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  • Munksgaard International Publishers  (86)
  • 1990-1994  (86)
  • 1970-1974
  • 1955-1959
  • 1993  (86)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Three different membranes were tested for guided bone regeneration in 8-mm unicortical trephine defects in rabbit tibia. All experimental and control defects healed with bone. The critical size defect in rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm, because control defects, 8 mm in diameter, healed spontaneously. Around remnants of the biodegradable Polyglactin 9 10 mesh (Vicryl®). a diffuse infiltration of inflammatory cells with multinuclear giant cells developed. However, the bone healing was not impaired by the infiltrate. Around the Gore-Tex® membrane and around remnants of the Alzamer® a few lymphocytes were observed, but no multinuclear giant 1 cells were noted.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nine localized buccal ridge deformities were treated combining the use of barrier membranes and resorbable space-making material. After elevating flaps, the bone defects were completely filled with calcium carbonate and a fibrin-fibronectin sealing system (FFSS). Membranes (Gore-Tex aug-mentation material) were then shaped and positioned to cover the calcium carbonate overlapping the surrounding bone. The flaps were sutured, taking care to avoid any compression on the treated area. The membranes were removed 4 to 5 months postoperatively: in all cases the membranes were tightly adapted to the regenerated tissues and force was required to separate them from the underlying tissues. The defects were filled with hard, bone-like tissue. The histology from one case, taken 1 year post-operatively, confirmed the regeneration of bone and revealed the presence of a few residual particles of calcium carbonate in the sample. The clinical appearance of the treated areas was satisfactory for colour. texture and form. The horizontal deficiencies were almost completely resolved in all cases, while the vertical component showed incomplete filling in some cases.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies have indicated that examination of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) present in peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) may be a useful indicator of metabolic activity of the supporting bone. The GAG content in PISF from osseointegrated implants ad modum Bråemark in the maxilla was quantified and analysed. The study comprised 2 groups with 10 patients in each group. In one group the patients wore removable prostheses; in group 2 the patients wore fixed prostheses. The groups were matched for age, sex and function period of their prosthetic appliances. Clinical data were recorded, and the levels of the GAG hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) were assessed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and densitometric scanning of Alcian blue-stained strips against known GAG standards. PISF volumes and levels of C4S as potential bone marker showed no significant difference both groups median 0.003 μg). There was a somewhat higher median value for HA (0.015 μg) in the group of patients with removable prostheses compared with the group with fixed prosthesis =0.008 μg)(NS). HA is known to be present in high amounts in gingival tissue. As both plaque index and gingival bleeding were more frequent in patients with removable prostheses, this may be the reason for the somewhat higher value for HA in this group of patients. The difference in biomechanical properties of fixed and removable prostheses on implants do not appear to be reflected in the bone responses as measured by GAG content in PISF.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the maturation of supragingival microbial plaque on enamel and smooth titanium and that of subgingival plaque on cementum, plasma-sprayed titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Specimens (6.5 x 2 x 1 mm) were obtained from titanium implants with smooth transmucosal collars and plasma-sprayed endosseous posts of titanium or hydroxyapatite. Unerupted third molars were sectioned to similar dimensions that included equal lengths of enamel and root surface. Ten patients with post-treatment pocket depths of 〉 6 mm on 3 non-adjacent teeth were selected and each had 1 set of the 3 specimen types bonded by random assignment to the selected teeth. Specimens were positioned so that enamel and/or smooth titanium surfaces were supra-gingival and cementum and titanium or hydroxyapatite plasma-sprayed surfaces were subgingival. Patients were instructed to stop oral hygiene, after which 2 specimen sets were removed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days. Two specimens of each type were examined by SEM at each time interval for supra- and subgingival plaque. The sequence of appearance of various microbial morphotypes in supra- and subgingival plaque was similar regardless of surface. In both supra- and subgingival plaque, depending on time interval, cocci, rods of various lengths, filamentous organisms, fusiforms, spirochetes and corn-cob formations were observed. Mineralized plaque was noted on most subgingival specimens by day 10. These observations indicate that surface of natural teeth, smooth titanium and plasma-sprayed titanium and hydroxyapatite support the maturation of microbial plaque with the successive inclusion of a variety of morphotypes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Clinical and radiographic examination was used to select patients with a suspected need of guided tissue regeneration GTR. Fifteen patients with 20 fixtures were included in the study. Nine (45%) of the fixtures were completely covered with bone at fixture surgery and no GTR was required in these cases. On the remaining 11 fixtures, one or more sites were exposed and thus an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was used. The regenerative results were assessed using 2 methods, a) calculation of exposed threads in the mouth and on projected colour slides, b) photometric evaluation of exposed area. In total, the membrane group showed a bone gain of 81% when threads were calculated. Almost complete agreement in percentage of bone gain was observed between buccal (80.7%) and lingual (82.6%) sites. Photometric evaluation for the buccal sites showed a bone gain of 74%. Complete bone regeneration (100%) was achieved when healing was free from complications and also under an exposed membrane when infection was absent. The results indicate that the membrane technique is highly successful for treatment of exposed implants when healing is free from complications. It also shows that clinical and radiographic examination is not precise enough to differentiate between those patients planned for routine fixture surgery and those with a supplementary need for GTR. Thus access to GTR technique is important when treatment is 1 planned for borderline cases.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the investigation was to gain more understanding of marginal inflammatory reactions around osseointegrated implants. The significance of the lacking periodontal ligament of implants was examined in the initial breakdown phase of supporting tissues by comparing clinical and radiographic manifestations of ligature-induced marginal inflammation related to osseointegrated implants with those around ankylosed and normal control teeth in 8 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Bilateral extraction of the first and second mandibular molars was carried out initially, and 12 weeks later 2 implants were placed in each side. Ankylosis of the second maxillary molars was established by extracting and replanting the teeth after a drying period. When ankylosis and osseointegration were established, ligature-induced marginal inflammation was induced in the right or left side at random around implants, ankylosed teeth and normal control teeth (second maxillary premolar) for 7 weeks. Although the clinical manifestations as expressed by plaque score, gingival score, probing depth and attachment loss were quite similar, the radiographic features differed. Significant loss of bone height was limited to implants and ankylosed teeth and did not occur in relation to normal control teeth. Furthermore, the bone loss around implants was significantly greater than the loss around ankylosed teeth. Bone loss was limited to implants and ankylosed teeth; the study therefore suggests that the presence of marginal inflammation around implants and ankylosed teeth may have more serious implications than does marginal inflammation around teeth with a periodontal ligament. However, variations in microbiota and susceptibility of different jaw positions to periodontal breakdown may influence the results of this study.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In order to test the soft tissue response to contaminated titanium components, 20 clinically retrieved abutment cylinders were inserted in the abdominal wall of 5 rats. Prior to insertion, 10 of the abutments had been contaminated for 1 min and the remaining components for 2 weeks. Five abutments of either group were ultrasonically cleaned in butanol and ethanol, whereas the remaining abutments were only rinsed in saline before being implanted. As controls, 5 newly manufactured abutments were used. After 6 weeks of healing, specimens were prepared of the components and surrounding tissues for morphological analysis. This showed an accumulation of macrophages and a reduction of the number of fibroblasts around the abutments that had been contaminated, irrespective of cleaning procedure, compared with the controls. It was concluded that the contaminated components induced an altered tissue response and that a similar reaction may occur in the clinical situation.
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  • 8
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A waterborne paint was applied to tin plated steel sheets with three different film thicknesses. The emission of volatile and semivolaile organic compounds ((S) VOCs) from the samples was measured in small climatic chambers under standard conditions over a two-week period. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of the film thickness on the emission rate decay. First order decay models, including sink effects for the high boiling (S) VOCs, were fitted to the concentration versus time data. The results showed that the first order rate constants decrease with increasing film thickness. In uddition, the results indicated that the emissions of the (S)VOCs in the waterborne paint film seemed to be controlled by evaporation. The thicknesses of paint films used in climatic chamber tests to estimate emission rates for product compurison or emission prediction must be known in order to prevent erroneous conclusions
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The adsorption of vapours of different volatility and polarity on three materials widely used indoors (carpet, gypsum board, wall coating) has been investigated in small test chambers, in order to study methodological aspects and to estimate the importance of the phenomenon for human exposure assessments. The output of the models used, with rate constants describing two different sinks, is discussed. The experiments show that: a) adsorption seems to occur to at least two different sinks with different rate constants in the same material; b) generally adsorption increases with the boiling point of the compounds, but it depends also on other physicochemical properties, such as the chemical functionality, as well as on the sorbent material: e.g. the two alkanes n-decane and n-dodecane show a higher k3/k4 ratio on carpet than on gypsum board, whereas the opposite is observed for the two alcohols 2-butoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexanol
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Floor dust from nine city hall office buildings was separated into fiber and particulate fractions and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOC (TVOC) by thermal desorption/high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Components were identified by HRGC/mass spectroscopy (MS). Principal component analysis was applied to VOC emission profiles revealing similarities between buildings and correlations between profiles and SBS symptoms of mucous membrane irritation and “concentration difficulty”. While the dominant pattern in emission profiles was not correlated with SBS irritation complaints, partial least squares analysis in latent variables (PLS analysis) identified VOCs for which peak areas were correlated with SBS irritation complaints and the CNS Complaint, “concentration difficulty”
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Time versus concentration data of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from four pre-conditioned building materials were measured in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) at three air exchange rates, 171, 342, 684 h−1, respectively, during a period of 240 hours. The materials were a carpet, a linoleum, a water-borne paint, and a sealant. Modeling of the time versus concentration data for two air exchange rates showed that the emission of VOCs from the carpet were best described with a diffusion model in which the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration gradient for all data (exponential diffusion model), while a reduced data set eliminating initial events also could be described with a first order decay incorporating a sink effect. The paint emission data of the polar semi-VOC, Texanol, could be described with a first order decay model incorporating a sink effect for all three air exchange rates. The emission rate constant doubled by doubling the air exchange rate. The emission data for VOCs from the sealant were best described for all three air exchange rates by the exponential diffusion model. The best model correlation fit was obtained for hexane, but satisfactory results were also obtained for 2-ethylhexanol and dimethyloctanols. The decay results of linoleum did not allow for modeling leading to the conclusion that an internal concentration gradient had not yet been established under the experimental conditions
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  • 12
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The results of subjective experiments to evaluate the efficiency of portable air cleaners for perceived air pollutants generated by tobacco smoke are described. The efficiency of the five types of air cleaners to remove perceived air pollutants was evaluated by a panel using the decipol unit, and the efficiency to remove particulate was evaluated from concentrations of particulate. It was found that the efficiency of the air cleaner in removing perceived air pollutants was quite different from that in removing particulate
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  • 13
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: In developed and developing countries, indoor air pollutionis gaining increasing prominence as a public health problem. Time-activity studies and exposure surveys have shown the dominant contributions of indoor environments to population exposures for many pollutants. Mounting epidemiological evidence documents adverse health effects of indoor pollutants and risk assessments indicate that indoor carcinogens may contribute substantially to the population's burden of lung and other cancers. Unacceptable indoor air quality has also been identified as a common cause of symptoms. This paper addresses the public health problem posed by indoor air pollution, offering a schema for categorizing adverse health effects of indoor air pollution, and considers the complexiry of estimating the full scope of the problem
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  • 14
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: In this paper the use of a thin adsorbent sheet composed of activated carbon particles to purify indoor air is modelled. A loose sheet with high porosity appears more effective than a dense one. The carbon sheet can be replaced by a fresh sheet after a certain period of use, thus keepilzg the volatile organic compound (VOC) level low in the remaining years. The model has been used to predict the optimal replacement time. Binary VOCs are modelled. The results turn out to be close to those from single component calculations, which suggests that the efficiency of the carbon sheet to one VOC is negligibly affeaed by the presence of other VOCs at ppb levels.
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  • 15
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: We compare data sets from two different Swedish studies which included measuremem of the indoor radon concentration both in 1955 and in 1990 in 178 of the same houses. The purpose is to learn more about how the indoor radon concentration changes over a time scale of years in the same houses. Many sources of both systematic and random errors exist when comparing these types of data sets. Specific types of errors are due to uncertainties in the calibration of the epuipment, the influence of the weather, the time lengths of sampling, airing of some of the dwellings, and changes in ventilation rates. The data indicate a general increase of the radon concentration in the dwellings between 1955 and 1990, with a 1990/1955 ratio of the averages of 1.3. The average radon concentration in all alum shale houses, (where the building material is a source of radon) in 1990 versus 1955 is 204 ± 22 and 163 ± 23 Bq/m3 and in non-alum shale houses is 62 ± 8 and 42 ± 7 Bq/m3, respectively.
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  • 16
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Sealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. Modern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeability of the material that contacts the sealant. The surface permeability of concrete walls and floors was measured by a specially designed permeameter, which measures the airflow induced by a pressure difference across a temporary test seal applied to the surface. The permeability of bulk concrete is about 10−16 m2. Areas free of the surface defects had surface permeability ranging from 10−14 to 10−16 m2. However, surface defects are common on concrete wall surfaces, which increase the permeability to 〉 10−12 m2, too high for standard seal designs to be adequate as the only method of soil gas and radon exclusion. Radon-resistant seals require either extended contact widths or mechanical removal of the surface layer and defects.
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  • 17
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Sensory ratings, respiratory behavior and eye blink rate were recorded in 11 nonsmokers exposed to a no-smoking (CONTROL) condition or to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from one of three kinds of cigarettes: a Kentucky reference (1R4F), an ultra-low tar (ULT) and one that heats tobacco (TEST).For each two-hour session in a controlled-environment room, two smokers “puffed” unlit cigarettes, for the CONTROL condition, or smoked 16 cigarettes to generate ETS (sidestream plus exhaled mainstream smoke). Concentrations of nicotine and respirable suspended particles (RSP) observed with the 1R4F and ULT cigarettes were 10- to 20-fold higher than those typically found in field sampling studies of office and restaurant smoking environments. The ULT and TEST cigarettes resulted in ETS analyte concentrations that were 77-100% and O-56%, respectively, of those observed with 1R4E Sensory ratings (odor, irritation, annoyance, acceptability) with the two tobacco-burning cigarettes were similar and were much greater than those recorded for the TEST or CONTROL conditions which were, in turn, rated similarly. Respiratory parameters (respiratory rate, tidal volume, expiratory time), which generally failed to discriminate the TEST and CONTROL conditions, were altered during exposure to ETS from the 1R4F and, to a lesser extent, the ULT cigarette. Eye blink rate was not significantly altered by ETS from any of the cigarettes.
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  • 19
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: In 1989 the Madison Building of the Library of Congress was investigated to determine the source of occupant complaints about health symptoms and the indoor air quality. Questionnaires, distributed to all 3176 building occupants, assessed information on workstation characteristics, symptom occurrence, odors, thermal comfort, and demographic and health factors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess personal risk factors associated with mucosal symptom reporting and reported sensitivity to irritants. Symptom prevalence was higher for women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.10), those who reported being especially sensitive to irritants (OR = 1.57, 95% CI1.27-1.93), those with self-reported allergies, flu, or chest illness, and those who took frequent fresh air breaks. It was found that females and non-smokers and those reporting other adverse health effects tended to report sensitivity to irritants more frequently.
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  • 20
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The present work is a study of reentrainment of a tracer gas formaldehyde via six rotary air-to-air heat exchangers (all enthalpy exchangers) in the northern part of Sweden. Five exchangers installed in office buildings and one in a day-care centre were included in the study. Formaldehyde in indoor was used as a monitor pollutant and was determined in air samples collected in the ducts at four positions around the rotor of the exchanger, in the supply-air duct and in the exhaust-air duct. Air sampling of homogeneous duct air was performed simultaneously at the four positions using 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-impregnated glass fibre filters. The sample analysis of formaldehyde was made by high-performance liquid chromatography. The reentrainment of formaldehyde was calculated and found to be 1-9%. These results show that a rotary heat exchanger can be used in buildings where activities produce low levels of air pollutants, provided that the exchanger is properly installed and maintained.
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  • 21
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Polymer materials and their additives are today ever present in our daily surroundings. These materials have been found to emit a number of different volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the ambient air, thus affecting the quality of the indoor air VOCs with detectable concentrations are exchanged between the different materials and indoor air. Materials present in the system act as sorbents as well as sources of emission, depending on the concentration of the VOCs in the air at a specific time. This work demonstrates a method of studying the phenomena of absorption/re-emission. A hypothetical room that resembles a furnished office has been studied. A PVC flooring material was used as a primary emission source in a system where materials such as wood, paint, cloth, chipboard, and cellulose were present. Mass transfer in the solid materials was assumed to be by diffusion. The results show that the mechanism of absorption/re-emission of volatiles may extend the time of residence in an indoor system considerably. A person working in this environment could risk longer exposure to toxic volatiles than if there were no absorption/re-emission effects.
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  • 23
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: In buildings which were built within the last 15 to 20 years, or which have been retrofitted, and which do notfeature a mechanical ventilation system, air changes between 0.01 h−1 and 0.5 h−1 were measured while windows were closed. In the bedrooms of such buildings, when doors and windows were closed, CO2 concentrations of up to 4300 ppm were measured whereby the 1500 ppm limit was often exceeded. Simulation calculations and diverse measurements using different door positions with simultaneously closed windows have shown that with the door open more than 10 cm, and a minimal air exchange in the whole of an apartment of 0.1 h−1, a CO2 concentration of I500 ppm was not or was only insignifiantly exceeded even after 10 hours. Investigations in a dwelling fined with a mechanical ventilation system have shown that air quality and the indoor climate parameters were in an optimal range.
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  • 24
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 25
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Regulatory authority typically is ill-defined or simply nonexistent for reducing the risks from indoor air in non-industrial buildings. This has forced risk managers to rely increasingly on information programs either to substitute for or enhance the effectiveness of traditional regulatory activities. These in formation programs – i.e., risk communication programs – tend to be designed for polar problems. One is to alert people to a “new” risk. The other is to reassure people about risk for which concerns are high even though scientific estimates show small risk. So far there is no generally accepted model that yields consistently good predictions of how specific risk communication activities affect people's perceptions and actions for either of these polar problems. The rapidly growing literature relies on case studies to examine alternative models and describes what seems to work. There have been relatively few tests of alternative risk communication materials and strategies. This paper extracts the literature's lessons for planning indoor air information programs, with attention to how the communication needs differ when alerting versus reassuring.
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  • 26
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Good air quality can only be assured throughout an office complex if each workspace receives an adequate supply of ventilation air. The likelihood of achieving this situation would be increased if the building engineer had a means of easily predicting the air movement in each office configuration. A simple computer-based solution to this need is proposed. To this end, the development and validation testing of a numerical solution technique to simulate the ventilation air movement in a room or office is described. The predictions of the two-dimensional, isothermal, inviscid formulation are seen to be in good agreement with experimentally measured airflows in configurations of interest. The computer code is then used to illustrate the airflow in offices served by a single row of supply air diffusers, when partitions are used to divide the space into smaller workspaces. It is observed that the partitions distort the airflow patterns to the extent that it would be difficult to provide desirable ventilation airflows to all the workspaces formed by the partitions.
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  • 27
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 28
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A field experiment evaluated the effect of a furniture-inte-grated breathing-zone filtration (BZF) system on indoor air quality, worker comfort, health, and productivity. The BZF system tested filters office air to remove volatile organic compounds and airborne particulates. The BZF system was installed on one floor of a 29 story air-conditioned office building. Another floor of the building served as a control. Comparisons of pre-installation and three month post-instal-lation surveys showed improvements in indoor air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms, and self-reported pro-ductivity with the BZF system References
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  • 30
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A “fungal index” is proposed as a new climate parameter for the characterization of the indoor environment. The index quantifies the environmental conditions in relation to the ability of fungi to grow by means of the response of a xerophilic fungus Eurotium herbariorum. The growth response of this fungus was found to be climate-dependent. The indoor environment in a residential building in Japan (1991-1992) was quantitatively assessed by this approach. In the assessment, the variation in microclimate, which differs greatly within and between rooms, could be demonstrated.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: An environmental assessment of Legionella bacteria was conducted in five office buildings in the continental United States where no legionellosis was reported. The purpose of this investigation was to (i) determine the presence of Legionella bacteria in potable and non-potable water systems, (ii) provide a baseline information for management, and (iii) evaluate the effectiveness of the remedial actions taken. Water samples were collected from all possible water sources in surveyed buildings. The samples were analyzed by both direct fluorescent antibody microscopy (DFA) and the bacterial cultural method for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella bacteria were detected in some samples collected from various water distribution systems in the buildings. Remedial action was taken to eliminate these bacteria, and case-by-case results are presented.
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  • 32
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: An empirical statistical model is described for the use of indoor radon monitoring data as an indicator of the areal radon risk from soil and bedrock. The percentages of future homes expected to have radon concentrations exceeding the design level of 200 Bq/m3 unless constructed to provide protection against the entry of radon were assessed. The radon prognosis was made for different subareas, soil types and foundation types. This kind of report is used by the health and building authorities.In this study, 2689 indoor radon measurements were made in one of Finland's most radon-prone areas, consisting of eleven municipalities with a total area of 4600 km2 and a population of 186,000. Radon concentrations were seasonally adjusted. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. The measurements covered different kinds of geological units in the area.The radon risk is highest in the gravel-dominated subarea in an ice-marginal formation and lowest in the northern half of the area in buildings constructed on bedrock. In these two areas, the design level of 200 Bq/m3 would be exceeded in 99% and 39% of new houses with slab-on-grade.
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: As part of the energy and indoor climate survey recently carried out in Sweden (the ELIB study) a simple, inexpensive but reliable passive sampler for estimating monthly averages of relative humidity has been developed. The diffusion sampler consists of a 5 ml plastic tube prepared with lithium chloride monohydrate (LiCl. H2O) as trapping medium. After necessary calibration of this particular design of sampler the relative humidity can be calculated from the weight change of the sampler, the time of sampling and the average temperature during this period. The estimated accuracy of the method is better than k 2% RH up to65% RH.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of air humidification and temperature on thermal comfort in sedentary office work. A blinded twelve-period cross-over trial was carried out in two similar wings of an office building, contrasting 28–39% steam humidification with no humidification, corresponding to 12–28% relative humidity. The length of each period was one working week. The study population was 169 workers who judged their thermal sensations in a weekly questionnaire. The percentage of dissatisfied was lowest when the air temperature was 22 °C. At 22 °C an increase in relative humidity raised the mean thermal sensation only slightly. At 20 °C when the air was humidified there were fewer workers who judged their air temperature as being too low. On the other hand, at 24 °C humidification increased the percentage of workers who judged their air temperature to be too high. The percentage of dissatisfied increased rapidly when the air temperature was outside of its optimum value, 22 °C. The percentage of workers complaining about draft increased when the air temperature was lower than 22 °C. Thus we consider that the temperature range from 20 to 24 °C during wintertime may be too wide without individual temperature control from the point vzew of thermal comfort. We recommend that the air temperature should be kept between 21 and 23 °C if no individual control is available. The best solution would be individual temperature control permitting adjustment of the temperature at 22 ± 2 °C.
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  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Ten healthy humans were exposed to combinations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air temperature (0 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3 of a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds and 18, 22 and 26° C). Previously demonstrated effects of VOCs and thermal exposures were replicated. For the first time nasal cross-sectional areas and nasal volumes, as measured by acoustic rhinometry, were shown to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing VOC exposure. Temperature and pollutant exposures affected air quality, the need for more ventilation, skin humidity on the forehead, sweating, acute sensory irritation and possibly watering eyes in an additive way. Interactions were found for odor intensity (p = 0.1), perceived facial skin temperature and dryness, general well-being, tear film stability, and nasal cavity dimension. The presence of interactions implies that in the future guidelines for acceptable indoor air concentrations of VOCs should depend on room air temperature.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A questionnaire on health symptoms, workplace conditions, and perceived indoor air quality was administered to 3948 employees of the Environmental Protection Agency in Washington, DC in the winter of 1989. The main goal was to determine the personal or workplace characteristics associated with health symptoms.A principal components analysis of 32 health symptoms identified 12 health factors. Each factor was generally associated with a particular body system (eyes, nose, throat, chest, central nervous system, etc.). The 12 health factors were regressed linearly on the 50-100 personal, workplace, and spatial characteristics identified from the questionnaire and building blueprints. Significant variables (p 〈 0.01) were included in a second logistic regression to determine a final model.Eleven variables were associated with multiple health factors. The main workplace variables were dust and glare. Personal characteristics of importance were mold allergies and sensitivity to chemicals. Among women, lack of a college degree was an important factor. Air quality factors of importance included hot stuffy air and dry air: The odor of paint and other chemicals, and the odor of cosmetics were also associated with four or more of the health factors. Two measures of stress – heavy workload and conflicting demands – were also associated with several health factors.
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  • 39
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: In order to investigate the health effects of NO2, emitted from gas cooking stoves, we compared the prevalence of several respiratory symptoms for people living in gas homes (homes with gas cooking stoves) with those for people living in electric homes (homes with electric cooking stoves) in Japan. The survey was conducted in September 1985, with a self-administered questionnaire. No statistically significant differences were found for several respiratory symptoms between electric homes and gas homes among both children (adjusted odds ratios: 0.64–1.80) and their parents (odds ratios: 0.39–0.94). This work represents a preliminary study in Japan. A longitudinal study should be conducted to further investigate the health effects associated with gas cooking stoves.
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  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 41
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) are determined in intake, room-supply and room air in 86 office rooms in 29 office buildings in northern Sweden. Measurements of formaldehyde were also made in room air. Building and room characteristics were identified and symptom reports collected from 1087 office workers. Concentrations of TVOC and formaldehyde in room air were low, with mean values of 71 µg/m3 and 31 µg/m3, respectively. The TVOC concentration was generally lower in room air than in supply air or intake air. The “loss” (difference in measured values) of TVOC from supply to room air was associated with raised concentrations of formaldehyde and raised prevalences of occupant symptoms. High TVOC concentrations in room air were associated with reduced prevalences of occupant symptoms.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from nine toner powders and eleven types of processed paper from photocopying machines (6), laser (3) and matrix printers (21, and one carbonless copy fm has been measured. A total of 61 VOC from toner powders were identified by heating (185 °C) the powder for three minutes for thermal desorption and by gas chromatography followed by the use of low and high resolution EI and CI mass spectrometry. VOC from processed paper were analyzed by headspace sampling on Tenax TA from nylon bags. Thirty-one VOC with a wide range of volatility and persistency were identified from processed paper. The total VOC emission from the various types of paper differed substantially. Using the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC), the calculated initial emission rate of styrene was 5 μg m−2h−1 from a freshly processed paper The VOC emission from machines and the processed paper can be reduced by proper choice of o m e equipment. However, an evaluation should consider all potential pollutants.
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  • 44
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: In a subarctic climate the diurnal variation in temperature may cause water condensation in ducts placed in the unheated spaces of a building. In this study, germination time and sporulation of a fungus, Penicillium verrucosum, were studied on dusty, galvanized steel sheet under different moisture conditions at room temperature. The effect of condensed water in a supply air duct on spore amplification was studied in an experimental ventilation set-up. In the field, air temperatures and the dew point temperature of air in the duct were monitored continuously for a week. P. verrucosum germinated on steel surfaces during five-hour incubation of the surface under humid conditions; when the surface had been moist for half an hour, germ tubes appeared within 17 hours. During 24-hour incubation under moist conditions, P. verrucosum produced hypae and spores. In the experimental set-up the airborne spore counts increased when the air passed through a water-condensingsection of the duct. Penicillium was the most abundant fungus sporulated on the moist duct surface. In the field, during humid weather, the surface temperature on the air stream surface decreased to the dew point temperature of the air in the duct. Thus water condensation in air ducts may promote fungal growth.
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  • 45
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The sampling rate of a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) passive sampling badge was evaluated in indoor environments including an unoccupied research house, residential houses, and an office. Measurements from the NO2 badges were compared with those of a chemiluminescent analyzer the EPA reference method, by placing them near to the sample inlet of the chemiluminescent analyzer In this study, we used a new sampling rate for the NO2 badge placed in indoor environments (an overall mass transfer coefficient of 0.10 cm/s) smaller than the rate previously reported for the badge when used outdoors. The new rate provides more accurate measurements of NO, concentrations in indoor environments. Indoor NO2 concentrations were also measured with the NO2 badges exposed to a constant wind velocity provided by a wind tunnel. Since the measurements of the badge with a constant wind velocity agreed well with the reference method, the badges could be assumed to be a secondary reference measurement. With the badges used as the secondary reference measurement, we developed a portable wind tunnel to evaluate a personal exposure measurement by the badge. The results are presented in Environment International (Lee et al., 1993). Precision of the badge measurements was as good as an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.9779. It was determined that placement of the badge should be at least 10 cm out from an indoor wall surface to avoid undersampling due to NO2 gradients near the surface.
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  • 46
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of a thin, passive, adsorbent sheet containing activated carbon on reducing the concentration of volatile organic compounds in indoor air is investigated. A mathematical model is established to describe the conditions in a hypothetical room containing building materials, furniture, an activated carbon sheet, etc. The results of the modelling show that the activated carbon sheet can reduce the concentration of the organic vapour in the room air by a factor of 1.6 – 200, depending on the resistances to mass transfm in the laminar gas film surrounding the activated carbon sheet and in the voids of the sheet. The maximum value 200 is a theoretical limit, if both the film and void resistances could be eliminated. Minimization of the film and void resistances is important to achieve high effect of the activated carbon sheet. This could be done by e.g. dividing a single sheet into several smaller pieces, hanging the sheets at some places where the airflow is relatively high, and making the sheets thin and loose. For some of the model parameters, estimated or assumed values were used in the calculations. Experimental work regarding sorption equilibria and mass transport properties of the species and materials involved is needed for more accurate results.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Epidemiologic research into the causes of non-specific symptoms among office workers has produced a variety of conflicting findings which are difficult to synthesize. This paper first discusses methodologic issues important in the interpretation of epidemiologic studies, and then reviews the findings of 32 studies of 37 factors potentially related to office worker symptoms. Among environmental factors assessed, there were generally consistent findings associating increased symptoms with air-conditioning, carpets, more workers in a space, VDT use, and ventilation rates at or below 10 liters/second/person. Studies with particularly strong designs found decreased symptoms associated with low ventilation rate, short-term humidification, negative ionization, and improved office cleaning, although studies reviewed showed little consistency of findings for humidification and ionization. Relatively strong studies associated high temperature and low relative humidity with increased symptoms, whereas less strong studies were not consistent. Among personal factors assessed, there were generally consistent findings associating increased symptoms with female gender, job stress/dissatisfaction, and allergies/asthma. For other environmental or personal factors assessed, findings were too inconsistent or sparse for current interpretation, and there were no findings from strong studies. Overall evidence suggested that work related symptoms among office workers were relatively common, and that some of these symptoms represented preventable physiologic effects of environmental exposures or conditions. Future research on this problem should include blind experimental and case-control studies, using improved measurements of both environmental exposures and health outcomes
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Twelve public office buildings were selected for a study of relationships between worker's health symptoms and a number of building, workspace, job, and personal factors. Three buildings were naturally ventilated, three were mechanically ventilated, and six were air conditioned. Information on the prevalences of work-related symptoms, demographics, and job and personal factors were determined via a questionnaire completed by 880 occupants. Several indoor environmental parameters were measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between symptom prevalences and features of the buildings, indoor environments, jobs, and personal factors. A substantial fraction of the occupants in these typical office buildings reported frequent work-related symptoms. The occupants of the mechanically ventilated and air conditioned buildings had sipifcantly more symptoms than occupants of the naturally ventilated buildings after adjustment for confounding factors. Increased prevalences of some symptoms were associated with several job and workspace factors including: presence of carpet, increased use of carbonless copy paper and photocopiers, space sharing, and distance from a window
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  • 49
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Emissions from freshly applied paints and other coatings can cause elevated indoor concentrations of vapor-phase organics. Methods are needed to determine the emission rates over time for these products. Some success has been achieved using simple first-order decay models to evaluate data from small dynamic test chambers. While such empirical approaches may be useful for assessing the emission potmial of indoor sources, a more fundamental approach is needed to fully elucidate the relevant mass transfer processes. As a first step, a simple model based on boundary layer theory has been developed. In this model, the mass transfer rate is assumed to be controlled by the boundary layer mass transfer coefficient, the saturation vapor pressure of the material being emitted, and the mass of volatile material remaining in the source at any point in time. Static and dynamic chamber tests and test house experiments were conducted to obtain model validation data, Preliminary validaion results indicated that the model can be applied to different products with similar solvents. The model provides a better fit to chamber-derived emissions data than the empirical first-order decay model, especially over the decaying portion of the concentration vs. time curve
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  • 50
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: There is evidence that sick building syndrome (SBS) is caused, in part, by indoor surface pollution (ISP): contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, deposited on or in surfaces in buildings. A study is described which clarifies the relative importance of a number of possible causes of SBS in a single building. The building, which had a high initial prevalence of SBS symptoms, was used in a doubleblind controlled intervention study with weekly symptom questionnaires. The four interventions were: ventilation system cleaning, air filtration, hot-water extraction cleaning of chairs and carpets, plus high grade filter vacuuming and dusting, and dust mite treatment (application of liquid nitrogen). Only the last two interventions brought about a reduction in symptoms. It is concluded that cleaning which effectively reduces ISP can reduce SBS symptoms. This may be related to the presence of dust mites in furnishings. Improved cleaning may entail better cleaning specifications and/or consideration of requirements for cleaning when selecting and positioning office furniture. If ISP and the temporary local pollution levels created by it are a problem, then monitoring of ambient conditions (by instruments or by human assessors) will not adequately represent the conditions to which occupants are exposed
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The relative importance of sensory air pollution, thermal load and noise was studied under controlled conditions in two identical environmental chambers. In one chamber subjects were exposed to various levels of either thermal load or poor indoor air quality. For each condition tested in this chamber, the subjects were exposed to a number of noise levels in an adjacent chamber with neutral thermal conditions and good indoor air quality in order to determine a noise level causing the same degree of discomfort. A total of 68 comparisons of the conditions in the two chambers were made by the same group of 16 subjects after one-minute exposure in each chamber. In the operative temperature range of 23–29°C, a 1°C change in operative temperature was found to have the same effect on human comfort as a change in perceived air quality of 2.4 decipol or a change in noise level of 3.9 dB. For levels of perceived air quality up to 10 decipol, a 1 -decipol change in perceived air quality had the same effect on human comfort as a change in noise level of 1.2 dB. A relationship between traffic noise level and percentage dissatisfied was established
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  • 52
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Adsorption, desorption and chemisorption are known to impact the dispersal of volatile organic and chemically reactive compounds in buildings. These same three processes may be used to advantage to control the levels of these compounds indoors using building sorption filtration devices. To add to the understanding of these processes, to provide the means to predict the impact of these processes on human exposure and to provide the tools needed to design gaseous filtration systems to mitigate the exposure to these compounds, a general approach to modeling the dynamics of these processes is presented. Equations are presented to account for the elemental advection, diffusion, sorption, and chemical transport steps affecting single component sorption dynamics in rooms and sorption filtration systems. These element equations are based on general principles and formulated in terms of fundamental physical parameters that may be determined using standard procedures. Models to predict room and sorption filtration system dynamics are formulated using assemblages of these element equations and a series of simplified models of these systems are derived. Initial applications to model single-component sorption transport in rooms and sorption filtration systems indicate that the approach has the potential to provide accurate predictions providing the sorption and chemical characteristics of the sorbate-sorbent system being considered are well-characterized. This potential is, however, compromised by the lack (or present uncertainty) of fundamental data relating to sorption equilibrium, porous diffusion, surface chemistry, and boundary layer mass transport
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  • 53
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the membrane absorber as an air cleaner with small-scale modules. Six small-scale membrane modules with different fibre lengths and fibre diameters have been investigated. Each module has been tested as a membrane absorber treating air with 4 different chemicals, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and acetone, with tap water. The pressure drop and the filtration efficiency has been measured at different flow rates. From these results the optimal membrane module has been selected for the following reasons: low pressure drop, small required membrane surface area and high filtration efficiency. The experiments were continued with the selected module for ETS in a test room. Water soluble compounds were removed with an efficiency of at least 95%. The efficiency was inconsistent for NO, (not expected) and low for hydrocarbons (as expected). The sensory filtration efficiency was also measured with two different methods, the threshold method and the decipol method. Both efficiencies were about 50%. Recommendations for future research are given.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to characterize mold problem buildings by determining concentrations and flora of viable fungi. The composition and concentrations of fungal flora in mold problem (n = 9) and reference buildings (n = 9) were determined by means of four different sampling methods: six-stage impactor (Andersen sampler), sedimentation plate, surface and house dust samples. Samples were taken in the fall and in the winter, and the concentrations and flora in mold problem buildings were compared with those of matched reference buildings. The differences between mold problem and reference buildings were most clearly seen with the impactor samples. The total concentrations of airborne fungi were higher in moldy buildings. In addition, the concentrations of the genera Aspergillus and Oidiodendron in the fall and the concentrations of Aspergillus and Penicillium in the winter were higher in mold problem than in reference buildings. In the winter, certain fungal genera (Stachybotrys, Acremonium, Oedocephalum and Botryosporium) were detected only in the problem buildings in impactor samples. These results indicate that there may be an unusual composition of fungal flora in mold problem buildings. The results of the sedimentation plate samples showed a trend similar to that of impactor samples in the winter. In addition, the results of surface samples supported the data on the fungal flora in the winter-time air samples. The house dust samples did not reveal any differences between mold problem and matched reference buildings.
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  • 55
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Water used to control a fire on an upper floor in a highrise office building wetted furnishings and construction materials on lower floors and resulted in the amplification of microorganisms especially mesophilic and thermotolerant fungi. Concentrations of fungi in indoor air including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Paecilomyces approached or exceeded 104 colony forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3). Airborne endotoxin levels increased about 1 order of magnitude over background levels. Sampling for fungi using both culture plate impactors and spore traps showed that spores were migrating from water damaged to undamaged areas in the office complex. Elevator shafts traversing water damaged floors likely provided the major dispersion pathway of spores into occupied areas. Construction materials such as plaster ceilings that had been wetted during the fire but were free of visual fungal contamination were found to be strong fungal reservoirs after the building had thoroughly dried. Management of microbial contaminants after a fire in a highrise building is an important public health concern and therefore an essential aspect of building restoration.
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  • 56
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Questionnaire reports on symptoms and sensations from 4943 office workers, measurements of indoor climate from 540 office rooms in 160 buildings, and measurements of TVOC in 85 rooms were used in an analysas of the role of indoor air humidity and the sensation of dryness as risk indicators of SBS (Sick Building Syndrome) symptoms. The sensation of dryness was strongly associated with the prevalence of SBS symptom reports. There were no associations between measured indoor air humidity and the prevalence of SBS symptoms or the sensation of dryness. A number of significant associations were demonstrated between the sensation of dryness and technical, air quality, psychosocial and personal variables. The frequency of reports of perceived “dry air” is an important indicator of the “sickness” of a building; indoor air humidity is not an indicator.
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  • 57
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 58
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: This paper investigates the conscious experience of thermal transients, both experimentally and by means of a model of dynamic thermoreception. The experiments involved a sample of twelve human subjects, each undergoing twelve different ambient temperature step-changes. The research design included both temperature up-steps and down-steps, clothed and naked subjects, and transients both away from, and towards, neutrality. Each experiment lasted three hours, with the step- change occurring after 1.5 h when the subjects crossed between the twin climate chambers. Immediate sensations resulting from the temperature up-steps closely resembled later steady-state responses to the warmer environment, while initial impressions of temperature down-steps were typically twice the magnitude of their up-step counterparts. These experimental findings were accurately simulated by a simple thermoreceptor model coupled to a numerical model of heat transfer through clothing and cutaneous tissue. This heightened subjective sensitivity to temperature down-steps was achieved with the model by taking the subcutaneous depth of cold thermoreceptors to be less than that of the warm units, as noted by Hensel in his review of this specialized field (1981).
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  • 59
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 60
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    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The prevalence of symptoms compatible with the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) was measured in a questionnaire study among 4 943 office workers. An assessment of the relation between SBS symptoms and personal, physical and psychosocial exposure factors was made. In contrast to males, the majority of females were lower-grade staff Females reported annoyance from physical climate factors more often, both at work and at home. Males reported a better psychosocial situation than females. Female gender, asthmalrhinitis, paper and VDT work were related to an increased prevalence of SBS symptoms. The prevalence of facial skin symptoms increased markedly with the amount of VDT work. Psychosocial workload intensifid this relation. Inequalities in physical climate and psychosocial conditions associated with different positions held in the offices can be of importance for the increased occurrence of symptoms among females.
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  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Reactive indoor chemistry has seldom been considered in investigations of the health effects of exposure to indoor contaminants although improved understanding may help to reduce exposure misclassification as well as identify previously unknown exposures. Nitrous acid (HONO), formed from the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with water on indoor surfaces, may be a neglected and important confounder in studies of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) health effects. The understanding of HONO – NO2 relationships is important since conventional measurements of NO2 actually measure a number of nitrogen oxides including HONO. Accordingly, we examined the effects of relative humidity, chamber residence time, the presence of carpeted sufaces and the presence of human subjects on the production of HONO following the injection of NO2 into a chamber. Increasing chamber relative humidity led to greater HONO concentrations at a given NO2 level. At 80% relative humidity, HONO concentrations were 11% of the NO2 concentration. Increased residence time in the chamber increased HONO levels, with a five-fold increase in HONO levels between 20 minute and 120 minute residence times. The presence of wool carpets in the chamber was not found to affect significantly the HONO production rates, although NO2 decay rates were increased. When human subjects were present in the chamber, HONO concentrations decreased by as much as 50% of the levels present under similar conditions with no subjects in the chamber. In light of our results we argue that future investigations of NO2 health effects and indoor air quality must recognize the importance of indoor chemistry, and in particular, the likelihood of elevated concentrations of HONO which will interfere with NO2 measurements and potentially confound the investigation of concentration-effect relationships. Similarly, previous studies demonstrating a relationship between health endpoints and NO2 exposure should be viewed with caution until the presence and importance of other potentially toxic nitrogenous compounds in the exposure environment are evaluated.
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  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Geological exploration has dentifid an unsuspected radon-prone belt in southern California. Detailed analysis of aeroradiometric (NARR) data, soil-gas radon, soil permeability, and finally indoor radon has identified the Rincon Shale and Rincon-derived soils in Santa Barbara County as anomalous in uranium and radon. Roughly 74% of houses on the Rincon Shale exceed 4 pCi/l and 26% exceed 20 pCi/l in standardized screening tests (3 to 7 day AC, “closed-house” lived-in rooms). Fifty three percent exceed 4 pCi/l in longer-term measurements (1 to 6 mo, AT) under normal ventilation conditions.Unusually strong correlations between aeroradiometric data, soil-gas radon adjusted for soil permeability, geology, and indoor radon reflect the unaltered character of sedimentary host rocks and a consequent tendency for anomalous uranium to occur throughout given rock units rather than in epzgenetic mineralized zones. Under these circumstances, deliberate geological exploration may be a more eficient approach to indoor radon risk identfication than simple random sampling or non-random testing of houses. By the same token, geological parameters can facilitate radon risk assessment on undeveloped lands. Attention is drawn to multiple populations within radon test samples and the consequent problems in estimating regional parameters.
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  • 64
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Some operators of climate installations still prefer the use of water humidifiers. Soaked surfaces and circulating water; together with impuritiesfiom the ventilation air, create a favourable environment for the growth of numerous microorganisms. Faulty operation of air-conditioners can constitute a risk to health. This has been proved many times in cases of certain hospital-acquired infections, a classic example being pneumonias caused by Legionella pneumophila. For this reason, the possibility of suppressing microbial contamination of circulating water in humidifis by using the oligodynamic potential of silver ions was investigated. Basic hygienic requirements were put fmard to ensure adequate quality of water in humidifis of air-conditioning installations.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: This paper presents a series of fill-scale measurements of the concentration distribution in the centre plane of a room with isothermaI mixing ventilation.Vertical projiles of the concentration in the middle of the room have been measured under different conditions. With the contamination source in the middle of the room the vertical profiles were changed radically with an increase of the air change rate from n = 1.5h−1 to n = 6h−1 due to a change in the flow structure in the room. With a constant air change rate, the location of the contamination source in the room showed a great influence on the vertical profile. A high velocity around the contamination source resulted in a uniform contaminant distribution in the room, while a low velocity resulted in considerable differences.Contours of concentration in the centre plane of the room have been measured using different contaminant densities. The densities were low, neutral and high in relation to the density of air. The results showed that the contaminant distribution in the room with the chosen flow conditions depended strongly on the contaminant density, and that the high density case gave the highest concentrations in the occupied zone.
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  • 66
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: This paper presents the results of indoor radon surveys in the Sichuan province of China. The indoor radon concentrations found using scintillation or the two-filter method, ranged from 1.0 Bqm−3 to 170.2 Bqm−3. The arithmetic mean concentrations of indoor radon and its progeny were 17.8 Bqm−3 and 10.8 Bqm−3 EER (2.9 m WL), respectively. A seasonal pattern of the maximum in winter and the minimum in summer was observed for radon and its progeny concentrations. The annual effective dose equivalent resulting from indoor and outdoor inhalation of radon progeny totalled 0.93 mSv. Of the 109 million people living in Sichuan, 3000-6800 may die annually from lung cancer induced by the inhalation of radon progeny.
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  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study aimed to investigate the presence of microorganisms in the inner thread of the fixture (endosteal implant part) of the Brånemark™ system. In 9 volunteers the apical part of 2 abutment screws that had been in place for 3 months was examined by means of differential phase-contrast microscopy. All screws harboured a significant quantity of micro-organisms, mainly coccoid cells (86.2%) and nonmotile rods (12.3%). Motile organisms (1.3%) or spirochetes (0.1%) were only sporadically registered. A microbial leakage at the abutment/fixture interface probably is the most probable origin for this contamination.
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  • 68
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An experiment was carried out to determine whether endosseous titanium implants (Brånemarks®) retain their clinical stability throughout a 26-week period of continuously applied force (2 N) and what kind of marginal peri-implant bone changes occur in the process. For this purpose 6 premolars (P3: mandible/maxilla and P4: mandible) were extracted from each of 2 foxhounds, and 12 implants (6 per dog) were positioned in the edentulous maxillary and mandibular areas after the alveolar healing period. Following a 25-week implant healing period, 8 fixtures (P3 areas) were used as anchoring elements for distalization of the 2nd premolars over a period of 26 weeks: 4 implants served as a control group (P4areas of the mandible). There were no clinical or histological signs of implant dislocation after the load application period. In the presence of mild peri-implant gingivitis, no increase was found in the incidence of marginal bone resorption adjacent to the loaded implants compared with the non-loaded implants. In the absence of marginal resorption, subperiosteal bone apposition was detected especially around the test implants in the mandible. This suggests that endosseous titanium implants are suitable as anchoring units for longer-term orthodontic tooth movements. The applied force may moreover induce marginal bone appositions adjacent I to the implants.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Complete restoration of an osseous defect around a TiAl6V4(IMZ) implant is accomplished by the combined use of an implant placed in the alveolus of a fractured lower bicuspid and the principles of guided tissue regeneration. Gengiflex (Gengiflex - BioFill - Productos Biotecnologices, Curitiba, PR, Brazil), a new membrane, was used to cover the implant and porous hydroxyapatite was used as grafting material. The filling of the osseous defect that also covered the implant was verified clinically at re-entry 6 months later. Histological analysis of the mineralized tissue collected during exposure of the implant confirmed bone formation.
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  • 70
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Radiofrequent magnetron sputtering was used to produce calcium phosphate coatings on metal and plastic substrates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the deposited films had a uniform thickness and a dense columnar structure. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray crystal diffraction and atomic absorption spectrometry demonstrated that the sputtered layer was well-crystallized calcium phosphate ceramic with a Ca/P ratio varying between 1.9 and 2.5. The biocompatibility of the coatings was determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. It was found that the coatings were biocompatible without any sign of adverse tissue reaction. It was concluded that magnetron sputtering is a promising method for forming a biocompatible ceramic coating onto an implant material. Nevertheless, several problems have to be solved before magnetron sputtering can be used on a routine basis for the production of Ca/P coatings.
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  • 71
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Satisfactory functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of a patient after total bilateral maxillectomy is a great challenge to the surgeon and prosthodontist. A particular problem is support and retention of the obturator. In the case described, the problem was solved by attaching the prosthesis with finger clasps to a classic AO-reconstruction plate anchored rigidly with screws to both zygomata. The results in terms of mastication, swallowing, phonation and aesthetics were satisfactory for more than 2 years, when the patient died from brain metastasis and pneumonia. The technique seems promising and merits further study using titanium screws and plates.
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  • 72
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The study examines the effect of maxillary prosthetic appliances on the composition of the microflora in the peri-implant sulcus. Two groups of patients participated. One group consisted of 18 people with removable prostheses, and a second group of 9 people with fixed prostheses was chosen to match them in age. sex and function period of their prosthetic appliances. One implant site per patient was chosen for microbiological sampling, and the samples were taken on 2 separate occasions from all the subjects, with a 3-month interval. From those with removable prostheses, a further sample was collected by scraping a squared area from the mucosal side of the prosthesis. The prevalence of black-pigmented Porphyromonasl Prevotella. Actinohacllus actinomycetemcomitans, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, enteric bacteria and yeasts was analysed using blood-agar and selective agar media. The results show that the prevalence was significantly higher for Lactohacillus, Prevotella spp. and yeasts in subjects with removable prostheses than in subjects with fixed prostheses. No significant difference was registered in the pattern of microbial composition in subjects with the removable prosthesis when the peri-implant sulcus plaque and the biofilm on the corresponding mucosal side of their prosthesis were examined. The insertion of a removable reconstruction to cover the area of the osseointegrated implants gave rise to a progressive change in the peri-implant plaque towards a-more aciduric micrdflora.
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