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  • 2000-2004
  • 1995-1999
  • 1950-1954  (78)
  • 1952  (78)
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  • 2000-2004
  • 1995-1999
  • 1950-1954  (78)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary An X-Band Radar is operating since 1949 at the «Musée Océanographique». It has been used extensively for the observation of meteorological echoes and of sea echoes. Many photographical records have been made. Echoes have been observed without any cloud reporting to.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 21 (1952), S. 43-48 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The first three harmonic components of the annual variation of the atmospheric pressure have been calculated on the basis of their respective monthly averages for 52 localities on the basin of the Mediterranean and adjoining regions. The repartition of the values of the first harmonic component allows the deduction that from the climatic point of view, the basin of the Mediterranean can be divided into five parts, each one having different characteristics compared to the movement under consideration.
    Notes: Riassunto Per 52 località del Bacino del Mediterraneo ed adiacenze sono state calcolate le prime tre componenti armoniche dell'andamento annuo della pressione atmosferica in base alle rispettive medie mensili. La distribuzione dei valori della prima armonica permette di dedurre che dal punto di vista climatico il Bacino del Mediterraneo può venir distinto in cinque parti, aventi ciascuna caratteristiche diverse nei confronti dell'andamento considerato.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Mean values of the angle of inclination between the mean vector surface wind and the mean isobars have been calculated as a function of latitude for a number of independent Marsden squares over the ocean. Mean values of the ratio between the mean vector surface wind velocity and the calculated geostrophic wind velocity have been computed in the same way. Some general inferences about the general circulation have been drawn from the results.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Conclusions Importance pour l'économie mondiale du problème de la connaissance des vents en altitude et necessité de la collaboration des organisations scientifiques. Suggestions pour un plan de travail des Etats: a) extension au sol du réseau aérologique mondial tout spécialement dans l'hémisphère sud. b) utilisation des déplacements de navires spécialement équipés pour la télémetrie des radio-sondes. c) exploitation systématique des anciens journaux de navigation pour connaître les positions des cirrus. d) observation généralisée des cirrus par les navires et les stations au sol actuelles: directives correspondantes à donner par les Amirautés et les Marines Marchandes. e) préparation en 1953 de journées mondiales d'observations aérologiques spécialement dans l'hémisphère sud. f) collationnement des résultats: établissement généralisé de pilot charts. analogues aux cartes ≪upper air≫ américaines, leur extension systématique. g) rôle de l'Organisation Météorologique Mondiale et de l'Union géodésique et géophysique internationale pour l'organisation du plan de travail et l'exploitation des résultats obtenus.
    Notes: Summary About the middle of the 19th century, clipper sailing made astouding progress, owing toMaury's famous works on surface winds. These works, kept up to date and constantly perfected since, were to lead to the American ≪Pilots Charts≫ known to-day. — We are at present perfectly acquainted with the high altitude winds in the medium range of the Northern hemisphere, since modern flying tends more and more to adopt the isobaric method. As for the Southern hemisphere, our aerological knowledge, although obtained from theoretical studies and from a few isolated measurements remains very incomplete. However, it seems practically certain that air currents and the ≪Jet Stream≫ do exist, with strong and very regular Western components. — In practice, this means that in view of the gradual decrease of sea travel and of the generalisation of high altitude flying exact knowledge of air currents becomes indispensable: the working conclusions of this point will be found at the end of this communication. — For example, it is already an evident fact that the route from Europe to Australia will lie via South Africa and the Kerguelen Islands, and no longer via India. More generally speaking, a kind of one-way route will appear in the Southern hemisphere on the level of 34° South, as shown by our sketches, and we suggest that this migh be called the ≪Southern Circus≫.
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  • 5
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    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 21 (1952), S. 58-62 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The frequency of mist and fog over the Eastern Mediterranean generally shows a maximum in the warm season and a minimum in winter. It is also less on the African coats than on the northern shores. In the warm season visibility may also deteriorate as a result of the spreading out of heat-haze, notably by midday, or by dust-haze. An outline of the distributions favouring these weather features has been given. It has also been shown that apart from these features, visibility may deteriorate as a result of suspended dust blown from the African deserts by southerly winds in front of travelling depressions in winter or in spring. Visibility may also deteriorate as a result of heavy precipitation in a ≪Cyprus low≫ in winter.
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  • 6
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    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 21 (1952), S. 41-42 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Measure of the distance of the frankly visible horizon of the sea is a good method for estimate the visibility at sea.
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  • 7
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    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 21 (1952), S. 1-6 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
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    Pure and applied geophysics 21 (1952), S. 19-31 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary By the German Atlantic Expedition on the «Meteor», 1925–1927, and the marine-aerological work of the Deutsche Seewarte numerous upper air wind measurements were gained from the Atlantic. The evaluation of this material for the area in the south of 20° northern latitude and of the measurements up to 1937 is done within the scale of the «Meteorwerk», vol. XVI as a continuation of vol. XV. In consequence of war events and the difficulties of the time after the war the publication has been delayed considerably. For the information on hand, some partial results are selected which refer to the route to South America; as a contribution for gaining necessaryquantitative data on the general circulation. For the levels 4–5, 9–10, and 14–15 km the average wind elements and the dispersion of the wind velocities are treated. The stratification of air currents in the vertical profile of the route is given for the height of 0–15 km. It is entered into particulars of the structure of the «Urpassat» (tropical easterlies), and the tropical West-wind layer of the upper troposphere in various seasons.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Durch die Deutsche Atlantische Expedition auf «Meteor» 1925–27 und das maritim-aerologische Werk der Deutschen Seewarte wurden zahlreiche Höhenwindmessungen auf dem Atlantischen Ozean gewonnen. Die Bearbeitung dieses Materials, für das Gebiet südlich von 20° Nordbreite und die Messungen bis 1937, geschieht im Rahmen des Meteorwerkes, in Band XVI als Fortsetzung von Band XV-Kriegsereignisse und Schwierigkeiten der Nachkriegszeit haben die Veröffentlichung leider stark verzögert. Für die vorliegende Mitteilung werden einige Teilergebnisse ausgewählt, die sich auf den Seeweg nach Südamerika beziehen; als Beitrag zur Gewinnung erforderlicher quantitativer Daten über die allgemeine Zirkulation. Für die Höhenstufen 4–5, 9–10 und 14–15 km werden die mittleren Windelemente und die Streuung der Windgeschwindigkeiten behandelt. Es wird die Schichtung der Luftströmungen im Vertikalprofil des Seeweges für 0–15 km Höhe gegeben. Auf die Struktur des Urpassates (der tropischen Ostströmung) und der tropischen Westwindschicht der hohen Troposphäre in den verschiedenen Jahreszeiten wird näher eingegangen.
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  • 9
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    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 21 (1952), S. 32-38 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Für die Jahre 1949 und 1950 wurde der Einfluss der über dem Golf von Genua gelegenen Depressionen auf das Wetter im Kanton Tessin (Alpensüdfuss) untersucht. Die wichtigsten Resultate sind die folgenden: Liegt über den Alpen eine orographische Warmfront, so verursachen die Genuadepressionen in allen Fällen Niederschläge. Niederschlag oder Bewölkungszunahme ist zu erwarten, wenn die Genuazyklone mit einem Frontensystem über dem westlichen Mittelmeer oder Italien verbunden ist. Für alle Wetterlagen gilt: Befindet sich der Kanton Tessin auf der Vorderseite eines Höhentroges, so bewirkt die Genuadepression maximale Niederschläge.
    Abstract: Riassunto Per gli anni 1949 e 1950 si analizza l'azione che ebbero sul tempo del Canton Ticino (Svizzera Italiana) le depressioni situate sul Golfo di Genova. Quali risultati più importanti si citano: influenza di tutte le depressioni collegate alla formazione di un fronte caldo orografico sulle Alpi, influenza di quasi tutte le depressioni con sistemi frontali distinti e situati sul Mediterraneo occidentale o l'Italia. Inoltre, per le condizioni in quota, le massime precipitazioni causate da queste depressioni si hanno quando il versante sudalpino si trova davanti al canale depressionario d'altitudine.
    Notes: Summary In the present paper results of researches carried out for the years 1949 and 1950 relative to the influence of the Genua-cyclone on the weather in the Southern part of Switzerland, more exactly in the Canton Ticino are presented. They are as follows: When an orographic warm-front lies over the Alps, the depression of Genova causes precipitations in every case. Precipitations and an increase of clouds are to be expected, when the Genua-cyclone is connected with a front-system over the Western Mediterranean or Italy. For all weather situations this rule holds good: Whenever the Canton Ticino lies on the fore part of an upper trough, the depression of Genova causes very heavy precipitations.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Recent research, and particularly that undertaken by the «Kieler Institut für Meereskunde», has suggested a re-examination of the water households of both the Mediterranean and the Baltic Seas. It is hoped that a comparative study of the two may contribute to a better understanding of the maritim-meteorological and oceanographic characteristics of either sea. The latest rain maps byW. Daume, F. Möller, andW. Brogmus show an average annual amount of rainfall of 345 mm in the Mediterranean, and 474 mm in the Baltic. In both cases these figures are roughly 15 per cent lower than what authors have so far assumed them to be. The figures for the fresh-water sypply from the land have also been revised in recent publications byDaume andBrogmus, the annual figures for the Mediterranean being 350 km3 (i. e. 129mm in hight), while the annual figure for the Baltic is 480 km3 (i. e. 1243 mm in hight). These figures have been used together with recent, but still largely hypothetical, figures for the difference between in- and outflow at the straits (Gibraltar, Bosphorus, the Belts, and the Sound), to calculate the evaporation from the basic water-household equation. The annual evaporation figure is 1450 mm for the Mediterranean, and only 473 mm for the Baltic. Again, these figures differ from former estimates, but they are confirmed by other considerations, and calculations of maritime meteorology. It is with these new figures in mind that the author finally goes into the question of the hydrographic and climatic effects of a damming-up of the above-mentioned straits.Soergel's fantastic «Atlantropa» project, already criticised bytroll, van Einerm andDaume, is briefly treated from the point of view of the water household and is found to be largely impracticable. It is pointed out that the systematic collection of further information on the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the two seas is urgently needed for the sake of further reducing the margin of error in the above calculations.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Auf Grund neuerer, besonders auch im Kieler Institut für Meereskunde durchgeführter Untersuchungen wird der Versuch gemacht, die Wasserhaushalte des Mittelländischen Meeres und der Ostsee einer Revision zu unterziehen und durch eine vergleichende Betrachtung zu einem vertieften Verständnis der maritim-meteorologischen und ozeanographischen Besonderheiten beider meere beizutragen. Aus neuen Regenkarten vonW. Daume, F. Möller undW. Brogmus ergibt sich die mittlere Niederschlagshöhe für das Mittelmeer zu 345 mm/Jahr und für die Ostsee zu 474 mm/Jahr, das sind in beiden Fällen um rd. 15% niedrigere Werte, als frühere Autoren vermuteten. Auch für die Süßwasserzufuhr vom Lande werden im Anschluss an die neuen Arbeiten vonDaume undBrogmus neue Zahlen geboten: für das Mittelmeer 350 km3/Jahr (=129 mm/Jahr Wasserhöhe), für die Ostsee hingegen 480 km3/Jahr (=1243 mm/Jahr Wasserhöhe). Unter Benutzung dieser Zahlen und neuerer z.T. zwar noch sehr hypothetischer Angaben über die Differenz von Ausstrom und Einstrom in den ozeanischen Verbindungsstraßen (Straße von Gibraltar, Bosporus, Belte und Sund) wird die Verdunstung aus der Grundgleichung des Wasserhaushaltes rechnerisch ermittelt und für das Mittelmeer zu 1450 mm/Jahr, für die Ostsee hingegen zu nur 473 mm/Jahr gefunden, Werte, die von früheren Schätzungen abweichen, aber auch durch andere maritim- meteorologische Ueberlegungen und Berechnungen gestützt werden können. Zum Schluss wird die Frage der hydrographischen und klimatischen Auswirkung der Abdämmung der genannten Meeresengen vom Standpunkte dieser neuen Wasserbilanzen kritisch geprüft. Das phantastische «Atlantropa»-ProjektSoergels wird im Anschluss an die kritischen Betrachtungen vonTroll, van Einerm undDaume vom Standpunkte des Wasserhaushalts kurz beleuchtet und seine Durchfürhung in grossen Teilen als unmöglich angesehen. Weitere systematische maritimmeteorologische und ozeanographische Beobachtungen werden für beide Nebenmeere als dringend erwünscht bezeichnet, um die in dem Bilanzen noch bestehenden Unsicherheiten weiter zu verringern.
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