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  • Articles  (1,877)
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  • Articles  (1,877)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of concussion and risk factors for sustaining concussion among children from the United States general population. This prospective cohort study used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. Children were recruited from schools across the US, sampled to reflect the sociodemographic variation of the US population. The current sample includes 11,013 children aged 9 to 10 years old (47.6% girls; 65.5% White) who were prospectively followed for an average of 1 year (mean = 367.9 days, SD = 40.8, range 249–601). The primary outcome was caregiver-reported concussion during a 1 year follow-up period. Logistic regression was used to determine which potential clinical, health history, and behavioral characteristics (assessed at baseline) were prospectively associated with concussion. In the 1 year follow-up period between ages 10 and 11, 1 in 100 children (n = 123, 1.1%) sustained a concussion. In univariate models, three baseline predictors (ADHD, prior concussion, and accident proneness) were significantly associated with sustaining a concussion. In a multivariate model, controlling for all other predictors, only prior concussion remained significantly associated with the occurrence of a concussion during the observation period (Odds Ratio = 5.49, 95% CI: 3.40–8.87). The most robust and only independent prospective predictor of sustaining a concussion was history of a prior concussion. History of concussion is associated with 5.5 times greater odds of sustaining concussion between ages 10 and 11 among children from the general US population.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Objective: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is typically caused by CSF leakage from a spinal dural tear, a meningeal diverticulum, or a CSF venous fistula. However, some patients present with classic orthostatic symptoms and typical intracranial imaging findings without evidence of CSF leakage despite repeated diagnostic work-up. This article aims to elaborate a hypothesis that would explain a pathologically increased orthostatic shift of CSF from the cranial to the spinal compartment in the absence of a CSF leak.Medical Hypothesis: The symptoms of SIH are caused by a decrease in intracranial CSF volume, intracranial hypotension, and downward displacement of intracranial structures. A combination of pathologically increased spinal compliance, decreased intracranial CSF volume, low CSF outflow resistance, and decreased venous pressure might result in a pathological orthostatic cranial-to-spinal CSF shift. Thus, in rare cases, intracranial hypotension may occur in the absence of CSF leakage from the dural sac.Conclusion: We propose a pathophysiological concept for the subgroup of SIH patients with typical cranial imaging findings and no evidence of CSF leakage. In these patients, reducing the compliance or the volume of the spinal compartment seems to be the appropriate therapeutic strategy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Introduction: While most people with cerebral palsy (CP) will have a life expectancy similar to that of the general population, international research has primarily focused on childhood and adolescence; and knowledge about the quality of life (QoL) of young adults with CP, its trajectories, and associated factors remains scarce.Methods: This longitudinal study included young adults with CP living in five European regions and who had previously participated in the SPARCLE cohort as children and/or adolescents. Their QoL in the psychological well-being and social relationships domains was estimated using age-appropriate validated instruments (KIDSCREEN-52 in childhood/adolescence and WHOQOL-Bref in young adulthood). We used generalized linear mixed-effect models with random intercept to estimate long-term trajectories of QoL in both domains and to investigate whether severity of impairment, pain, and seizure influenced these trajectories. We sought to identify potentially different trajectories of QoL from childhood to adulthood using a shape-based clustering method.Results: In total, 164 young adults with CP aged 22–27 years participated in the study. Psychological well-being linearly decreased by 0.78 points (scale 0–100) per year (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.99 to −0.56) from childhood to young adulthood, whereas QoL in the social relationships domain increased (β coefficient 1.24, 95% CI 0.92–1.55). Severity of impairment was associated with reduced QoL in all life periods of the study (childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood): motor impairment with social relationships, and more nuancedly intellectual disability with psychological well-being and social relationships. At all periods, frequent pain significantly reduced psychological well-being, and seizures were associated with lower QoL in the social relationships domain. In both domains, we identified a group of individuals with CP who presented a reverse trajectory compared with the general QoL trajectory.Conclusion: Identification of QoL trajectories and their associated factors yields improved knowledge about the experience of individuals with CP until young adulthood. Further studies are needed to better understand the determinants that have the greatest influence on the different shapes of long-term trajectories of QoL.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Background: Previously published retrospective series show a high prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) in stroke patients. We aimed to analyze in a prospective series the current incidence of FI in acute stroke in functionally independent patients and its evolution over time and the patient characteristics associated with the appearance of FI in acute stroke.Methods: We included consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted in our stroke unit who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: a first episode of stroke, aged 〉18 years, with no previous functional dependency [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤ 2] and without previous known FI. FI was assessed by a multidisciplinary trained team using dedicated questionnaires at 72 ± 24 h (acute phase) and at 90 ± 15 days (chronic phase). Demographic, medical history, clinical and stroke features, mortality, and mRS at 7 days were collected.Results: Three hundred fifty-nine (48.3%) of 749 patients (mean age 65.9 ± 10, 64% male, 84.1% ischemic) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were prospectively included during a 20-month period. FI was identified in 23 patients (6.4%) at 72 ± 24 h and in 7 (1.9%) at 90 days ± 15 days after stroke onset. FI was more frequent in hemorrhagic strokes (18 vs. 5%, p 0.007) and in more severe strokes [median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 18 (14–22) vs. 5 (3–13), p 〈 0.0001]. No differences were found regarding age, sex, vascular risk factors, or other comorbidities, or affected hemisphere. Patients with NIHSS ≥12 (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89) had a 17-fold increase for the risk of FI (OR 16.9, IC 95% 4.7–60.1) adjusted for covariates.Conclusions: At present, the incidence of FI in acute stroke patients without previous functional dependency is lower than expected, with an association of a more severe and hemorrhagic stroke. Due to its impact on the quality of life, it is necessary to deepen the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms to address therapeutic strategies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Introduction: Organizing regional stroke care considering thrombolysis as well as mechanical thrombectomy (MTE) remains challenging in light of a wide range of regional population distribution. To compare outcomes of patients in a stroke network covering vast rural areas in southwestern Germany who underwent MTE via direct admission to a single comprehensive stroke center [CSC; mothership (MS)] with those of patients transferred from primary stroke centers [PSCs; drip-and-ship (DS)], we undertook this analysis of consecutive stroke patients with MTE.Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent MTE at the CSC between January 2013 and December 2016 were included in the analysis. The primary outcome measure was 90-day functional independence [modified Rankin score (mRS) 0–2]. Secondary outcome measures included time from stroke onset to recanalization/end of MTE, angiographic outcomes, and mortality rates.Results: Three hundred and thirty-two consecutive patients were included (MS 222 and DS 110). Median age was 74 in both arms of the study, and there was no significant difference in baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (median MS 15 vs. 16 DS). Intravenous (IV) thrombolysis (IVT) rates differed significantly (55% MS vs. 70% DS, p = 0.008). Time from stroke onset to recanalization/end of MTE was 112 min shorter in the MS group (median 230 vs. 342 min, p 〈 0.001). Successful recanalization [thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b-3] was achieved in 72% of patients in the MS group and 73% in the DS group. There was a significant difference in 90-day functional independence (37% MS vs. 24% DS, p = 0.017), whereas no significant differences were observed for mortality rates at 90 days (MS 22% vs. DS 17%, p = 0.306).Discussion: Our data suggest that patients who had an acute ischemic stroke admitted directly to a CSC may have better 90-day outcomes than those transferred secondarily for thrombectomy from a PSC.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Background: Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) often causes various neurological sequelae, necessitating early and objective differentiation of AESD from a febrile seizure (FS). Therefore, we developed a scoring system that predicts AESD onset using only early laboratory data.Methods: We selected patients with AESD or FS admitted to the Tottori University Hospital between November 2005 and September 2020 and collected laboratory data from onset to discharge in patients with FS and from onset to the second neurological events in patients with AESD.Results: We identified 18 patients with AESD and 181 patients with FS. In comparison with patients with FS, patients with AESD showed statistically significant increases in ammonia (NH3), blood sugar (BS), and serum creatinine (Cr) levels, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, and a significant decrease in pH at
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-11-01
    Description: Decision making in the extended time windows for acute ischemic stroke can be a complex and time-consuming process. The process of making the clinical decision to treat has been compounded by the availability of different imaging modalities. In the setting of acute ischemic stroke, time is of the essence and chances of a good outcome diminish by each passing minute. Navigating the plethora of advanced imaging modalities means that treatment in some cases can be inefficaciously delayed. Time delays and individually based non-programmed decision making can prove challenging for clinicians. Visual aids can assist such decision making aimed at simplifying the use of advanced imaging. Flow charts are one such visual tool that can expedite treatment in this setting. A systematic review of existing literature around imaging modalities based on site of occlusion and time from onset can be used to aid decision making; a more program-based thought process. The use of an acute reperfusion flow chart helping navigate the myriad of imaging modalities can aid the effective treatment of patients.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-10-29
    Description: Fingolimod (FTY) is a disease modifying therapy for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) which can lead to severe lymphopenia requiring therapy discontinuation in order to avoid adverse events. However, this can result in severe disease reactivation occasionally presenting with tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs). TDLs, which are thought to originate from a massive re-entry of activated lymphocytes into the central nervous system, are larger than 2 cm in diameter and may feature mass effect, perifocal edema, and gadolinium enhancement. In these cases, it can be challenging to exclude important differential diagnoses for TDLs such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) or other opportunistic infections. Here, we present the case of a 26-year-old female patient who suffered a massive rebound with TDLs following FTY discontinuation with primarily neuropsychiatric symptoms despite persisting lymphopenia. Two cycles of seven plasmaphereses each were necessary to achieve remission and ocrelizumab was used for long-term stabilization.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-10-29
    Description: Introduction: Electromagnetic imaging is an emerging technology which promises to provide a mobile, and rapid neuroimaging modality for pre-hospital and bedside evaluation of stroke patients based on the dielectric properties of the tissue. It is now possible due to technological advancements in materials, antennae design and manufacture, rapid portable computing power and network analyses and development of processing algorithms for image reconstruction. The purpose of this report is to introduce images from a novel, portable electromagnetic scanner being trialed for bedside and mobile imaging of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke.Methods: A prospective convenience study enrolled patients (January 2020 to August 2020) with known stroke to have brain electromagnetic imaging, in addition to usual imaging and medical care. The images are obtained by processing signals from encircling transceiver antennae which emit and detect low energy signals in the microwave frequency spectrum between 0.5 and 2.0 GHz. The purpose of the study was to refine the imaging algorithms.Results: Examples are presented of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke and comparison is made with CT, perfusion and MRI T2 FAIR sequence images.Conclusion: Due to speed of imaging, size and mobility of the device and negligible environmental risks, development of electromagnetic scanning scanner provides a promising additional modality for mobile and bedside neuroimaging.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-10-29
    Description: Posterior circulation involves the vertebrobasilar arteries, which supply oxygen and glucose to vital human brainstem structures and other areas. This complex circulatory- perfusion system is not homogenous throughout the day; rather, its hemodynamic changes rely on physiological demands, ensuring brainstem perfusion. This dynamic autoregulatory pattern maintains cerebral perfusion during blood pressure changes. Accumulative evidence suggests that activity within the autonomic nervous system is involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. Neither the sympathetic nor parasympathetic nervous systems work independently. Functional studies have shown a tight and complicated cross talk between these systems. In pathological processes where sympathetic stimulation is present, systemic vasoconstriction is followed, representing the most important CNS parasympathetic trigger that will promote local vasodilation. Stroke is a clear example of this process. The posterior circulation is affected in 30% of strokes, causing high morbidity and mortality outcomes. Currently, the management of ischemic stroke is focused on thrombolytic treatment and endovascular thrombectomy within an overall tight 4.5 to 6 h ischemic time window. Therefore, the autonomic nervous system could represent a potential therapeutic target to modulate reperfusion after cerebral ischemia through vasodilation, which could potentially decrease infarct size and increase the thrombolytic therapeutic ischemic window. In addition, shifting the autonomic nervous system balance toward its parasympathetic branch has shown to enhance neurogenesis and decrease local inflammation. Regretfully, the vast majority of animal models and human research on neuromodulation during brain ischemia have been focused on anterior circulation with disappointing results. In addition, the source of parasympathetic inputs in the vertebrobasilar system in humans is poorly understood, substantiating a gap and controversy in this area. Here, we reviewed current available literature regarding the parasympathetic vascular function and challenges of its stimulation in the vertebrobasilar system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1664-2295
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Frontiers Media
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