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1.
PAPER CURRENT
High angular resolution measurements of the anisotropy of reflectance of sea ice and snow (2018)
Wiley-Blackwell
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: We introduce a new method to determine the anisotropy of reflectance of sea ice and snow at spatial scales from 1 m 2 to 80 m 2 using a multispectral circular fish-eye radiance camera (CE600). The CE600 allows measuring radiance simultaneously in all directions of a hemisphere at a 1°angular resolution. The spectral characteristics of the reflectance and its dependency on illumination conditions obtained from the camera are compared to those obtained with a hyperspectral field spectroradiometer manufactured by Analytical Spectral Device, Inc. (ASD). Results confirm the potential of the CE600, with the suggested measurement set-up and data processing, to measure commensurable sea ice and snow Hemispherical Directional Reflectance Factor, HDRF, values. Compared to the ASD, the reflectance anisotropy measured with the CE600 provides much higher resolution in terms of directional reflectance (N=16020). The hyperangular resolution allows detecting features that were overlooked using the ASD due to its limited number of measurement angles (N = 25). This dataset of HDRF further documents variations in the anisotropy of the reflectance of snow and ice with the geometry of observation and illumination conditions and its spectral and spatial scale dependency. Finally, in order to re-produce the hyperangular CE600 reflectance measurements over the entire 400-900 nm spectral range, a regression based method is proposed to combine the ASD and CE600 measurements. Results confirm that both instruments may be used in synergy to construct a hyperangular and -spectral snow and ice reflectance anisotropy dataset.
Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Inhibition of the FGL2:FcγRIIB/RIII Immunosuppressive Pathway Enhances Antiviral T cell and B Cell Responses Leading to Clearance of LCMV cl-13 (2018)
Wiley-Blackwell
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: Persistent viruses evade immune detection by interfering with virus-specific innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. Fibrinogen-Like Protein-2 (FGL2) is a potent effector molecule of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) and exerts its immunosuppressive activity following ligation to its cognate receptor, Fc γ RIIB/RIII. The role of FGL2 in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infection caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Clone-13 (LCMV cl-13) was assessed in this study. Chronically infected fgl2 +/+ mice had increased plasma levels of FGL2, with reduced expression of the maturation markers, CD80, CD86 and MHC-II on macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) and impaired production of neutralizing antibody. In contrast, fgl2 -/- mice or fgl2 +/+ mice that had been pre-treated with antibodies to FGL2 and Fc γ RIIB/RIII and then infected with LCMV cl-13 developed a robust CD4 + and CD8 + antiviral T cell response, produced high titred neutralizing antibody to LCMV and cleared LCMV. Treatment of mice with established chronic infection with antibodies to FGL2 and Fc γ RIIB/RIII was shown to rescue the number and functionality of virus-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells with reduced total and virus specific T cell expression of PD-1 leading to viral clearance. These results demonstrate an important role for FGL2 in viral immune evasion and provide a rationale to target FGL2 to treat patients with chronic viral infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Print ISSN: 0019-2805
Electronic ISSN: 1365-2567
Topics: Medicine
Published by Wiley-Blackwell
3.
PAPER CURRENT
ALT-803 Transiently Reduces Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in the Absence of Antiretroviral Treatment [Vaccines and Antiviral Agents] (2018)
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: Developing biological interventions to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) could contribute to the development of a functional cure. As a potential alternative to ART, the interleukin-15 (IL-15) superagonist ALT-803 has been shown to boost the number and function of HIV-specific CD8 + T and NK cell populations in vitro . Four simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive rhesus macaques, three of whom possessed major histocompatibility complex alleles associated with control of SIV and all of whom had received SIV vaccine vectors that had the potential to elicit CD8 + T cell responses, were given ALT-803 in three treatment cycles. The first and second cycles of treatment were separated by 2 weeks, while the third cycle was administered after a 29-week break. ALT-803 transiently elevated the total CD8 + effector and central memory T cell and NK cell populations in peripheral blood, while viral loads transiently decreased by ~2 logs in all animals. Virus suppression was not sustained as T cells became less responsive to ALT-803 and waned in numbers. No effect on viral loads was observed in the second cycle of ALT-803, concurrent with downregulation of the IL-2/15 common C and β chain receptors on both CD8 + T cells and NK cells. Furthermore, populations of immunosuppressive T cells increased during the second cycle of ALT-803 treatment. During the third treatment cycle, responsiveness to ALT-803 was restored. CD8 + T cells and NK cells increased again 3- to 5-fold, and viral loads transiently decreased again by 1 to 2 logs. IMPORTANCE Overall, our data show that ALT-803 has the potential to be used as an immunomodulatory agent to elicit effective immune control of HIV/SIV replication. We identify mechanisms to explain why virus control is transient, so that this model can be used to define a clinically appropriate treatment regimen.
Print ISSN: 0022-538X
Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
Topics: Medicine
4.
PAPER CURRENT
Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors [Spotlight] (2018)
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Print ISSN: 0022-538X
Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
Topics: Medicine
5.
PAPER CURRENT
Inotuzumab ozogamicin in older patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: premises and promises (2018)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018 Source: The Lancet Oncology Author(s): Carmelo Rizzari
Print ISSN: 1470-2045
Electronic ISSN: 1474-5488
Topics: Medicine
Published by Elsevier
6.
PAPER CURRENT
What are the Outcomes of Declining a PHS Increased Risk Liver Donor for Patients on the Liver Transplant Waiting List? (2018)
Wiley-Blackwell
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: ABSTRACT Introduction : The tragedy of the national opioid epidemic has resulted in a significant increase in the number of opioid related deaths and accordingly an increase in the number of potential donors designated PHS increased risk. Previous studies have demonstrated reluctance to utilize these PHS organs and as a result, higher discard rates for these organs have been observed. Methods : All patients listed for LT in the United States from January 2005 to December 2016 were investigated. Patients on the waiting list were divided into 2 groups, those in which a PHS liver was used for transplantation (Accepted PHS Group) and those in which a PHS liver was declined and transplanted into a recipient lower on the match run (Declined PHS Group). Results : Intention to treat patient survival from the time of PHS offer was significantly higher in the Accepted PHS compared to the Declined PHS group (p<0.001). After adjustment on Cox multivariate regression declining a PHS donor liver was associated with a HR of 2.35(CI 2.23-2.49)(p <0.001). For patients in which a PHS organ offer was declined, 11.6% died or were delisted for being too sick within the subsequent year. Donor liver allografts implanted in the Accepted PHS group were of a lower DRI (1.28 vs 1.44) compared to the non-PHS organs that patients in the Decline PHS group ultimately received if they were transplanted. Conclusion : There is a significantly higher survival for patients in which a PHS liver is accepted and utilized compared to those patients in which a PHS organ is declined. These data will help inform decisions about whether or not to accept a PHS donor liver for both patients and transplant professionals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Print ISSN: 1527-6465
Electronic ISSN: 1527-6473
Topics: Medicine
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Pulmonary aspergilloma mimicking synchronous lung cancer on PET/CT in a patient with head and neck cancer (2018)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018 Source: Lung Cancer Author(s): Luis Gorospe, Paola Arrieta, Odile Ajuria-Illarramendi, Ignacio Barbolla-Díaz, Gemma María Muñoz-molina, Ana Gómez-Rueda, Nicolás Moreno-Mata
Print ISSN: 0169-5002
Electronic ISSN: 1872-8332
Topics: Medicine
Published by Elsevier
8.
PAPER CURRENT
(Z)-2-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-3-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)Acrylonitrile Exhibits Selective Antitumor Activity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway [Articles] (2018)
The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: We have previously reported the synthesis and breast cancer selectivity of ( Z )-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(1 H -pyrrol-2-yl)acrylonitrile (ANI-7) in cancer cell lines. To further evaluate the selectivity of ANI-7, we have expanded upon the initial cell line panel to now include the breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MCF7/VP16, BT474, T47D, ZR-75-1, SKBR3, MDA-MB-468, BT20, MDA-MB-231); normal breast cells (MCF-10A); and cell lines derived from colon (HT29), ovarian (A2780), lung (H460), skin (A431), neuronal (BE2C), glial (U87, SJG2), and pancreatic (MIA) cancers. We now show that ANI-7 is up to 263-fold more potent at inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MCF7/VP16, BT474, T47D, ZR-75-1, SKBR3, MDA-MB-468) than normal breast cells (MCF-10A) or cell lines derived from other tumor types. Measures of growth inhibition, cell cycle analysis, morphologic assessment, Western blotting, receptor binding, gene expression, small interfering RNA technology, reporter activity, and enzyme inhibition assays were exploited to define the mechanism of action of ANI-7. In this work, we report that ANI-7 mediates its effects via the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway and the subsequent induction of CYP1-metabolizing mono-oxygenases. The metabolic conversion of ANI-7 induces DNA damage, checkpoint activation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and cell death in sensitive breast cancer cell lines. Basal expression of AhR, the AhR nuclear translocator, and the CYP1 family members do not predict for sensitivity; however, inherent expression of the phase II–metabolizing enzyme sulfur transferase 1A1 does. For the first time, we identify ( Z )-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(1 H -pyrrol-2-yl)acrylonitrile as a new AhR ligand.
Print ISSN: 0026-895X
Electronic ISSN: 1521-0111
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: Oxidation of SQSTM1/p62 mediates the link between redox state and protein homeostasis Oxidation of SQSTM1/p62 mediates the link between redox state and protein homeostasis, Published online: 17 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02746-z The cellular mechanisms underlying autophagy are conserved; however it is unclear how they evolved in higher organisms. Here the authors identify two oxidation-sensitive cysteine residues in the autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 in vertebrates which allow activation of pro-survival autophagy in stress conditions.
Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Pteropods counter mechanical damage and dissolution through extensive shell repair (2018)
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Publication Date: 2018-01-18
Description: Pteropods counter mechanical damage and dissolution through extensive shell repair Pteropods counter mechanical damage and dissolution through extensive shell repair, Published online: 17 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02692-w Sea butterflies, or pteropods, are often presented as being at threat from ocean acidification on account of their fragile shells being susceptible to dissolution. Here the authors show that pteropods are able to perform extensive repair to damaged shells, suggesting they may not be as vulnerable as previously thought.
Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics