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  • 1995-1999
  • 1950-1954  (68)
  • 1953  (68)
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Publisher
Years
  • 1995-1999
  • 1950-1954  (68)
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary In some modern procedures for the study of gravity anomalies, the divergence of the surface gradient of gravity (second differential parameter ofBeltrami) on a level surface is considered. Such divergence is connected with the geometrical and dynamical elements of the field by simple relations, in particular to with second derivatives of gravity along the lines of force. In the present paper the general formulae are applied toSomigliana's field referred to its intrinsic coordinates, and the values of the surface divergence and other elements of the normal field are given from 10° in 10° in latitude.
    Notes: Sommario In alcuni moderni procedimenti per lo studio delle anomalie della gravità figura come elemento essenziale la divergenza del gradiente superficiale del modulo della gravità (secondo parametro differenziale diBeltrami) su di una superficie di livello del campo. Tale divergenza è espressa semplicemente mediante gli elementi geometrici e dinamici del campo, in particolare mediante le derivate seconde del modulo della gravità secondo le linee di forza. Nella presente Nota si applicano le formule generali al campo diSomigliana, riferito alle sue coordinate intrinseche e si calcolano i valori numerici di tale divergenza e di altri elementi del campo normale, di 10° in 10° di latitudine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 13-16 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Propagation of Rayleigh type waves in soils is considered in this paper. It is a well known fact that soils do not behave like an ordinary isotropic elastic medium where the ratio of Young's modulus to the modulus of rigidity is much less than that in sandy soils. Considering the velocity of Rayleigh type wave as less than that of distortional wave (which is an observed fact) a probable value of this ratio is determined, and also assuming the value of this ratio based on some experimental data, the velocity of wave propagation in the medium is deduced.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary A typical disturbance observed in the records of tilt measurements performed with horizontal pendulums in a mine at a depth of 145 m below surface, under very constant temperature conditions, has been analysed as to its correlation with the barometric pressure distribution. It is shown that the observed load tilts are not due to elastic deformations of the Earth's crust, but may be ascribed to movements of tectonic blocks of large extension.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 61-70 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The collecting of electrical charge by single waterdrops is experimentally examined. The drops fall freely through ionized air in the presence of electrical fields between 0 and 120 V/cm. Only drops with a radius of 1.30 mm are used. The electrical charge is measured by induction-ring and electronic amplifier previously described in connection with Cathode-Ray Oszillograph and recording Bifilar-Oszillograph. It is shown, that the rate of collecting of charge as well as the final charge gained are in accordance with the theory ofWhipple andChalmers. An experimental examination of the theorie of thunderstorm-electricity by ion absorption given byFrenkel becomes possible.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird die elektrische Aufladung einzelner, in ionisierter Luft frei fallender Wassertropfen experimentell untersucht, und zwar bei elektrischen Feldstärken zwischen 0 und 120 Volt/cm. Der Radius der untersuchten Wassertropfen beträgt 1.30 mm. Die elektrische Ladung wird durch Influenzring und hochohmige Röhrenvoltmeter in Verbindung mit Kathodenstrahloszillograph und Schleifenoszillograph gemessen. Es zeigt sich, dass der zeitliche Verlauf der Aufladung und die erreichte Grenzlandung mit der Theorie vonWhipple undChalmers in Einklang stehen. Auch zu der vonFrenkel angegebenen Theorie der Gewitterlektrizität durch Ionenabsorption wird eine experimentelle Aussage möglich.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 83-91 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A description is given for two patterns of a mechanically indicating anemograph for slight winds combined with a thermo-hygrograph. To measure the velocity of wind pressure plates are employed: the first pattern according to the principle ofWild, at the second one plates turning round vertical axes. A method is proposed to record all elements rectilinear on the drum of a self-recording instrument.
    Abstract: Résumé Deux modèles d'anémomètre indiquant les vents faibles, combinées avec un thermo-hygromètre enregistreur, sont décrites. Comme indicateur de la vitesse du vent, des plaques à pression sont employées: dans la première forme selon le principe deWild, tandis que dans la seconde forme les plaques tournent autour des axes verticals. Une construction est proposée pour deplacer les styles en ligne droite sur le cylindre enregistreur au but de représenter plusieurs éléments en même temps.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden zwei Formen eines mechanischen Windschreibers für schwache Winde in Kombination mit Thermohygrographen beschrieben. Als Messorgane für die Geschwindigkeit sind Druckplatten verwendet: in der ersten Form nach demWild'schen Prinzip, in der zweiten als Schwenkplatten um senkrechte Achsen. Für die Registrierung mehrerer Elemente auf einer Schreibtrommel wird eine geeignete Geradführung der Schreibstifte vorgeschlagen.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 92-100 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The blocking action of the west wind drift occurs with maximum frequency between 0 and 20° E, especially between October and April. The corresponding area of convergence lies most frequently between 40 and 60° E. The shifting of the point of divergence is indipendent of that of the point of convergence and also indipendent of the maximum wind speed before the point of divergence. A shifting of the divergence towards the north seems to correspond to a slight shifting of the block to the east, while a displacement of the convergence towards the east is coupled with a shifting to the south. Two examples show that the ridges and troughs belonging to one block move independently of each other; the waves af the northern part differ from those of the southern in speed and wavelength. It is therefore difficult to explain them as waves of a single jet stream. It has been attempted to treat them as separate and belonging to a polar current and an equatorial current asRaethjen does.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Blockierung der Westwinddrift findet mit einer maximalen Häufigkeit zwischen 0 und 20° E statt und zwar besonders in den Monaten Oktober bis April. Das zugehörige Konvergenzgebiet liegt am häufigsten zwischen 40 und 60° E. Die Verlagerung des Divergenzpunktes ist unabhängig von derjenigen des Konvergenzpunktes und auch unabhängig von der maximalen Windgeschwindigkeit vor dem Divergenzpunkt. Einer Verlagerung der Divergenz nach Osten scheint eine schwache Verlagerung des Blocks nach Norden zu entsprechen, einer Verlagerung des Konvergenzpunktes nach Osten dagegen eine schwache Verschiebung desselben nach Süden. An zwei Beispielen wird gezeigt, daß die zu einem Block gehörigen Rücken und Tröge sich unabhängig voneinander bewegen; die Wellen des Nordteiles eines Blockes unterscheiden sich von denen des Südteiles hinsichtlich der Geschwindigkeit und der Wellenlänge. Ihre Deutung als Wellen eines einzigen Westwindbandes ist dadurch schwer. Es wird versucht, sie getrennt als zugehörig zu einem Polarstrom und einem Aequatorialstrom im SinneP. Raethjens zu verstehen.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 101-113 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The propagation speed of sinoidal troughs and wedges in a steady state flow is determined from consideration of the mass transport due to the bodily motion of the system. Fundamental propositions are established regarding the mutual motion of wind-, pressure-, temperature-, and density-fields. It is found that in a frictionless barotropic general flow, all perturbations are propagated with the same speed—the speed of the general current. In a baroclinic general flow a perturbation will only be propagated without dispersion if it has a specific (sinoidal) horizontal structure. When a sinoidal perturbation is embedded in a baroclinic general flow-field, it will be propagated as though by a barotropic flow with the sameeffective speed. The effective speed can be computed when the vertical structure of the perturbation and of the mean flow are known. It is frequently assumed that the speed of mean flow at some particular level (500 mb is often assumed) gives the «steering» of the surface perturbation by a baroclinic general flow, that is to say, a baroclinic flow steers a perturbation with the speed of an equivalent barotropic field. The present paper provides a rational basis for the concept of an equivalent barotropic flow, but it is to be remembered that the «steering level» does not depend uniquely on the vertical structure of the mean flow-field, but varies from perturbation to perturbation, being lower for shallow perturbations than for (vertically) deep ones.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 135-140 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Unpublished observations allow the etablishment of a new cross section of the thunderstorm frequency in the western Alps of Switzerland. The number of thunderstorm days is much more frequent than has yet been admitted, diminishing from the outer towards the inner region of the alpine massive as far as the extreme southern chain. Some statistics record the diurnal and annual variations of the activity of thunderstorms in Valais.
    Notes: Résumé Des observations inédites permettent d'établir un nouveau profil des fréquences orageuses dans les Alpes occidentales de la Suisse. Le nombre de jours d'orage, notablement plus élevé qu'on ne l'admettait jusqu'ici, décroit de l'extérieur vers l'intérieur du massif alpin et jusque dans sa chaine la plus méridionale. Quelques données numériques documentent la variation diurne et annuelle de l'activité orageuse en Valais.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 25 (1953), S. 123-129 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Complying with the proposals of the Committee on Mean Sea Level of the International Association of Physical Oceanography, they were calculated, by the least square method; the values of the secular variation and of the standard deviation of the mean sea levels of eleven Italian stations. The mean value of the variation for the Italian seas corresponds to an encrease of 16 cm/100 years of the sea level; that of the whole seas of the Earth is of 11 cm/100 years. The highest value for the Italian seas it is due to a contemporaneous sinking of Neaple and Venice coasts.
    Notes: Riassunto Aderendo alle proposte del Comitato del Livello Medio Marino della Associazione Internazionale di Oceanografia Fisica, sono stati calcolati, col metodo dei minimi quadrati, i valori dellavariazione secolare e dellavariazione standard dei livelli medi marini relativi ad 11 porti italiani. Il valore medio della variazione per i mari italiani corrisponde ad un aumento del livello marino di 16 cm/secolo, quello di tutti i mari della Terra è di 11 cm/secolo. La differenza in più per i mari italiani è dovuta ad un contemporaneo abbassamento delle zone costiere di Napoli e di Venezia.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary 1) During the construction of the Limberg Dam in Kapran a space of approximately half a Million cubic metres was consolidated by injections. Approximately 72 % of these injections were controlled by geoelectrical method. 2) The calculations were based on the theory byLorenz-Lorentz, the usefulness of which was demonstrated by those experiments. 3) The final results of altogether 7704 metres electrical controlled injections which were carried out in the subsoil of the Limberg Dam, show that the electrical calculated results are in good accordance with the mechanical results.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Beim Bau der Limbergsperre in Kaprun wurde ein Raum von ungefälur einer halben Million ina durch Injecktionen verfestigt. Von diesen Injektionen wurden ungefähr 72 % geolectrisch kontrolliert. - 2. Der Berechnung wurde die Mischtheorie vonLonrenz-Lorentz zugrundegelegt, deren Brauchbarkeit durch diesen Grossversuch bewiesen wurde. - 3. Die Schlussauswertung von insgesamt. 7704 m eletrisch kontroliertern Injektionsbohrungen, die in Untergrund der Limbergsperre durchgeführt wurden, zeigt, dass die elecktrisch berechneten Resultate mit den mechanisch ermittelten gut übereinstimmen.
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