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  • Mouse  (14)
  • Springer  (14)
  • 1970-1974  (14)
  • 1971  (14)
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  • Springer  (14)
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  • 1970-1974  (14)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 27 (1971), S. 173-186 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Tetramethyl-thiuram Disulphide (Thiram TMTD) ; Mouse ; Skeletal Malformations ; Stage Specificity ; Cleft Palate ; Tetramethylthiuramdisulfid (Thiram, TMTD) ; Maus ; Skeletmißbildungen ; Stadienspezifität ; Gaumenspalten
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den vorliegenden Untersuchungen wurden gravide Mäuseweibchen der Stämme NMRI und SW sowohl vom 6.–17. Trächtigkeitstag als auch während bestimmter Abschnitte der Gestation oral mit verschiedenen, für das Muttertier untoxischen Dosen (5–30 mg/Tier) von Tetramethylthiuramdisulfid (Thiram, TMTD) behandelt. Neben vermehrten Fruchtresorptionen und deutlichen Entwicklungsverzögerungen konnte bei beiden Stämmen in Abhängigkeit von der Konzentration ein für das Thiram charakteristisches Mißbildungssyndrom des Skelets (Gaumenspalten, gewellte Rippen, Verbiegungen der Extremitätenknochen, Mikrognathien) festgestellt werden. Außerdem war es anhand der unterschiedlichen Applikationszeitpunkte möglich, stadienspezifische Wirkungen zu ermitteln, wobei sich der 12. und 13. Tag der Keimesentwicklung als empfindlichster Abschnitt erwies. Hinsichtlich der Auslösung von Gaumenspalten zeigte sich der NMRI-Stamm wesentlich empfindlicher als der SW-Stamm. Als teratogen unwirksame Dosis sind für die Maus etwa 250 mg/kg anzusehen.
    Notes: Abstract In the studies described, pregnant female mice of the NMRI and SW strains were treated between the 6th and 17th day of pregnancy as well as during certain other periods of gestation with tetramethyl-thiuram disulphide (thiram, TMTD) in oral doses that were non-toxic 5–30 mg/animal) for adult animals. In addition to increased resorption of embryos and clearly retarded fetal development, a syndrome of skeletal malformations (cleft platae, “wavy” ribs, curved long bones of the extremities, and micrognathia) characteristic of thiram and related to concentration could be observed in both strains. Furthermore, varying times of application allowed for a determination of stage-specific effects. The 12th and 13th day of embryonic development proved to be the most susceptible phase. There was a considerably higher succeptibility of the NMRI than SW strain with regard to the induction of cleft palates. The teratogenically ineffective dose for mice is considered to be approx. 250 mg/kg.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Adrenal gland ; Juxtamedullary X-zone ; Mouse ; Autoradiography ; L-cysteine-S35
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Verhalten der juxtamedullären X-Zone in der Nebennierenrinde der Maus wurde an 22 weiblichen und 20 männlichen Versuchstieren unter normalen und experimentellen Bedingungen untersucht. Lichtmikroskopisch und autoradiographisch zeigte sich ein geschlechtsspezifisches Verhalten der juxtamedullären X-Zone. Folgende Ergebnisse wurden erhalten. 1. Geschlechtsreife virginelle und nicht geschlechtsreife Mäuse beiderlei Geschlechts besitzen eine juxtamedulläre X-Zone. Autoradiographisch kommt diese Zone durch einen erhöhten Einbau von L-Cystein-S35 selektiv zur Darstellung. Die Nebennieren erwachsener männlicher Mäuse enthalten die juxtamedulläre X-Zone nicht. 2. Bei erwachsenen männlichen Mäusen, welche im Alter von 7 Tagen testektomiert wurden, persistiert die juxtamedulläre X-Zone noch nach 120 Tagen. 3. Testosteron-Injektionen bewirken sowohl bei erwachsenen virginellen als auch bei den testektomierten Mäusen eine Suppression der juxtamedullären X-Zone. 4. Die Korrelation von histologischer und autoradiographischer Darstellung wird als Beweis dafür gewertet, daß die bevorzugte Aufnahme von Cysteinschwefel eine Eigenschaft der juxtamedullären X-Zone ist. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Schwefelmarkierung und Sulfatierung androgener Steroid-hormone in der juxtamedullären X-Zone wird diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary In the adrenal cortex of the mouse the juxtamedullary X-Zone was investigated under normal and experimental conditions. In 22 female and 20 male mice both light microscopy and autoradiography revealed a sex-specific behaviour of the X-zone. The following findings were obtained: 1. Mature virgin mice and immature mice of both sexes possess a juxtamedullary X-zone. In autoradiographs this zone stands out because of an enhanced incorporation of L-cysteine-S35. The juxtamedullary X-zone is not present in the adrenals of untreated, normal adult male mice. 2. In adult male mice castrated at the age of seven days, the X-zone persists even after 120 days following castration, and has the same morphological aspect as that of virgin female mice. 3. Injections of testosterone cause a suppression of the juxtamedullary X-zone, both in adult virgin and in castrated male mice. 4. The correlation between histological and autoradiographical findings provides evidence that one property of the juxtamedullary X-zone is the preferential incorporation of labelled sulphur from the injected cysteine. The relationship between sulphur labelling and sulphurization of androgen steroid hormones in the juxtamedullary X-zone is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Female genitalia ; Vagina ; Cell differentiation ; Pinocytosis ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The mouse vaginal anlage consists of an anterior müllerian part and a posterior part derived from the urogenital sinus: the sinus vagina. Ultrastructural differences between the two parts have been studied. In contrast to the epithelial cells of the müllerian vagina, the cells of the sinus vagina at birth develop a basal cortical zone against the stroma border. Invaginations of the basal cell membrane enter the cortical zone, and minute vesicles are separated off. The sinus vagina has no typical basal lamina. During the postnatal period, the epithelia of both vaginal parts converge into a uniform immature epithelium with a distinct basal lamina. The morphological findings are related to other results concerning the vaginal epithelium.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 133 (1971), S. 305-317 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Sympathetic Nervous System ; Mouse ; Development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The first visible primordia of the sympathetic chain appear in the anterior thoracic region and run caudally through 8 segments in an embryo of 11 gestation days. At 12 gestation days the trunk reaches from the base of the skull into the sacral region. During the following days the trunk develops into ganglia with interganglionic fibers. At 16 gestation days there is a well developed trunk with a cranial ganglion cervicale superior and a ganglion stellatum in the anterior part of the thoracic region. In the remaining sympathetic chain there are segmentally arranged ganglia but in this common pattern large differences are noticed. At the 13th gestation day the first signs of the adrenal medulla and the splanchnic plexus appear in the form of sympathoblasts ventral to the sympathetic chain. The migration of sympathoblasts into the primordia of the adrenal cortex goes on for 3 days while the migration to the splancnic plexus in the mesenchym ventral and lateral to the aorta goes on at least 2 more days.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Retrograde Nerve Cell Reaction ; Regeneration ; Degeneration ; Facial Nucleus ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Nervenzellveränderungen im Facialiskern von Mäusen wurden nach Quetschung und kompletter Durchtrennung des N. facialis untersucht. Die Läsionen waren von kompletter Nervenzellregeneration bzw. ausgedehnter Nervenzelldesintegration gefolgt. Lichtoptische Untersuchungen zeigten Zerstreuung der Nissl-Substanz ab dem 1. Tage nach beiden Läsionsformen; Zunahme der Cytoplasmabasophilie in der 1. Woche. Nach Quetschung begann die Nissl-Substanz nach 1 Woche wieder aufzutreten, und nach 30 Tagen waren die Neuronen wieder regelrecht. Nach Nervendurchtrennung blieb die basophile Substanz zerstreut. Es kam zum langsamen Verschwinden der Basophilie und zum Untergang der meisten Zellen 14–60 Tage nach der Läsion. Die ultrastrukturellen Veränderungen waren in den ersten Tagen nach beiden Läsionen identisch: Die aus parallelen Zisternen des granulären EPR und Haufen freier Ribosomen zwischen Lamellen bestehenden Nissl-Körper wurden durch kurze Segmente granulären EPR und freie Ribosomenhaufen im gesamten Cytoplasma ersetzt. Nach Quetschung fanden sich keine Veränderungen an anderen Zellorganellen. Die Nissl-Körper traten nach 1 Woche wieder auf. Es wird vermutet, daß die Dispersion und Neubildung der Nissl-Substanz nicht durch einen massiven Austausch von Organellen, sondern eher durch einfache Verteilung der Membranen und Ribosomenhaufen sowie eine Neuordnung dieser Strukturen während der Erholungsperiode beding ist. Nach Nervendurchtrennung bleibt das EPR verstreut, ohne daß weitere Veränderungen bis kurz vor der Desintegration auftreten. Später zeigt das Cytoplasma eindeutige Degenerationszeichen. Die Neurone werden schließlich durch Phagocytose durch Mikrogliazellen entfernt.
    Notes: Summary The neuronal changes were studied in the facial nucleus of mice after crush lesions and complete section of the facial nerve. These lesions were followed by complete nerve cell regeneration and extensive nerve cell disintegration, respectively. Light microscopical examination showed dispersion of the Nissl substance from the first day after both types of lesion, and the cytoplasmic basophilia increased during the first week. After crush lesions the Nissl substance began to reappear after one week, and after 30 days the neurons again were normal. After section of the nerve the basophilic substance remained dispersed and there was a slow depletion of the basophilia until the majority of the cells disappeared between 14 and 60 days after the lesion. The ultrastructural changes were identical during the first days after both types of lesion: The Nissl bodies, which consisted of parallel cisterns of granular endoplasmic reticulum and clusters of free ribosomes between the lamellae, were replaced by short segments of granular endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomal clusters throughout the cytoplasm. After crush lesions no changes were seen in any of the other cell organelles. New Nissl bodies began to reappear after one week. It is suggested that the dispersion and re-formation of the Nissl substance is not caused by a massive exchange of organelles but rather by a simple spreading of the membranes and ribosomal clusters and a re-arrangement of the same structures during recovery. After section of the nerve the endoplasmic reticulum remained dispersed without further changes until shortly before disintegration. The cytoplasm then showed extensive degeneration. The neurons were ultimately removed through phagocytosis by microglial cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Foot Shock ; Mouse ; Distress Arousal ; Fighting ; Locomotor Activity ; Vocalizing ; Recovery Time ; Imipramine ; Methamphetamine ; Perphenazine ; Methadone ; Pentobarbital ; Ethyl Alcohol ; Chlordiazepoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Methodologic studies were undertaken to establish the optimal conditions of continuous foot shock stimulation (3 min at 0.08 mA) for investigating drug effects on distress-evoked behavior, e.g., vocalizing, leaping, running, fighting and recovery latencies. The drugs subsequently studied under these conditions (imipramine, methamphetamine, methadone, perphenazine, pentobarbital, ethyl alcohol and chlordiazepoxide) could be distinguished and classified from the profiles of action obtained. Greatest overall reduction of the distress-evoked behaviors in diminishing order were produced by perphenazine, methadone, ethyl alcohol and chlordiazepoxide. Methadone most selectively reduced leaping responses; perphenazine most selectively prolonged recovery time latencies. None of the agents reduced fighting at doses that did not also modify the other modes of responding.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Stereotypy ; Behaviour ; Rat ; Mouse ; Neuroleptics ; Thymoleptics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The behaviour of mice after various doses of amphetamine or apomorphine which induce stereotypies is described in details. The induced stereotyped behaviour in mice appears more differentiated than that in rats. The amphetamine-syndrome in rats consists of an excitement phase followed by the stereotypy, whereas apomorphine elicits stereotyped behaviour directly after administration. Amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour is different from the apomorphine-induced stereotypy in several respects. Neuroleptics inhibit the amphetamine (12.5 mg/kg s.c.) and apomorphine-(10 mg/kg s.c.) syndrome, while thymoleptics potentiate subeffective doses of amphetamine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and apomorphine (2 mg/kg s.c.). This is demonstrated with some neuroleptics of the phenothiazine-type, haloperidol, reserpine, and a group of thymoleptics. The method opens the possibility of differentiating within several groups of neuroleptics and within several groups of thymoleptics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Avoidance Conditioning ; Amino Acids ; Uninterrupted Sessions ; Fasting ; Glucoseaemia ; Serine ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In mice subjected to long uninterrupted avoidance sessions (1,500 trials) a clear decrement of performance was evident after the first 500–600 trials. Mice subjected to a 24 h fast showed a more rapid decrement of performance during the session following the fasting period than that evident in the same group fed ad libitum. When the effects of feeding casein, glucose or different amino acids were assessed, only casein, glucose or serine prevented the impairment of performance while the most toxic amino acids, i.e. histidine, methionine and tryptophan diminished the performance below that obtained by fasting. Casein, glucose and serine were the only diets that maintained blood glucose levels within the normal range. Feding experiments showed that serine was the most acceptable aminoacid to the mice indicating that it was unique in maintaining performance because it is the only amino acid that is both palatable and readily gluconeogenic.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal cells ; Mouse ; Glycogen ; Quantitative histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Effects of continuous lighting on glycogen in pineal cells of the mouse were histochemically investigated, qualitatively and quantitatively. In continuous lighting, glycogen stores in pineal cells show a striking increase during the first three days. The glycogen level rises almost fourfold in 1 day of lighting and reaches a peak at 2 days. At 3 days it begins to decrease slightly. After 3 days the glycogen level decreases gradually until it returns almost to normal in 3 weeks. Continuous lighting causes a decrease in the size of pineal cells, and the decreased size of the cells remains almost constant throughout lighting. In blinded mice, neither glycogen stores in pineal cells nor sizes of pineal cells are affected by continuous lighting.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Mouse ; Rostral zone ; Intermediate lobe ; Corticotrophic cells ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rostral zone of the intermediate lobe of the mouse hypophysis can clearly be distinguished from the other lobes of the adenohypophysis, especially from the pars tuberalis and the remainder of the intermediate lobe. It consists almost exclusively of corticotrophic cells which show reactive changes after adrenalectomy. The hypophysial stalk is entirely surrounded by this zone; laterally it forms large cell aggregations which extend dorsally as thin cell strands. The corticotrophs are also found within the hypophysial stalk which they invade along the blood vessels; frequently they are dispersed among the typical cells of the intermediate lobe, especially along the neural lobe and the hypophysial cleft.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal ; Mouse ; Glycogen ; Diurnal changes ; Quantitative histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The amount of glycogen in pineal cells of 60-day-old male dd-mice was estimated at various times of the day by means of a quantitative histochemical method. The level of glycogen stores varied periodically in correlation with the environmental light-dark cycle, being lowest at the end of the daily dark period and highest at the end of the daily light period. The size of pineal cells also varied diurnally, being largest at 9 AM, two hours after the beginning of the daily photoperiod, and smallest at 9 PM, two hours after the end of the daily photoperiod; however, these changes were less marked than those in glycogen level. The changes in cell size were delayed by a few hours as compared with changes in glycogen stores. In blinded male mice of the same age, neither pineal glycogen level nor pineal cell size varied in response to diurnal lighting.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Mouse ; Pars distalis ; STH cells ; Hepatomas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An electron microscopic analysis was performed on the pars distalis of the hypophysis of mice bearing transplanted hepatomas. Normal mice served as controls. In animals bearing a fast growing as well as in those bearing a slow growing hepatoma, the STH cells presented changes indicating increased release and synthesis of its secretory product. These changes can be summarized as follows: 1) Increased number of granuledepleted STH cells which were very irregular in size and shape. 2) Very irregular and sometimes bizarre nuclei. 3) Plasma membranes irregular and convoluted. 4) Increased quantity of endoplasmic reticulum which appeared sometimes dilated and contained material of varying electron density. 5) Abundant, irregular and frequently ramified mitochondria. 6) Hypertrophic Golgi system with increased number of microvesicles. 7) Increased number of large lysosomes of different type. 8) Increased number of fat droplets.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Median eminence ; Mouse ; Growth and development ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of the external zone of the median eminence of the mouse was studied in the electron microscope. The examination follows the development of the embryo from the 15th day of the gestation period and the juvenile growth until 24 days of age. Single terminals of the tubero-infundibular neurons of the external zone were found to extend to the outer basement membrane of the perivascular space of the portal primary capillary plexus in the 16 day-old embryo. In the 18 day-old embryo a narrow external zone has developed. Organization of the external zone into the adult pattern is accomplished at the age of three to four weeks. Small agranular as well as large granular vesicles are present in the tubero-infundibular nerve terminals even in the 16 day-old embryo. Changes in the organization of the nerve endings along the outer perivascular basement membrane in relation to the ependymal vascular feet were considered.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Carmine ; Embryotoxic Effects ; Time of Administration ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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