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  • Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  (92)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (89)
  • 1990-1994
  • 1970-1974  (181)
  • 1965-1969
  • 1972  (181)
Collection
Publisher
Years
  • 1990-1994
  • 1970-1974  (181)
  • 1965-1969
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: If inhibitory substrates are being utilized in a well-stirred biological reactor, microbiological growth on the walls of the reactor can create a scale-up problem. A simple model is proposed which shows that without such growth, of the three existing steady states only one is stable and nontrivial, but with wall growth the trivial, stable, steady state (washout) is impossible. In addition, wall growth reduces the region over which three steady states are feasible and reduces the minimum residence time for which there is only one steady state that corresponds to a high conversion. Thus, a laboratory process with a high surface area to volume ratio can give an over optimistic prediction of both necessary residence; time and stability of the full scale process unless wall growth is accounted for.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 3
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 309-318 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Biodegradation and mineralization of petroleum, added at 1% (v/v) to freshly collected sea water, were measured using gas-liquid chromatographic, residual weight, and CO2-evolution techniques. Only 3% of the added petroleum was biodegraded and 1% was mineralized in unamended sea water after 18 days of incubation. Added individually, nitrate (10-2 M) or phosphate (3.5 × 10-4 M) supplements caused little improvement, but when added in combination, they increased petroleum biodegradation and mineralization to 70% and 42%, respectively. Attempts to clean up oil spills with the aid of microorganisms should take into consideration the nutritional deficiencies of sea water.
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  • 4
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 361-377 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Six soil isolates were grown on a petroleum sulfonate medium and analyzed chromatographically to determine their amino acid composition. The organisms were also examined to determine their growth rate in the petroleum medium, their per cent conversion of hydrocarbon to dry cell mass, their protein content, and their possible use as a food or food supplement. It was found that the isolates varied extensively as to their amino acid composition. Several of the isolates proved to convert the hydrocarbons to cell mass with relative ease. The proteins of four of the isolates appear to be suitable as a good food source, and the protein of one of the remaining isolates appears to be a very good food supplement.
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  • 5
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 437-445 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Oxygen solution rates were measured in 4, 30, and 100 liter culture vessels, and the oxygen demand of growing BHK 21 cells estimated. This data was used to calculate the minimal sparged air rates necessary to satisfy oxygen demand throughout the cell growth cycle, and in this way adequate oxygen was supplied without the damaging effects of excessive sparging. Comparable results were obtained when oxygen was supplied by this method and when pO2 was controlled at 80 mmHg, but both cell growth rate and maximum cell density were reduced when pO2 was controlled at other values.
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  • 6
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 473-491 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The limitation of thermal inactivation on catalytic activity in continuous enzymatic reactions is considered. Where an enzyme is retained in a reaction environment which is open to mass transfer of reaction components, the effect of enzyme inactivation on reactant conversion depends on the order of the chemical reaction and the pattern of fluid flow through the reaction volume. Equations expressing conversion as a function of time for first-order inactivation are presented for Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the limiting fluid flow conditions of plug flow and complete back-mixing. Substrate protection or destruction of an enzyme is also considered and it is shown theoretically that the catalytic life of an enzyme may be optimized by the proper choice of fluid flow pattern.
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  • 7
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Parameter estimation studies have been conducted employing mathematical models developed previously by the investigators and experimental data collected by the last author. A batch fermentation process in which Candida lipolytica were cultured on n-hexadecane dissolved in dewaxed gas oil was employed to obtain the experimental data. The kinetic data from a number of batch experiments conducted at different initial substrate concentrations and different dispersed phase volume fractions were analyzed assuming that, the basic model parameters (maximum specific growth rate, saturation constant, substrate phase equilibrium constant, adsorption constant, desorption constant, etc.) did not change from experiment to experiment. The Gauss-Newton method with modification by Greenstadt, Eisenpress, Bard, and Carroll was used to minimize the conventional sum of squares criterion on the IBM 300/50 computer. The individual confidence intervals were obtained for each individual parameter. Tin- models were compared employing the F-test for equality of variances and an analysis of residuals. For the two best models, the estimated parameter values were compared with available experimental information. The results showed good agreement between the experimental data and the values predicted by the mathematical models. The results presented in this work did suggest that growth on small segregated drops may be more important than continuous phase growth on dissolved substrate.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Conditions for the preparation of microcapsules containing asparaginase by interfacial polymerization were investigated.The activity of microcapsules prepared under the optimal conditions was about 37% compared with that of native asparaginase. Particle size of microcapsules could be controlled by determining the stirring rate and concentration of Span 85. The membranes of microcapsules were resistant to mechanical shock or attack of chymotrypsin, and no leakage of asparaginase from microcapsules was observed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Characterization of proteolytic activity in preparations or fermentation broth is accomplished by methods based on a combination of disc electrophoresis and visualization of the activity. The methods permit a direct, comparison with reference preparations. All alkaline proteases studied, including the three subtilisins, were found to consist of several proteolytic components. The zymograms of the subtilisin type preparations show an irregular pattern. At least 14 different components may be observed, belonging to 6 types of mobility pattern, 3 of which could be assigned to the subtilisins. None of the components belongs to the group of metalloproteases. A quite regular pattern is shown by the zymogram of protease preparations produced by the alkalophilic Bacillus strains.A few of the components of the subtilisin preparations Maxatase and protease A were isolated by preparative disc electrophoresis and by disc electrofococusing, allowing a further characterization. Special attention was directed to the determination of properties specific for the application of subtilisins as additives in household detergents. Thermostability in sodium tripolyhosphate solution was found to range from about 10% for one of the minor components to 80% for the main component of Maxatase. Three types of curves representing the effect of pH on the activity were observed. The curve of the main component of Maxatase shows a characteristic shape with a maximum at pH 10.3: with other components lower pH optima were observed. Isoelectric points of the component were found to range from pH 7 to 10.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A gram scale enzymatic synthesis of eight, dinucleoside monophosphates (ApC, ApU, CpC, CpU, GpC, GpU, UpC, and UpU) is described. The synthesis involves a reaction between the appropriate ribonucleoside-2′,3′-cyclie phosphates and cytidine or uridine in the presence of ribonuelease from Aspergillus clavatus at 30°C. The enzyme is removed from the reaction mixture by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-4, and the dinucleoside monophosphate is further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex A-25, column.A procedure for the large scale preparation of the ribonuclease from Aspergillus clavatus is also described.
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  • 12
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 975-984 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The preparation of a water-insoluble derivative of glucose oxidase by covalent coupling to nickel on silica alumina is described. The catalyst has superior physical characteristics to conventional immobilized enzymes; although its activity and stability are now comparable to conventional catalysts, potential for significant further improvements has been demonstrated.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The quantitative changes in mitochondria and cytochromes during transition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from one steady state to another, while growing in continuous culture under controlled environmental conditions, were followed.No Mitochondria, or mitochondria like structures, were detectable in electron micrographs of permanganate-fixed anaerobic cells. Microaerobiosis (3μM dissolved oxygen) was sufficient to visualize mitochondrial profiles and induce cytochromes and their sections had a reduced number of mitochondrial profiles compared with cells grown in limiting glucose.In the presence of ergosterol and Tween 80 mitochondriogenesis, whether induced by aerobiosis or glucose limitation, involved enhanced definition of crystal and outer mitochondrial membranes and increased number of profiles. Where membrane formation was limited, by the absence of aerobiosis involved eytochrome induction and profile visualization, but limited profile Proliferation; the adapted cells consequently contained fewer, but more eytochrome-enriched, mitochondria than cells adapted in the presence of ergosterol and Tween 80.Increase in dissolved oxygen from 3μM to 52μM further enhanced membrane definition and increased the size, but not the number, of mitochondrial profiles.Evidence, obtained by measurement of eytochrome concentration per unit mitochondrial volume and per unit crystal area, support the concept that mitochondriogensis and cytochrome synthesis are not synchronized process and that cytochromes are added to or depleted from the mitochondrial cristae in response to culture conditions.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of diffusion on the apparent thermal stability of a reversibly or irreversibly denaturable enzyme is examined theoretically when he enzyme is uniformly distributed in a porous solid. If the overall reaction rate is influenced by diffusion through the catalyst, the insolubilized catalyst is shown to yield an apparently more thermally stable enzyme even though the maximal velocity Vm, and the Michaelis constant, Km, are the same for the free and insolubilized forms of enzyme.Brief consideration is given to the experimental conditions needed to clearly demonstrate whether insolubilization does or does not effect the thermal stability of the enzyme.
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  • 16
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 985-1006 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chemolithotroph, Hydrogenomonas eutropha, was tested for its ability to utilize a variety of single nitrogen sources during growth in an atmosphere of H2—O2—CO2 The present data show that H. eutropha can utilize the nitrogen from many, but not all, amino acids, several sulfur-containing amino acids, glucosamine, and two aliphatic amides. The nitrogen concentration that supported maximum growth for NH4Cl, L-glutamate, L-glutamine, urea, and glycine was in the 0.010-0.019M range. H. eutropha failed to remove the nitrogen from primary and secondary amines, eycloleucine, tert-DL-leucine, DL-p-fluorophenylalanine, DL-5-methyltryptophan, creatine, and creatine. This microorganism was able to partially degrade at least six substituted indoles and/or tryptophan catabolites and six substituted imidazoles and/or histidine catabolites. All of a series of 17 dipeptides were able to serve as a nitrogen source for growth in the absence of NH4Cl. Extracts of H. eutropha were able to catalyze the hydrolysis of 16 α-dipeptides, 2 tripetides, a tetrapeptide, a polypeptide, a β-aspartyl peptide, 2 γ-glutamyl peptides, a N-acetyl amino acid, and 4 amino acid amides. These results emphasize the effectiveness of H. eutropha in utilizing a wide diversity of organic nitrogenous compounds containing amino and amide groups, heterocyclic rings, and peptide bonds.
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  • 17
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 18
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 379-390 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Cultivation of Corynebacterium hydrocarboclastus, which is capable of synthesizing an extracellular polymer and utilized hydrocarbons, has been reported. Growth studies in shake flasks and fermenters were made to obtain maximum polymer production. Polymer formation was found to be growth associated. The highest level of polymer accumulation was attained after 50-60 hr cultivation in the fermenter and it amounted to approximately 5.5-6 g/liter of fermentation broth. The medium contained initially 2% (v/v) kerosene as a carbon source. The maximum yield obtained corresponds to 37-40% (w/w) of kerosene supplied. At the same time the cell concentration was 10-13 g/liter which represents the yield of 67-87% (w/w). The rate of polymer production in the exponential phase was 0.25 g/liter hr and cell production rate was 0.27 g/liter hr. Sodium nitrate, 0.5%, and yeast extract, 0.3%, (w/w) were the best nigrogen sources for polymer formation. The highest level of polymer produced in broth was 6 g/liter.
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  • 19
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 447-457 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Methods for reducing the content of nucleic acid in protein concentrates from disintegrated yeast and microalgae were investigated. Protein concentrates were prepared by acid precipitation of extracted protein after cell wall separation. The influence of alkaline protein extraction on the content of RNA in isoelectrically precipitated protein concentrates was studied. It was found that when a strong decrease in the RNA content was obtained, this was followed by a decrease in the yield of protein concentrate. Protein concentrates were also prepared without cell wall separation by precipitation with different agents after cell disintegration. In the precipitates from microalgae, a RNA reduction was obtained. Precipitation of yeast, protein gave no essential reduction with the precipitants used. Precipitation of yeast protein by heating at an alkaline pH gave a protein concentrate with a low content of RNA. A slightly lower RNA content was obtained when the precipitation was performed in the presence of NaCl. The yield of amino acid nitrogen was 70-80% and the RNA content was 1-2%. A process with precipitation at alkaline pH for the production of microbial protein concentrates with a low content of nucleic acid is suggested.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 22
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 715-724 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.9) prepared from a culture of Acrobacter aerogeneshas been covalently bound to an inert crosslinked copolymer of aerylamide-acrylic acid by using a water-soluble carbodi-imide. The binding yield based on the amount of added pullulanase was 34%. The residual enzymic activity was 43%, of that of free enzyme. Coupling in the presence of the substrate pullulan gave a 5-fold increase in activity over that obtained when substrate was lacking. The effect of different carbodi-imide concentrations on the coupling has been investigated. The isoelectric point of the pullulanase preparation (3.5-4.0) was determined using isoelectric, focusing, in order to find optimal pH conditions for the coupling procedure. The immobilized pullulanase in a packed bed column was used to debranch amylopeetin to low molecular weight amylose.
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  • 23
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 753-775 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A method and an apparatus that reduce the heavy expenses involved in traditional methods for the large-scale monolayer production of primary and secondary, strain and line cells and of the biologicals derived therefrom are described. The method is based on the principle of gathering in a single unit a sheaf of columns by means of general manifolds fitted with cocks. The growth of cells on the glass walls is irrespective of the number, length, and diameter of the columns used. The apparatus, placed in a thermo-adjustable room and connected to adequate devices which allow it to rotate on its longitudinal axis and to be set in a vertical position, need not be dismounted nor transported since it can be connected by a number of tubes to the necessary services. Sterilization is carried out by flowing steam and fluids are poured in or drained off by vacuum or pressure. A microscope fitted to the bearing structure allows the operator to observe the cell monolayers and the cytopathic effect of viruses on the whole length of the outer columns. During the various working stages pH is under continuous control and automatically adjusted. The whole working cycle is extensively described (cleaning, sterilization, seeding, incubation, trypsinization of the monolayer, culture and harvesting of the virus) and results compared with those obtained by traditional methods.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of carbon dioxide-enriched air on the rate of zinc extraction during the microbiological leaching of a, high-grade zinc sulfide concentrate by Thiobacillns ferrooxidans have been studied. Under normal air-aeration conditions, the leach rate is limited initially by the availability of solid substrate surface area per unit volume of leach liquor, then by availability of carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide-enriched air is supplied, along with excess substrate, the zinc extraction rate increases as the carbon dioxide content increases until some other, as yet unknown, factor becomes limiting.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Resting cell suspensions of Sepedonium ampullosporum have been used successfully in the pilot plant, transformation of 9β 10α-pregna-4, 6-dien-3, 20-dione to its 16α-hydroxy derivative. The resting cell enzyme system acted as a stable respiratory unit up to 150 hr after resuspension in water. Semicontinuous addition of substrate to the same cell suspension reduced overall conversion lime by 67%.Aeration and agitation were important factors affecting conversion rates. The hydroxylating system had a critical oxygen concentration above 90% saturation of air in water. Hydroxylase activity was inhibited by cyanide an d totally inhibited by the respiratory inhibitor antimycin A at concentrations much less that that concentration required to block normal respiration.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Cell-free extracts of Gluconobacter melanogenus cells grown in L-sorbose-containing media contained an enzyme system capable of converting L-sorbose to 2-keto-L-gulonic acid while cells grown in glycerol media did not. This inducible enzyme was located in the participate fraction of the cells.
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  • 27
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 857-860 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 28
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 885-914 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Tubes with immobilized enzymes on the inner wall, called open tubular heterogeneous enzyme reactors, were prepared by binding enzymes either directly to the tube inside surface or to a layer of a porous matrix attached to the inner wall. Kinetic studies of the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethylester as a model reaction indicated that the reaction was kinetically controlled in reactors with surface bound trypsin and the kinetic parameters were evaluated by conventional methods. On the other hand, substrate diffusion in both the porous matrix and the bulk substrate solution strongly affected the rate of reaction in porous layer trypsin reactors. The highest overall rates of reaction were obtained when the reaction was bulk diffusion controlled and the measured rates were in agreement with those calculated from expressions derived from heat transfer theory. The design of reactors for the limiting cases of kinetic and bulk diffusion controlled reaction as well as a method for the determination of substrate diffusivity are outlined.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Single-stage continuous fermentations to produce xanthan gum have been run at dilution rates (D) from 0.023 to 0.196 hr-1. Xanthan production rate (XPR) was a function of D. XPR increased from 0.34 g/hr/kg at D = 0.023 hr-1 to the maximum 0.84 g/hr/kg at D = ca. 0.15 hr-1. At D 〉 0.15 hr-1 XPR decreased and at the highest D studied (0.196 hr-1) was 0.69 g/hr/kg. Yield of xanthan from glucose consumed was 81-89%. Steady states ended between 6.5 and 8.7 turnovers when a variant strain occurred.
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  • 30
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 93-101 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In experiments with one freshwater (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and three marine organisms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Cyclotella nana, and Chaetoceros galvestonensis), mecury was more toxic than the other metals tested (silver, cadmium, lead, and copper); and its toxicity is comparatively irreversible. Growth was monitored by changes in fluorescence of the cultures over a 3-day test period. The toxicity of the mercury varied inversely with the concentrations of nutrients present. Preliminary experiments indicate that mercury in the form of mercuric chloride is more than as dimethylmercury.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC 11150) was grown in batch and continuous culture in minimal media with sodium maleate as growth-limiting sole organic carbon source. Growth was followed by turbidity and dry weight measurements. Gross composition of washed cells (relative amounts of protein, lipid, RNA, and DNA) and the distribution of amino acids in protein hydrolyses of the cells were determined for cells grown in continuous culture at various dilution rates. Extracellular concentrations of the original carbon source and a number of metabolites were monitored by a total carbon analysis, ion exchange chromatography, and ultraviolet-visible scans of cell-free supernatants and chromatographic fractions, thereof.Substrate inhibition by maleate was a major factor in the growth kinetics of both batch and continuous cultures. Excessive maleate concentration caused instability in continuous cultures. By appropriate operation, much higher specific growth rates (0.305/hr) could ultimately be achieved in continuous culture compared to batch culture (0.174/hr). Adaptation was responsible for only part of the differences between batch and continuous cultures; the differing distribution of metabolites were also major factors.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The kinetic behavior of heterogeneous microbial populations of sewage origin was studied in a single-stage isothermal continuous flow completely mixed aeration tank. A series of experiments were carried out at various dilution rates using glucose as the growth limiting substrate. The steady-state behavior of the system was observed at each dilution rate and the results were found to fit fairly well with the steady-state equation bayed on the Monod model with an endogenous respiration term included, i.e., μ = μmS/(Ks + S) - Kd. The growth kinetics of cells harvested at steady state for each dilution rate were studied using batch experiments. The multiple response data of the system as functions of time were used to estimate the parameter values in the above kinetic model. It was found that values of the growth parameters changed significantly and systematically with cell population. For example, values of μm were high at high dilution rates and low at low dilution rates. It was also found that only those batch growth parameters from cells obtained at fairly high dilution rates are comparable with those estimated by the results of steady-state operations. The results of this investigation suggest that (1) different cell populations pre dominated at different steady-state dilution rates, with high dilution rates resulting in predominantly fast-growing organisms and low dilution rates resulting in predominantly slow-growing cells, and (2) risk exists in any randomly picked batch experiment to predict the steady-state behavior of the system when heterogeneous microbial populations must be used.
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  • 33
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 267-271 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 35
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 331-343 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An enrichment culture procedure has been used to isolate mixed culture systems which grow upon “Bunker C” fuel oil. When inoculated into a mineral salts aqueous medium containing Bunker C oil, the mixed cultures initiate oil emulsification. Emulsification usually is observed in 24-48 hr. The role of microbes in this emulsification will be discussed. It appears that certain metabolic products produced by the microbe possess properties of surfactants. Bacteria and fungi have been isolated which possess the ability to cause emulsification. Freeze-dried biomass is also capable of emulsifying oil. Chromatographic analyses of biodegraded Bunker C fuel oil show that microorganisms selectively metabolize the n-paraffin fraction.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Studies were performed using pure cultures of A. acrogenes and E. coli and a heterogeneous microbial population growing in carbon-limited chemostats with glucose as the sole carbon and energy source. A two-level factorial experimental design was employed to test the hypothesis that the concentration of growth-limiting substrate in a chemostat is controlled by the growth rate alone and is independent of the concentration of substrate entering the reactor. The pure culture experiments showed that the conclusions depend upon the measurement employed for growth-limiting substrate. When the concentration of glucose was measured directly, the hypothesis was found to be true within the limits of the study (500-1500 mg/liter). However, if the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test was used as the measure of growth-limiting substrate the hypothesis was found to be false. When heterogeneous cultures were employed the hypothesis was false regardless of the technique used to measure the concentration of growth-limiting substrate. Nevertheless, it was possible to generate regression equations which described the interactions among influent COD, growth rate, and effluent COD with a high level of correlation.
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  • 37
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 459-472 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: High voltage electric discharges between two electrodes immersed in a liquid (“electrohydraulic discharges”) inactivate microorganisms suspended in the liquid. The intense pulse of UV radiation emitted from the plasma formed between the electrodes causes most of the bactericidal effects, rather than shock waves, or free radicals or other chemical species formed in the liquid medium. A method of sterilizing materials without contamination from electrode debris is described. Possible applications and limitations of the technique are outlined.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A unique method is described by which large yields of secondary metabolites arc produced on solid substrates. The process involves the use of moist substrates which are continuously agitated in appropriate fermentation equipment. The amount of agitation, aeration, and moisture can be varied. Extremely high yields of secondary metabolites such as ochratoxin and aflatoxin were obtained using Aspergillus and Penicillium species. The process prevents sporulation of the fungus and because of the nature of the solid substrate makes recovery of the product easier than in conventional liquid media. The substrates include rice, corn, wheat, and other cereals.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of the following factors on the measurement of yeast concentration in liquid hydrocarbon fermentations was studied: surfactant, type (Tween 20, Tween 80, and G 3300), yeast concentration (0.215 to 0.272 and 3.37 to 4.08 g/liter, as dry matter), oil concentration (8.32 and 61.6 g/liter), surfactant, concentration (0.515, 1.030, 1.545, and 2.060 g/liter), and time of contact of the surfactant with the oil-yeast-aqueous medium mixture (2 and 10 min). The statistical significance of the obtained results was determined.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Inhibitory substrate levels are common in industrial fermentations and in biological waste-water treatment of many industrial wastes. Continuous microbial cultures are unstable to certain disturbances, such as shock loading by inhibitory substrates. Two feedback proportional control strategies are analyzed and compared for a simple model culture assumed represent able by the culture concentrations of biomass and a single rate-limiting and growth-limiting nutrient (substrate). One control strategy, the well known turbidostat, consists of adjusting culture holding time (e.g., by flow rate adjustment) in response to deviations in turbidity or some other measure of culture biomass concentration. The other control strategy is to adjust holding time in response to deviations in limiting nutrient concentrations in the culture. This second control strategy, termed the nutristat, can be superior to the turbidostat in many applications. The sign and magnitude of the dimensionless group {(X/YD)[dμ/dS]s}, is shown to be an important determinant, in the behavior of the open loop and the two closed loop processes. This characteristic group is positive when the specific growth rate is increased by increases in the nutrient concentration, zero when the growth rate is unaffected by the nutrient concentration, and negative in the presence of nutrient or substrate inhibition.The effects of process modifications and of modeling assumptions on the control of the process are discussed and more sophisticated control schemes are also proposed.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 43
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 1047-1048 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 44
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    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 45
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 33-42 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The release constant, k, of brewers yeast sonicated at powers up to 200 W at 20 kHz has been shown to be independent of cell concentration up to values of 60 g made up to 100 ml. It is inversely proportional to the volume of the treatment vessel in the range 75 to 450 ml, and almost proportional to the input acoustic power from 60 to 195 acoustic watts. A flow system is described and a relationship linking protein release, flow rate, and the protein release constant, determined from batch experiments, is derived. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction of protein release and experimental results with the flow system was obtained.
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  • 46
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 75-92 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The bacterium Acetobacter suboyxdans and the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis have been grown together on a synthetic medium in a chemostat. Mannitol, the only carbon source fed to the fermenter, is oxidized by the bacteria to fructose. The yeast, which cannot attack mannitol, breaks down the fructose nearly completely. Eight steady states and five transitory periods after changes in flow rate have been analyzed to study the kinetics of the mixed culture. Separate cell concentrations were determined by a modified Coulter counter apparatus. Both sugars were monitored. Both bacteria and yeast may be modeled using Monod's equation, the latter with some deviations. The yeast is unable to grow beyond the washout point of the bacteria, even though its maximum growth rate is much higher. The yield of both organisms decreases with increasing dilution rate, as does their average cell size. After step changes in dilution rate, repeated oscillations of both sugar and cell concentrations usually occur before steady-state conditions are reattained. They are generally in phase, with no definite sign of a lag. Oscillations of yeast and fructose concentrations are more pronounced. Periods average about 6 hr and are not correlated with fermentation conditions or equipment variables. Repeated oscillations are not found after step-downs in pure cultures of A. suboxydans, leading to the conclusion that the instability in mixed cultures may be caused by a feedback mechanism from the yeast to the bacteria.
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  • 47
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 173-177 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A method for large reduction of nucleic acid content of Saccharomyces cercvisae is described. This method is based on yeast suspension in phosphate solution (50mM), heat shock following the Maul et al. (Nature 228, 181 (1970)) procedure, and dialysis or washing with phosphate solution of alkaline pH. When the extraction process is carried out at pH 12, sodium phosphate can be replaced by sodium chloride with the same results. Under these conditions the protein mg/nucleic acid mg ratio attains values of 50-60, (10 times the initial ratio). At this alkaline pH, washing can be done with distilled water with equally good results.
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  • 48
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 201-205 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is shown theoretically that in continuous reactions the rate of catalase inactivation by hydrogen peroxide depends on the type of reactor and the order of the chemical reaction.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The kinetic behavior of heterogeneous microbial populations of sewage origin was studied in a single-stage, isothermal, continuous flow, completely mixed aeration tank. A series of experiments were carried out at various dilutions rates using glucose as the limiting substrate. The cell dry weight and substrate concentration in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were continuously monitored. The results indicate that reproducible steady-state conditions can generally be obtained; however, multiple steady states were observed at dilution rates near washout. At low dilution rates (below about 0.1 hr-1) the contribution of microorganism decay became appreciable. Using the multiresponse data of cell dry weight and COD, the parameter values in various existing growth models were estimated. The analyses of variance and residuals revealed that models proposed by Moser, Monod, and Contois, each with a decay term added, were significantly better than the other models which were tested.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The transport of insoluble substrates such as hydrocarbons to microorganisms is often postulated to be dictated by the availability of the hydrocarbon surface area. Many publications, qualitative and quantitative, have appeared to substantiate this hypothesis. Experiments have been performed in our laboratory to assess the absolute values of the interfacial area of hexadecane as the carbon source for the growth of Candida intermedia. A sedimentometer, mounted directly in the fermentor, was used to measure the interfacial hydrocarbon area during active growth of this organism. The specific hydrocarbon interfacial area was found to be directly related to the impeller speed, hydrocarbon concentration and surfactant concentration in a 1-liter working volume, turbine-agitated fermentor. The specific growth rate was in turn found to be directly related to the specific hydrocarbon interfacial area. Lastly, cessation of logarithmic growth and onset of linear growth was found at all instances to be governed by the specific hydrocarbon surface area.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Presently empirical expressions, especially the Monod equation, are used to quantitatively relate microbial growth rate to limiting substrate concentration in the solution. In this paper microbial growth is postulated to occur by a mechanism involving a mass transfer or assimilation process. The assimilation process is assumed to be substrate mass transfer limited and hence proportional to the limiting substrate concentration. The ingestion is assumed independent of limiting substrate concentration and only dependent upon internal reaction rates. The quantitative relationship between limiting substrate and microbial growth rate resulting from this mechanism is developed. Under certain limiting conditions this expression is shown to reduce to the Monod equation and under other conditions it reduces to the Lotka-Volterra relationship. This mechanism is applied to batch and continuous cultures and the results obtained are compared quantitatively with experiment.
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  • 52
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 493-497 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 54
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    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 55
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 737-752 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylenesorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), on the hen egg-white lysozyme catalyzed lysis of a dried cell suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus is analysed. A rate enhancement of up to 70% is observed in the presence of surfactant at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. This activity increase may be explained by postulating the existence of a micelle-enzyme complex in which enzyme molecules are bound to micelles with preferential orientation of their active sites.The reaction is found to be second order with respect to substrate. A mechanism is postulated in which a substrate particle is assumed to be an energy-furnishing collision partner to the enzyme-substrate complex. This mechanism correlated data over a wide range of enzyme and substrate concentrations.Data from kinetic, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet, and fluorescence studies provide convincing evidence for the existence of a micelle-lysozyme complex. The results suggest that it is possible that immobilized enzymes mat in general be more reactive than corresponding free enzymes.
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  • 56
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been grown in mass quantities on 94 at. % 13CO2. The algal cells have been labeled to the 90 at. % 13C level. Neither inhibition nor a requirement for adaptation was encountered; changes in morphology were not evident. A statistically significant increase in mass of cells produced in the presence of 13CO2 was observed.
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  • 57
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 843-846 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 58
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 847-850 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 59
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 13-22 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A discrete optimally sensitive controller is developed which yields steady-state feedback control of a three-stage biochemical reactor system in spite of system parameter variations. A feedback law is implemented that estimates those variations which cause the output states to deviate from nominal, and adjusts the control policy in light of these variations.
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  • 60
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 1-12 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The validity of regarding the liquid phase in vigorously agitated sparged fermenters during the cultivation of single-celled aerobic microorganisms as essentially homogeneous is examined. Droplet formation from bursting bubbles and physical effects of the spray environment on single-celled microorganisms are discussed. The implications of droplet removal from the head space of fermenters by collision with and drainage down the walls are considered, particularly factors concerned with wall growth above the liquid level in fermenters.
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  • 61
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 43-59 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this work, a radiometric method is used for the determination of the oil drop size distribution in agitated hydrocarbon-water systems. The influence of the counter position, the oil concentration, and the rotation speed of impeller were studied. An experimental parameter is proposed for the definition of the drop size distribution. It was observed that an unsymmetrical distribution represents the drop size distribution better than the normal distribution law.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A kinetic model has been presented to explain the growth of microorganism on solid hydrocarbons. The model is based on the assumption that metabolite produced by the growing cells helps the dissolution of the solid substrate in the aqueous medium. The linear behavior of the growth curve predicted by the model is verified experimentally.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We developed an efficient and simple method for RNase extraction from Candida lipolytica cells which consists of predrying the cells with solvents and incubating them for 8 to 15 hr at 37 to 45°C in a slightly acid buffer which contains EDTA or salts. This method is called Solvent Dehydration Buffer Extraction (SDBE) procedure. Predrying with acetone or ethanol, or by lyophilization, followed by washing with acetone or ethylacetate gives the most efficient RNase extraction. The yield and specific activity obtained by this extraction procedure are higher than by any other method examined. An apparent 1.5- to 2.0-fold activation of RNase occurred during the SDBE process. Activation of RNase in homogenates obtained by grinding fresh cells is also observed with EDTA or acetate buffer. The SDBE procedure works efficiently regardless of growth phase for Candida lipolytica, and works also with other Candida yeasts.
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  • 64
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 151-171 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the present study optimal policies have been evaluated for the production of gramicidin S in multistage continuous culture. An economic objective function was developed which took account of the number and size of the reaction vessels, the costs involved in antibiotic extraction, substrate costs, and variability in the selling price of gramicidin S. Optimal values of temperature and pH were 28.3 and 7.24, respectively, and independent of the stage in the system. Using the discrete maximum principle it was shown that a “cut-off” point existed for the selling price of the antibiotic below which production was no longer profitable. Furthermore it was established that beyond 3 stages in a multistage system, only marginal gains in profitability could be made (viz., an increase in 6.3% on going from a 3-stage to a 4-stage system).
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The fermentation kinetics of the homofermentative organism Lactobacillus delbrueckii in a glucose-yeast extract medium is studied in both batch and continuous culture under conditions of controlled pH. From a graphical analysis of the batch data, a mathematical model of the process is derived which relates bacterial growth, glucose utilization, and lactic acid formation. The parameters in the model represent the activity of the organism and are a function of pH, having a maximum value at about 5.90. In a continuous stirred tank fermentor (CSTF), the effect of pH, feed concentration, and residence time is observed. The feed medium is a constant ratio of two parts glucose to one part yeast extract plus added mineral salts. An approximate prediction of the steady-state behavior of the CSTF can be made using a method based on the kinetic model derived for the batch case. In making step changes from one steady state to another, the transient response is observed. Using the kinetic model to simulate the transient period, the calculated behavior qualitatively predicts the observed response.
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  • 66
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 14 (1972), S. 285-289 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterS