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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Animal behavior ; Animal Physiology ; Neurobiology ; Life sciences ; Animal Physiology ; Biophysics and Biological Physics ; Atmospheric Sciences ; Behavioural Sciences ; Neurobiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Part I. Polarization vision in animals and humans -- Part II. Polarized light in nature with implications to animal polarization vision -- Part III. Practical applications of polarization vision and polarization patterns
    Abstract: This book covers advances made since the 2004 Springer volume “Polarized Light in Animal Vision” edited by Horvath and Varju, but also provides reviews and synopses of some areas. Part I examines polarization sensitivity across many animal taxa including vertebrates and invertebrates and details both terrestrial and aquatic life. Part II is devoted to the description of polarized light in nature and explores how the physics of light must be taken into account when understanding how polarized light is detected by the visual system. This includes underwater polarization due to scattering; polarization patterns reflected from freshwater bodies; polarization characteristics of forest canopies; normal and anomalous polarization patterns of the skies; skylight polarization transmitted through Snell’s window and both linearly and circularly polarized signals produced by terrestrial and aquatic animals. This Part also examines polarized “light pollution” induced by anthropogenic factors such as reflection off asphalt surfaces, glass panes, car bodies, and other man-made structures that are now known to form ecological traps for polarotactic insects. Part III surveys some of the practical applications of polarization vision including polarization-based traps for biting insects, ground-based polarimetric cloud detectors and an historical examination of the navigational abilities of Viking seafarers using the sky polarization compass. The deterrent qualities of ungulate pelage to polarization-sensitive biting insects is also examined in this section
    Pages: XVII, 649 p. 409 illus., 313 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2014.
    ISBN: 9783642547188
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Ophthalmology ; Neurobiology ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Ophthalmology ; Neurobiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Introduction -- 2. Fundamental Retinal Circuitry for Circadian Rhythms -- 3. Circadian photoreception: from phototransduction to behaviour -- 4. Role of Melatonin and Dopamine in the Regulation of Retinal Circadian Rhythms -- 5. Circadian Organization of the Vertebrate Retina -- 6. Rhythmicity of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium -- 7. Retinal Circadian Rhythms in Mammals Revealed Using Electroretinography -- 8. Circadian Clock and Light Induced Retinal Damage -- 9. Circadian Rhythms and Vision in Zebrafish -- 10. Circadian Modulation of the Limulus Eye for Day and Night Vision -- 11. Molluscan Ocular Pacemakers: Lessons Learned. ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗
    Abstract: The retina plays a critical role in the organization of the circadian system by synchronizing the braiń€™s central clock with the external day through transduction of the daily light/dark cycle.℗ However, the substantial variation in luminance imposed on the retina between day and night also poses a challenge to its role as a sensory tissue ́€“ how is it possible to faithfully encode the enormous dynamic range of luminance that can exceed 10 orders of magnitude? The Retina and Circadian Rhythms summarizes the knowledge accumulated over the last 30 years about the organization of the retinal circadian clock in many different species, concentrating on the roles that this circadian system plays in retinal function. About the Series: The Springer Series in Vision Research is a comprehensive update and overview of cutting edge vision research, exploring, in depth, current breakthroughs at a conceptual level. It details the whole visual system, from molecular processes to anatomy, physiology and behavior and covers both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Each book in the Series is aimed at all individuals with interests in vision including advanced graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, established vision scientists and clinical investigators.The series editors are N. Justin Marshall, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia and Shaun P. Collin, Neuroecology Group within the School of Animal Biology and the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia
    Pages: VIII, 238 p. 50 illus., 33 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781461496137
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  • 3
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Cell receptors ; Neurobiology ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Neurobiology ; Receptors ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Introduction: G-protein Signaling in the Retina -- Part One- Phototransduction in Rods and Cones -- 2. G-protein Deactivation Mechanisms in Vertebrate Phototransduction -- 3. Signaling by Rod and Cone Photoreceptors: Opsin Properties, G-protein Assembly and Mechanisms of Activation -- 4. G-protein€“éffector Coupling in the Vertebrate Phototransduction Cascade -- Part II- Inner Retinal GPCR Signaling Pathways -- 5. Interdependence among Members of the mGluR6 G-protein Mediated Signalplex of Retinal Depolarizing Bipolar Cells -- 6. Mechanistic Basis for G-protein Function in ON Bipolar Cells -- 7. Modulation of Trpm1 and the mGluR6 cascade in ON Bipolar Cells -- 8. The Role of Dopamine in Fine-tuning Cone- and Rod-driven Vision -- 9. Regulation of Electrical Synaptic Plasticity in the Retina by G-protein Coupled Receptors -- Part III- Signaling by Photosensitive Ganglion Cells -- 10. The Functional Properties of the G-protein-coupled Receptor melanopsin in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells
    Abstract: We have learned a great deal about the organization and function of GPCR pathways, and the role that they play in vision. The information gained from these studies has provided, and will continue to provide, critical insights to further our understanding of complex GPCR pathways in the central nervous and endocrine systems. In essence, the retina is the first €˜óptogeneticallý€™-driven circuit with clearly understood physiology. Thus, studying GPCR-driven pathways in the retina will likely guide the interpretation of optogenetic experiments, which are increasingly utilized to study central circuits. Collectively, these signaling pathways allow the retina to represent visual space over a wide range of light intensities and to synchronize its function to the day/night cycle. G protein Signaling Mechanisms in the Retina summarizes our current understanding of the organizational principles of GPCR pathways, using insights derived from the study of the retina. The book highlights several G protein signaling cascades, including phototransduction, ON bipolar cell signaling, dopaminergic pathways, and ipRGC signaling
    Pages: VIII, 198 p. 35 illus., 26 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493912186
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  • 4
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Ophthalmology ; Cytology ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Ophthalmology ; Cell Biology ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: Photopigments are molecules that react to light and mediate a number of processes and behaviours in animals. Visual pigments housed within the photoreceptors of the eye, such as the rods and cones in vertebrates are the best known, however, visual pigments are increasingly being found in other tissues, including other retinal cells, the skin and the brain. Other closely related molecules from the G protein family, such as melanopsin mediate light driven processes including circadian rhythmicity and pupil constriction. This Volume examines the enormous diversity of visual pigments and traces the evolution of these G protein coupled receptors in both invertebrates and vertebrates in the context of the visual and non-visual demands dictated by a species’ ecological niche
    Pages: VIII, 276 p. 62 illus., 46 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781461443551
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