repertoire of aberrant alterations of gene expression in circulating immune cells of COVID-19 cancer patients. A 19-gene expression signature of PBMCs is able to discriminate COVID-19 patients with and without solid cancers. Gene set enrichment analysis highlights an increased gene expression linked to Interferon α, γ, α/β response and signaling which paired with aberrant cell cycle regulation in cancer patients. Ten out of the 19 genes, validated in a real-world consecutive cohort, were specific of COVID-19 cancer patients independently from different cancer types and stages of the diseases, and useful to stratify patients in a COVID-19 disease severity-manner. We also unveil a transcriptional network involving gene regulators of both inflammation response and proliferation in PBMCs of COVID-19 cancer patients.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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