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  • Candida albicans  (10)
  • dermatophytes  (3)
  • 1985-1989  (13)
  • 1989  (10)
  • 1986  (3)
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  • 1985-1989  (13)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: anaerobiosis ; Candida albicans ; heterokaryons ; hybrids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary During aerobic replication, balanced heterokaryons (hets) of Candida albicans produced by fusing protoplasts of complementing auxotrophic strains characteristically segregate low frequencies of prototrophic monokaryons bearing hybrid nuclei formed either through karyogamy or unidirectional internuclear genetic transfers within het cells. Anaerobic growth causes exponential inactivation of hets and induces their production of hybrid monokaryons. Both responses are functions of heterokaryosis as such and not the genetic backgrounds of hets. Evidence is presented that (i) the nuclei of anaerobically generated hybrids arise through induction in hets of karyogamy not internuclear genetic transfers and that (ii) the events underlying that induction are different from those responsible for inactivation of the cells.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of the hair in 285 sheep from the West Bank of Jordan was analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value for different fungal species found were calculated. Ninenty six species which belong to 36 genera were isolated. Forty one of these species were either well-known agents of animal and human mycoses (Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum nanum, M. canis, and others), or have been isolated from human and animal lesions (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium tropicum, Acremonium kiliense, Aphanoascus fulvuscens, Aspergillus versicolor, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and others). These pathogenic fungi comprised 75.4% of all fungi recovered from the hair of sheep. This animal seems to represent an adequate reservoir for several dermatophytes and several potentially pathogenic fungi.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: mannans ; D-arabinatol ; endocarditis ; Candida albicans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In an attempt to clarify the comparative values of serological and microbiological examinations for the early diagnosis of systemic candidiasis, antibodies against Candida albicans, serum mannan, and the D-arabinitol creatinine ratio were investigated in a patient with aortic valve endocarditis associated with carcinoma of the bile duct. Candida precipitins and the antibody titer against Candida cell wall mannan were examined by an immunodiffusion technique and hemagglutination test, respectively. Serum mannan was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the biotin-streptavidin procedure. The upper limit of negativity of the assay was determined by adding 0.06 to the absorbance of pooled serum from healthy laboratory workers. This value ws about 0.8 ng/ml with ELISA. The D-arabinitol concentration in serum was examined by an enzymatic fluorometric method. Rising antibody titers against C. albicans, mannan antigenemia, and an elevated D-arabinitol creatinine ratio were first observed between the 11th and 12th hospital days. Blood cultures obtained on 8th, 9th, and 11th hospital days grew C. albicans after 3 to 4 days of incubation. Of 11 serum samples, 5 were positive for mannan, whereas D-arabinitol creatinine ratio was positive in 7 of 9 samples. Blood cultures was the earliest evidence of Candida infections in our cases. However, because of saprophytic nature of Candida species, tests for antibodies, antigenemia, and the D-arabinitol creatinine ratio in combination with blood cultures are necessary to confirm systemic candidiasis at an early stage of infection.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; floor dust mycoflora
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Floor dust collected from classrooms of thirty three elementary schools (16 for girls, and 17 for boys) (children aged 6–11), and twenty four preparatory schools (13 for girls, and 11 for boys) (children aged 12–14) was studied for the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi with respect to human presence and age of children. Tichophyton mentagrophytes was present in 15.4% of the preparatory schools for girls, in 12.5% of elementary schools for girls, and in 11.8% of elementary schools for boys. It was not found in preparatory schools for boys. Microsporum gypseum was found in preparatory schools for girls only (7.7%). Trichophyton terrestre was also only isolated from elementary schools for boys (5.9%). Chrysosporium species were present in 30.3% of all elementary schools (10 schools/33), and in 20.8% of all preparatory schools (5 schools/24). Geotrichum candidum was the most frequent and predominant keratinophilic species in all schools. Pathogenic and potentially pathogenic keratinophilic fungi comprised a large proportion of all fungal isolates recovered from all schools ; they comprised 87.2 %–89.5 % of all fungal isolates in the elementary schools, and 90.4%–93.5% of all fungal isolates in preparatory schools.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 93 (1986), S. 61-63 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal activity ; algae ; dermatophytes ; pathogenic yeasts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antifungal activity of 15 mediterranean algae species on some dermatophyte strains (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and Torulopsis glabrata) has been tested following a modification of Aubert's technique. Among the algae species studied, Falkenbergia rufolanosa is the most active in front of all the fungi tested.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 108 (1989), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidiasis ; clotrimazole ; fluconazole ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of human mucosal surfaces. Colonization of oral and vaginal mucosa by this yeast is antagonized by the resident normal bacterial population. However, antibacterial therapy can alter the normal flora to allow fungal cells to attach, grow and invade host tissues. We studied the antimicrobic activity of fluconazole against clinical isolates of oral and vaginal bacteria and Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; we also compared the bactericidal activity of fluconazole with clotrimazole in vitro by microbiologie assay. Fluconazole lysed fungi but did not change the ultrastructure of bacteria. Clotrimazole, but not fluconazole, was bactericidal against lactobacillus and streptococcus, the principal species of the oral and vaginal cavities. We conclude that Candida albicans, but not oral and vaginal bacteria, is susceptible to fluconazole. These observations help explain the antimycotic specificity of fluconazole and its efficacy against candidiasis in humans.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: miconazole ; imidazoles ; antifungal drugs ; Candida albicans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the late logarithmic or very early stationary phase of the growth cycle, yeast cells of Candida albicans undergo a shift from susceptibility to resistance to the direct lethal action of miconazole. Regulation of this phenotypic shift was examined. Experiments based on viable count determinations and the construction of time-kill curves showed that reestablishment of resistance is independent of both pH and the attainment of some critical viable cell density. However, it was found that development of resistance requires the continued availability of an appropriate energy source toward the end of exponential growth.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: arabitol ; Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; Mucor rouxii ; ribitol ; trehalose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Yeast (Y) and hyphal (H) cells of Mucor rouxii and Candida albicans were cultivated in liquid media containing different carbon nutrient sources (glucose, fructose, ribose), and their free acyclic polyol and trehalose contents determined using capillary gas liquid chromatography (TMS- and OAc-derivatization). Irrespective of growth form and C-source, the fraction of the water-soluble neutral components of the cellular mass of the cultures — highly homogeneous with regard to the respective cell form produced — contained glycerol, ribitol and arabitol, in addition to trehalose. The polyols contributed 0.5–2% to the biomass of M. rouxii and 1.5–6% to that of C. albicans; the values for trehalose ranged from 0.2–11% in the former and 1–3.5% in the latter species. Mucor contained higher amounts of ribitol and arabitol in H cells and larger quantities of trehalose and glycerol in Y cells. In Candida, too, hyphae always exhibited higher ribitol contents, whereas arabitol attained higher levels in yeasts under almost any conditions — regardless of the type of medium (synthetic vs. complex), stage of culture (early vs. late log-phase) and strain used. Glycerol concentration was not correlated with the growth form; trehalose contents tended to be higher in Y cells. Taking into account the facts that C. albicans and certain Mucor species are agents of opportunistic infections and are invasive mainly in the filamentous form, and that the prospective hosts do not accumulate either of these carbohydrates, the possibility is considered of using trehalose- and polyol-metabolizing enzymes as targets for designing antifungal drugs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidosis ; immunofluorescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method using rabbit anti-Candida albicans was used to detect C. albicans in blood samples of 12 patients with systemic candidosis defined clinically, histologically and by blood cultures. Positive staining of C. albicans could be detected in all of the patients. The findings suggest that IF-method offers a more rapid method in the diagnosis of disseminated candidosis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; yeast-mycelium transition ; calcium ; calmodulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition of Candida albicans (3153A) was induced by 1.5 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O in defined liquid medium, pH 7, at 25 °C. Germ tube formation was detected after approximately 8 h and peaks of maximum germination occurred at approximately 20 h in all experimental treatments. Non-toxic concentrations of the calmodulin inhibitor R24571 almost completely suppressed germ tube formation whereas trifluoperazine (TFP) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were only about half as effective. Further Ca2+ addition failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of R24571 and induced only about 10% of the cells inhibited by TFP or A23187 to germinate.
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