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  • 1
    Keywords: Leukemia / therapy ; Prognosis
    Notes: Last volumes with varying subtitle and editor.
    ISSN: 0949-7021
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  • 2
    Keywords: Hazardous Substances / toxicity
    Notes: Ceased with vol. 15(1999).
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Disque intervertébral ; Dégénérescence ; Contraintes ; Corps vertébral ; Lésion traumatique ; Intervertebral disc ; Degeneration ; Stress ; Vertebral body ; Injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that damage to a lumbar vertebral body can lead to abnormal stress concentrations in the adjacent intervertebral discs. Twenty-three cadaveric lumbar “motion segments”, from persons who had died aged between 19 and 87 years, were subjected to substantial compressive loading while in the neutral, lordotic and flexed “postures”. During the loading period, a miniature pressure transducer was pulled through the disc along its mid-sagittal diameter and graphs of horizontal and vertical compressive stress against distance were obtained. Measurements were repeated after each motion segment had been compressed up to the point of mechanical failure: at this point the vertebral bodies suffered minor damage to the trabecular arcades, and sometimes to the end-plate, but the structure remained essentially intact and motion segment height was reduced by only 1%–2%. After damage, the stress in the nucleus and anterior annulus fell by about 30%, and high stress peaks appeared in the inner posterior annulus. These changes were more pronounced in lordotic posture and less pronounced in flexion. The youngest discs showed the smallest changes. It is concluded that minor compressive damage to the vertebral body can lead to high stress concentrations in the posterior annulus. Since the vertebral body is the “weak link” of the lumbar spine, this may be a frequent precipitating cause of isolated disc failure in living people.
    Notes: Résumé Le but de cette recherche a été de confirmer l'hypothèse selon laquelle l'altération d'un corps vertébral peut créer une concentration anormale des contraintes dans les disques intervertébraux adjacents. 23 segments mobiles cadavériques prélevés sur des sujets de 19 à 87 ans, ont été soumis à une charge importante, en position dite neutre, en extension et en flexion. Pendant la phase de mise en charge, un capteur de pression miniaturisé, placé dans de disque, le long de son diamètre sagittal médian, a permis d'obtenir les courbes des contraintes de compression horizontale et verticale; les mesures ont été répétées après que chaque segment mobile a été comprimé jusqu'au point de rupture mécanique: les corps vertébraux ont présenté alors des altérations mineures au niveau des travées spongieuses et parfois des plateaux, mais leur structure est restée intacte et la hauteur du segment mobile ne s'est réduite que de 1 à 2%. Après le traumatisme, les contraintes ont chuté d'environ 30% dans le nucléus et la partie antérieure de l'annulus, et des pics de contrainte élevés sont apparus dans les couches profondes de la partie postérieure de l'annulus. Ces modifications ont été plus importantes en extension et moins prononcées en flexion. Les disques les plus jeunes ont présenté les modifications les plus discrètes. En conclusion, les tassements mineurs du corps vertébral peuvent conduire à des concentrations de contraintes très élevées dans la partie postérieure de l'annulus. Le corps vertébral étant le point faible du rachis lombaire, son altération peut être considérée comme une cause fréquente de faillite discale.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Tuberculose du rachis ; Enfants ; Chirurgie radicale et débridement ; Résultat à long terme ; Déformation cyphotique ; Tuberculosis of the spine ; Children ; Radical and débridement surgery ; Long-term outcome ; Kyphotic deformity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary We reviewed 80 children (39 male, 41 female) with tuberculosis of the spine, all of whom were subjects of the Medical Research Council Working Party's study in Hong Kong. Forty-seven children were treated with radical surgery and the remaining 33 with débridement surgery. The mean ages at operation for radical surgery and débridement were 7.6 and 5.1 years respectively, and the mean post-operative follow-up was 15.3 and 19.7 years respectively. The clinical and radiological data obtained pre-operatively, 6 months, 1 year and 5 years post-operatively, and at final follow-up were analysed. Neither patients treated with radical nor those treated with débridement surgery had pain or neurological deficit at final follow-up. In the radical surgery group, there was a reduction of the angles of kyphosis and deformity following surgery, which was maintained throughout subsequent follow-up years. However, in the débridement surgical group, there was an increase in the angles of kyphosis and deformity following surgery, which showed a tendency to spontaneous correction in the long term. In this study we did not observe any progressive kyphosis in either group.
    Notes: Résumé Nous avons revu 80 enfants (39 garçons, 41 filles) présentant une tuberculose du rachis, tous faisant partic de l'étude “MRC Working Party” de Hong Kong. 47 furent traités par chirurgie radicale et les 33 restants par débridement chirurgical. Les âges moyens des cas opérés radicalement et par débridement étaient respectivement de 7,6 et 5,1 ans, et le suivi post-opératoire était respectivement de 15,3 et 19,7 années. On a analysé les données cliniques et radiologiques recueillies avant l'opération, au 6e mois, à ` an, à 5 ans après l'opération et lors du dernier contrôle post-opératoire. Les patients traités soit par l'une soit par l'autre méthode chirurgicale ne présentaient pas de douleur ni de déficit neurologique lors du dernier contrôle. Dans le groupe traité radicalement, on a noté après l'opération, une diminution de la déformation et des angles de cyphose. Ces effets se sont maintenus au cours des années suivantes. Cependant, dans le groupe ayant eu un débridement chirurgical, il y avait après l'opération une augmentation de la déformation et de l'angle de cyphose, qui présentaient à long terme une tendance à la correction spontanée. Dans cette étude nous n'avons pas observé de cyphose progressive dans l'un quelconque des groupes étudiés.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Spondylarthrite ankylosante ; Hématome ; Rachis ; Fracture ; Ankylosing spondylitis ; Haematoma ; Spine ; Fracture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary We report the case of a patient suffering from spinal epidural haematoma and thoracic spinal fracture, and from ankylosing spondylitis. Fourteen cases of spinal epidural haematoma in association with ankylosing spondylitis have been reported in the literature, 12 of them at a cervical level. Spinal epidural haematoma found in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis share the same clinical picture as other haematomas, the notion of time being the main feature. Serious neurological complications caused the death of five patients. The case we report is singular for its thoracic localization and two attacks of total paralysis both followed by spontaneous and complete recovery. Today, MRI is the best method to reach a clear and reliable diagnosis. Widespread use of MRI will certainly increase the number of diagnoses made. Our patient underwent operation including osteosynthesis using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. This enabled him to resume his professional activities only 30 days after his accident.
    Notes: Résumé Nous avons rapporté le cas d'un hématome épidural rachidien associé à une fracture du rachis thoracique survenant chez un patient porteur d'une spondylarthrite ankylosante. 14 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature, dont 12 au niveau cervical. Les hématomes épiduraux rachidiens découverts chez les patients porteurs d'une spondylarthrite ankylosante présentent le même tableau clinique que les autres hématomes — la notion de temps étant le critère principal. Des complications neurologiques graves ont provoqué la mort chez 5 patients. Le cas présenté ici est caractérisé par sa localisation thoracique et la survenue de deux poussées de paralysie totale suivie d'une récupération spontanée et complète. Actuellement, l'IRM est le meilleur moyen d'obtenir un diagnostic sûr et fiable. L'utilisation large de l'IRM va certainement augmenter le nombre des diagnostics. Notre patient a été opéré et a bénéficié d'une ostéosynthèse par le matériel de Cotrel-Dubousset. Cette intervention lui a permis de reprendre ses activités professionnelles dès le 30e jour après l'accident.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Biomécanique ; Rachis cervical ; Courbe effort-déplacement ; Zone neutre ; Rigidité ; Biomechanics ; Cervical spine ; Load-displacement curves ; Neutral zone ; Stiffness
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Our aim was to determine the biomechanical properties of the normal human cervical spine under physiological static loads. The three-dimensional displacements under three pure moments: flexion-extension, left-right lateral bending and left-right axial torsion — were measured in 56 intact functional spinal units (FSUs) taken from between C2 and C7 in 29 human cadavers. For each mode of loading, load-displacement curves were plotted. Then we calculated each neutral zone, range of motion, neutral zone ratio, ratio of coupled motion, limit moment and secant stiffness. The effects of intervertebral disc degeneration and the disc level were also taken into account by the analysis of variance. Our results adequately demonstrated both the non-linearity of load-displacement curves and the neutral zone of the cervical spine in three-dimensional space. At the same time, we found statistically that the stiffness in the three planes are significantly different, as are the stiffnesses in lateral bending of successive different FSUs. However, significant differences of stiffness in different states of disc degeneration were only found in right lateral bending. There were significant differences between levels in ratio of coupled motion under both lateral bending and axial torsion. The loading cycle conditions and the biomechanical responses of principal motion of C1-2 are also reported.
    Notes: Résumé L'objectif de notre étude est de déterminer le comportement mécanique du rachis cervical humain soumis á des charges physiologiques statiques. Les déplacements tridimensionnels dus à trois moments de couple purs (flexion-extension, inflexion latérale gauche-droite et torsion axiale gauche-droite), sont mesurés sur 56 unités fonctionnelles rachidiennes intactes (UF) de C2 à C7 prélevées sur 29 sujets. Les courbes effort-déplacement sont tracées pour chaque sollicitation. Nous calculons ensuite la zone neutre (ZN), la mobilité maximale (MM), le rapport de ZN à MM, le rapport du déplacement couplé au déplacement principal (RDC), le moment limite et la rigidité sécante. L'influence de la dégénérescence du disque intervertébral et du niveau d'UF sont aussi étudiées avec une analyse de variance (ANOVA). Nos résultats montrent bien la non linéarité des courbes effort-déplacement et la ZN du rachis cervical dans les trois plants de l'espace. Nous trouvons des différences significatives de rigidité entre trois sollicitations appliquées. Lorsque nous sollicitons en inflexion latérale nous observons des différences significatives de rigidité d'un niveau vertébral à l'autre. Mais la différence de rigidité concernant différents états de dégénérescence de disque n'est significative qu'en inclinaison latérale droite. Le RDC sous inflexion latérale et torsion axiale est significativement différent entre différents niveaux d'UF. L'influence du cycle d'effort et la réponse mécanique de C1-C2 en déplacement principal sont aussi présentées.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Diminution des capacités fonctionnelles pulmonaires ; Scoliose idiopathique de l'adolescent ; Scoliose congénitale ; Fusion rachidienne ; Restrictive pattern of pulmonary function ; Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis ; Congenital scoliosis ; Spinal fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary This paper presents the results of pulmonary function analysis in 141 subjects. Thirty-five of these were patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 36 had congenital scoliosis, and the remaining 70 were age-, sex-, height-, weight- and arm-span-matched normal subjects used as controls for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had their pulmonary function evaluated pre- and post-operatively. At pre-operative evaluation the mean age was 13.7 years and the mean cobb angle 48°; at post-operative evaluation the figures were 17.1 years and 36° respectively. In the congenital scoliosis group the mean age was 14.5 years and the mean Cobb angle 42°, and pulmonary functions were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The results are as follows: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: (i) Marked disproportion was found in the pulmonary volumes following spinal surgery. After taking growth of the thoracic cage into account, the total lung capacity remained unchanged whilst the vital capacity was significantly reduced and there was a significant increase in residual volume. (ii) This disproportionate increase in residual volume was further confirmed by very highly significantly increased residual volume/vital capacity and residual volume/total lung capacity ratios at post-operative evaluation compared to pre-operative ratios (Mann-Whitney test, P=0.001). (iii) The residual volume was 48% of vital capacity pre-operatively compared to 35% in normal controls. The percentages increased to 70% post-operatively, whilst it was unchanged in the matched controls. Congenital scoliosis: (i) The mean residual volume was markedly increased (154% of predicted value). (ii) Vital capacity was significantly reduced in surgically treated patients (68% of predicted values). (iii) This pattern of reduced vital capacity was more marked in those patients who had multiple thoracic anomalies and were treated surgically (46% of predicted value). However, those patients with multiple thoracic anomalies who did not require surgery did not show such reduction of vital capacity. Comparison between idiopathic and congenital scoliosis: (i) In unoperated patients, the percentages of predicted values of total lung capacity, vital capacity and residual volume were significantly greater in congenital scoliosis than in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. (ii) Post-operatively there was no significant difference in the percentages of predicted values of total lung capacity, vital capacity and residual volume between patients with congenital scoliosis and those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, despite the difference in pathogenesis. These findings have relevance to scoliotic patients treated with spinal fusion with regard to their capability to perform strenuous physical activities.
    Notes: Résumé Cet article présente les résultats d'une étude de la fonction pulmonaire menée chez 141 patients. 35 d'entre eux présentaient une scoliose idiopathique de l'adolescent, et 36 une scoliose congénitale; les 70 restants, assortis aux précédents en âge, sexe, taille et poids ont servi de témoins dans l'évaluation des scolioses idiopathiques. Les patients présentant une scoliose idiopathique de l'adolescent ont subi une évaluation de leurs fonctions pulmonaires avant et après l'opération. Lors de l'évaluation préopératoire, l'âge moyen était de 13.7 ans et l'angle de Cobb de 48°. Ces valeurs sont passées respectivement à 17.1 ans et 36°. L'âge moyen et l'angle de Cobb étaient respectivement de 14.5 ans et 42°, et les fonctions pulmonaires ont été évaluées avec un délai d'au moins 3 ans après l'intervention. Les résultats s'établissent comme suit: Scoliose idiopathique de l'adolescent: (i) Une disproportion notable a été retrouvée dans les valeurs des volumes respiratoires après chirurgie rachidienne. En tenant compte de la croissance de la cage thoracique, la capacité respiratoire totale est restée inchangée tandis que la capacité vitale s'est réduite de manière significative. On a noté une augmentation significative du volume résiduel. (ii) Cette élévation disproportionnée du volume résiduel a été ensuite confirmée par une augmentation très significative des rapports volume résiduel/capacité vitale et volume résiduel/capacité totale, lors de l'évaluation post-opératoire par rapport à l'évaluation préopératoire (test de Mann-Whitney, P=0.001). (iii) Le volume résiduel représentait 48% de la capacité vitale préopératoire, alors qu'il était de 35% chez les témoins normaux. Le pourcentage s'est élevé à 70% après l'opération, alors qu'il est resté inchangé chez les témoins. Scoliose congénitale: (i) La valeur moyenne du volume résiduel était notablement élevée (154% de la valeur prévue). (ii) La capacité vitale était significativement réduite chez les patients traités chirurgicalement (68% des valeurs prévues). (iii) Cette réduction de la capacité vitale était plus marquée chez les patients présentant des anomalies thoraciques multiples et traités chirurgicalement (46% des valeurs prévues). Cependant, les patients présentant des anomalies thoraciques multiples, qui n'ont pas nécessité de chirurgie, n'ont pas présenté une telle réduction de la capacité vitale. Comparaison entre les scolioses idiopathiques et congénitales: (i) Chez les patients non opérés, le pourcentage des valeurs prévues de la capacité totale, de la capacité vitale et du volume résiduel a été significativement plus élevé dans les scolioses congénitales que dans les scolioses idiopathiques de l'adolescent. (ii) Il n'y a pas eu de différence post-opératoire significative du pourcentage des valeurs prévues de la capacité totale, de la capacité vitale et du volume résiduel, entre les patients présentant une scoliose congénitale et ceux présentant une scoliose idiopathique, malgré la différence pathogénique. Ces découvertes ont un intérêt certain chez les patients scoliotiques traités par fusion vertébrale, pour ce qui concerne leur aptitude aux activités physiques intensives.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Thoracotomie ; Fusion costale ; Scoliose ; Atrésie de l'œsophage ; Thoracotomy ; Rib fusion ; Scoliosis ; Esophageal atresia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary This is a report of a 6-year-old boy who was operated upon twice for congenital esophageal atresia immediately after birth, via a right posteriolateral thoracotomy without rib excision, and at the age of 5 years developed a high left-convex thoracic scoliosis with Cobb angle of 15° due to an unilateral acquired fusion between the dorsal ends of the fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs. The scoliosis had progressed by 5° 1 year later. Although congenital scoliosis associated with rib fusion is a well known entity, to the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an acquired rib fusion producing progressive scoliosis.
    Notes: Résumé Cet article rapporte le cas d'un enfant de 6 ans, opéré à deux reprises à sa naissance pour une atrésie congénitale de l'œsophage, par une thoracotomie postérolatérale droite sans résection costale. Il a développé à l'âge de 5 ans une scoliose thoracique sinistro-convexe de 15°, en raison d'une fusion acquise entre les extrémités postérieures des 4e, 5e et 6e côtes. Une année plus tard la scoliose s'est aggravée de 5°. Bien que l'association d'une scoliose congénitale à une fusion costale soit une entité bien connue, ce cas est le premier rapportant une scoliose évolutive secondaire à une fusion costale acquise.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Rachis cervical ; Subluxation rotatoire ; Articulations interapophysaires ; Artère vertébrale ; Arthrodèse rachidienne ; Cervical spine ; Rotatory subluxation ; Facet joint ; Vertebral artery ; Spine fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary In a retrospective study of 22 patients with unilateral locked facet syndrome of the cervical spine, diagnostic and treatment problems were analysed. Diagnosis was delayed in ten patients; in two-thirds of the patients minor or major therapeutic problems were encountered. The treatment protocol advised manipulative reduction and-before 1986-posterior fusion by bone blocks and interspinous wiring; after 1986 ventral intercorporeal fusion by plates was recommended. Closed reduction manoeuvres risk dislocation of intervertebral discs, overdistraction of the spinal cord or injury to the vertebral artery. Unreduced and unfused dislocations are likely to develop chronic instability. Dorsal wiring is an inadequate form of stabilization and ventral plates or dorsal hooks are preferred. To prevent treatment problems a treatment protocol is proposed according to which open reduction following anterior discectomy, operative decompression of endangered nerve roots and stable one-level fusion is done. In non-acute injuries neural structures are decompressed; posterior fusion is done without attempts at reduction.
    Notes: Résumé Les auteurs ont analysé les problèmes diagnostiques et thérapeutiques chez 22 patients présentant une luxation unilatérale du rachis cervical avec accrochage des facettes articulaires. Le diagnostic a été retardé chez dix patients; des problèmes thérapeutiques plus ou moins importants ont été rencontrés chez 2/3 d'entre eux. Le protocole thérapeutique a comporté une réduction manuelle associée jusqu'en 1986 à une arthrodèse postérieure par greffe osseuse et cerclage interépineux; après 1986 on a fait appel à une arthrodèse antérieure intersomatique associée à une ostéosynthèse par plaque vissée. Les manoeuvres de réduction à ciel fermé risquent d'entraîner un déplacement du disque intervertébral, un excès de distraction de la moelle épinière et une lésion de l'artère vertébrale. Les luxations non réduites et non arthrodésées évoluent selon toute probabilité vers l'instabilité chronique. Le cerclage postérieur est un mode de stabilisation insuffisant et l'on préfère les plaques antérieures et les plaques postérieures à crochet. Afin d'éviter les problèmes thérapeutiques, un protocole de traitement est proposé qui associe successivement une discectomie antérieure, une réduction par voie antérieure, une décompression chirurgicale des racine nerveuses menacées et une arthrodèse stable unisegmentaire. En dehors de la phase aigue, les structures nerveuses sont décomprimées; l'arthrodèse postérieure est réalisée sans tentative de réduction.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 89-95 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Cinétique rachidienne ; Rachis lombaire ; Ligne R-Zéro ; Hernie discale lombaire ; Spondylolisthésis ; Spinal kinematics ; Lumbar spine ; R-zero line ; Herniated lumbar disc ; Spondylolisthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A new kinematic concept is described that relates to the notion that the lumbar spine behaves as a complete structure. This concept is called the “R-zero line” and represents kinematically the neutral position of the lumbar spine between anteflexion and retroflexion. The clinical significance of this parameter is evaluated in normal individuals and in patients with a symptomatic herniated disc at L4–5, with a symptomatic herniated disc at L5–S1, and with spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis. The results of this study show that the R-zero line has a characteristic configuration in all four test groups.
    Notes: Résumé Un nouveau concept cinématique est décrit selon lequel le rachis lombaire se comporte comme une structure entière. Ce concept est appelé “la ligne R-Zéro” et représente au plan cinématique la position neutre du rachis lombaire, entre la flexion et l'extension. La signification clinique de ce paramètre est évaluée chez les individus normaux, des patients présentant une hernie discale L4–L5 ou L5–S1 symptomatique et d'autres porteurs d'une spondylolyse ou d'un spondylolisthésis. les résultats de cette étude montrent que la ligne R-Zéro présente une configuration caractéristique dans chacun des quatre groupes témoins.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Arthrite rhumatoïde ; Calcification ; Ligaments spinaux ; Tomodensitométrie ligamentaire ; Arthritis,rheumatoid ; Calcification ; Ligaments, spinal ; Ligaments, computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Ossification of the transverse atlantoid ligament (TAL) is rare. A few cases have been reported by Wackenheim and Dietemann and others. Calcification of the TAL has also been seen in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. It is important to differentiate this condition from traumatic lesions of the dens axis.
    Notes: Résumé L'ossification du ligament transverse de l'atlas est un phénomène rare. Quelques rares cas ont été rapportés par Wackenheim et Dietemann [2, 3, 5]. La calcification du ligament transverse de l'atlas a aussi été rapportée dans la chondrocalcinose. II est important de distinguer cette pathologie des lésions traumatiques de l'odontoïde.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 117-117 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Rachis ; Os ; Fractures vertébrales ; Solidité vertébrale ; Métastases ; Spine ; Bone ; Vertebral fractures ; Vertrebral strength ; Metastases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Transcortical osseous lesions were simulated in thoracic vertebrae to investigate the effects on vertebral strength of defect location, pedicle disruption, and defect size. Alternate vertebrae from 15 thoracic spines were assigned to five defect groups: anterior, posterior, lateral, one pedicle, or both pedicles. The remaining vertebrae served as controls. All vertebrae were tested to failure in combined axial — flexion loading. The intact failure load for each vertebra with a defect was estimated based on the actual failure loads of the control vertebrae from the same spine. The failure loads for vertebrae with transcortical defects (anterior, posterior, lateral) were significantly lower (P=0.0001) than estimated intact loads; this was not the case for vertebrae with single pedicle disruption (P=0.90). Relative strengths (defined as actual failure load divided by predicted intact failure load) for the anterior (mean=0.51), posterior (0.55) and lateral (0.58) defect groups were not significantly different from each other, but were different from the single pedicle defect group (1.09). Relative strength depended only weakly on defect size. Comparison of these results with those of a previous study of simulated defects in the vertebral centrum suggests that transcortical defects result in slightly greater reductions in vertebral strength than defects of comparable size involving only trabecular bone.
    Notes: Résumé Des lésions osseuses avec effraction corticale ont été simulées au niveau des vertèbres thoraciques afin d'étudier les effets du siège du défect, de sa taille et de la rupture pédiculaire sur la solidité vertébrale. Des vertèbres provenant de 15 rachis thoraciques ont été regroupés en 5 types topographiques de défects: antérieur, postérieur, latéral, un seul pédicule ou deux pédicules. Les autres vertèbres ont servi de témoins. Toutes les vertèbres ont été soumises à une charge combinée de compression axiale et de flexion jusqu'à leur rupture. La charge de rupture présumée des vertèbres préparées, en dehors de tout défect, a été estimée d'après les charges de rupture effectives des vertèbres témoins du même rachis. Les charges de rupture des vertèbres présentant un défect cortical (antérieur, postérieur, latéral) se sont montrées significativement moins élevées (p=0,0001) que les charges de rupture estimées sur les vertèbres intactes; cela n'a pas été le cas des vertèbres présentant une rupture pédiculaire simple (p=0.90). Les solidités relatives (définies comme le rapport de la charge de rupture des vertèbres présentant un défect à la charge de rupture estimée sur les vertèbres intactes) ne présentaient pas de différences dans les groupes vertébraux porteurs d'un défect antérieur (moyenne=0,51), postérieur (0,55) et latéral (0,58), mais différaient de celles du groupe présentant un défect pédiculaire simple (1,09). La solidité relative ne dépendait que faiblement de la taille du défect. La comparaison de ces résultats à ceux d'une étude préalable portant sur des vertèbres présentant des défects corporéaux centraux laisse penser que les défects corticaux provoquent une diminution de la solidité vertébrale un peu plus importante que celle engendrée par des défects de taille comparable ne touchant que l'os spongieux.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Pelvis ; Ligament sacro-tubéral ; Muscle biceps fémoral ; Stabilité articulaire ; Articulation sacro-iliaque ; Pelvis ; Sacrotuberous ligament ; Biceps femoris muscle ; Joint Stability ; Sacroiliac joint
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is often overlooked as a possible cause of low back pain. This is due to the use of reductionistic anatomical models. From a kinematic point of view, topographic anatomical models are generally inadequate, since they categorize pelvis, lower vertebral column and legs as distinct entities. This functional-anatomical study focuses on the question whether anatomical connections between the biceps femoris muscle and the sacrotuberous ligament are kinematically useful. Forces applied to the tendon of the biceps femoris muscle, simulating biceps femoris muscle force, were shown to influence sacrotuberous ligament tension. Since sacrotuberous ligament tension influences sacroiliac joint kinematics, hamstring training could influence the sacroiliac joint and thus low back kinematics. The clinical implications with respect to ‘short’ hamstrings, pelvic instability and walking are discussed.
    Notes: Résumé On pense rarement au dysfonctionnement de l'articulation sacro-iliaque comme cause possible de “lombalgie”. Cela est dû au fait que l'on a recours bien souvent à des modèles anatomiques incomplets. D'un point de vue cinématique, les modèles habituels d'anatomie topographique sont généralement insuffisants car ils individualisent le pelvis, la colonne lombaire inférieure et les membres inférieurs comme des entités distinctes. Cette étude anatomo-fonctionnelle centre son intérêt sur la question de savoir si les relations anatomiques entre le muscle biceps fémoral et le ligament sacro-tubéral sont cinématiquement utiles. Les forces appliquées au tendon du muscle biceps fémoral, semblent influencer la tension du ligament sacro-tubéral. Comme la tension du ligament sacro-tubéral influence la cinématique de l'articulation sacro-iliaque, l'entraînement des ischio-jambiers pourrait influencer l'articulation sacro-iliaque et ainsi la cinématique du rachis lombaire. Les applications cliniques concernant la rétraction des ischio-jambiers, l'instabilité pelvienne et la marche sont discutées.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Fractures de l'odontoïde ; Fracture de la dens ; Vissage antérieur ; Pseudarthrose de l'odontoïde ; Lésion du rachis cervical supérieur ; Odontoid fracture ; Dens fracture ; Anterior screw fixation ; Nonunion of the dens ; Upper cervical spine injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Clinical results of anterior screw fixation in 45 patients with odontoid fractures were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were 36 males and 9 females, with fractures classified as 35 type II and 10 type III. There were 34 fresh and 11 old fractures. Neurological complications were present in 16 patients and 18 had associated injuries. All patients underwent single screw fixation. Postoperative immobilization, external support, and surgical trauma were minimal. In one patient a screw extruded from the dens and immediate posterior fusion was necessary. The overall rate of fracture union was 93% (41 out of 44 fractures). Fracture resolution averaged 5.2 months. There were two delayed unions and three nonunions, the causes of which were preoperatively established nonunion, severe osteoporosis, and inaccurate screw placement. Out of 11 old cases, 8 went on to union. Ninety-six percent of the patients recovered neurologically. The overall complication rate, including a misplaced screw, a retropharyngeal wall injury, and three nonunions, was 11%. Head rotation was preserved in 90% of the patients with fracture union according to clinical measurements. Anterior screw fixation is an excellent treatment for fresh type II and cephalad type III odontoid fractures, carrying a high union rate, preservation of the C1–2 motion segment, and minimal surgical trauma; it can be applied even to some old cases. Precise patient selection in regard to patient age, bone density, and time elapsed since injury as well as preoperative anatomical reduction and meticulous surgical technique with fine fluoroscopy are essential to avoid complications and nonunions.
    Notes: Résumé Ce travail porte sur une étude rétrospective du vissage antérieur chez 45 patients présentant une fracture de l'odontoïde. La population comportait 36 hommes et 9 femmes dont les fractures étaient du type II dans 35 cas et du type III dans 10 cas. II y avait 34 fractures fraîches et 11 cas anciens. Les complications neurologiques ont été retrouvées chez 16 patients et 18 présentaient des lésions associées. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une ostéosynthèse par une seule vis. L'immobilisation postopératoire, le port d'un collier et le traumatisme chirurgical ont été réduites au minimum. Chez l'un des patients la vis est sortie de l'odontoïde et une fusion postérieure immédiate s'est avérée nécessaire. Le taux global de consolidation a été de 93% (41 fractures sur 44). Le délai de consolidation a été en moyenne de 5.2 mois. On a relevé deux retards de consolidation et trois pseudarthroses dont les causes ont été une pseudarthrose préopératoire avérée, une ostéoporose sévère et une situation inadéquate de la vis. Parmi les 11 lésions anciennes, huit ont consolidé. 96% des patients ont présenté une récupération neurologique. Le taux global des complications a été de 11%, regroupant une fausse route de vissage, une blessure de la paroi postérieure du pharynx et trois pseudarthroses. Selon les évaluations cliniques, la rotation de la tête a été préservée chez 90% des patients ayant consolidé. Le vissage antérieur est un traitement optimal pour les fractures fraĩches de type II et III de l'odontoïde, permettant un fort pourcentage de consolidation, la préservation de la mobilité du segment C1–C2 et un traumatisme chirurgical minime. II peut être même appliqué à certaines lésions anciennes. Une sélection précise du patient, sa densité osseuse, le temps écoulé depuis l'accident, une réduction préopératoire anatomique et une méthode chirurgicale méticuleuse faisant appel à un amplificateur de brillance performant, sont essentiels pour éviter les complications et les pseudarthroses.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Lésions du rachis cervical inférieur ; Décompression antérieure ; Ostéosynthèse par plaque vissée ; Lower cervical spine injuries ; Anterior decompression ; Plate fixation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Surgical treatment of unstable traumatic injuries of the cervical spine can be carried out by a posterior or anterior approach, with different advantages and disadvantages. Twenty patients were treated with anterior decompression, interbody fusion with autogenous iliac bone graft, and osteosynthesis with a Louis anterior plate. The screws were inserted in the vertebral body without reaching the posterior vertebral wall. There were 18 male and 2 female patients, aged between 18 and 66 years (average 36 years). The osteoarticular lesion was in 8 cases a tear-drop fracture and in 12 a fracture-dislocation. The mechanisms of injury were flexion-compression, flexion-rotation, hyperflexion, and hyperextension. A complete spinal cord lesion was present in 10 cases, central cord syndrome in 5, isolated radiculopathy in 3, and anterior cord syndrome in 1; one patient had normal neurological function. At long-term follow-up fusion of the graft was observed in all cases without evidence of spinal malalignment, breakage of the implant, or aseptic hardware loosening. Neurological deterioration was not observed in any case. In one case, complicated by late infection, healing was uneventful after plate removal, surgical debridement, and antibiotic therapy. A fistula of the hypopharynx due to perforation of the piriform recess appeared following repeated bronchoscopy 12 months after surgery. There were no signs of implant loosening and the lesion was surgically repaired. From a neurological point of view the 10 patients with complete cord lesion remained unchanged; those with incomplete cord lesions improved by 1 or 2 degrees on the Frankel scale; those with isolated radiculopathies recovered fully; and the neurologically intact patient remained unchanged. The present study and the data reported in the literature prove that anterior surgery with plate fixation in cervical spine injuries allows the achievement of complete neural decompression by direct visual examination. On the other hand, posterior surgery can result in incomplete decompression and associated neurological deterioration. Anterior plate instrumentation has proved itself mechanically adequate, even if it is less stable than posterior constructs. The advantages of anterior surgery compared to those of posterior surgery are such that several specific risks are acceptable. Posterior surgery is nevertheless indicated if the lesion cannot be reduced preoperatively under closed conditions.
    Notes: Résumé Le traitement chirurgical des lésions traumatiques instables du rachis cervical peut être réalisé par un abord postérieur ou antérieur, avec des avantages et des inconvénients différents. Vingt patients ont été traités par décompression antérieure et arthrodèse intersomatique associant une greffe autogène d'os iliaque et une ostéosynthèse par plaque antérieure de Louis. Les vis ont été implantées dans le corps vertébral sans atteindre le mur vertébral postérieur. La série comportait 18 hommes et 2 femmes, agés de 18 à 66 ans (âge moyen=36 ans). La lésion ostéoarticulaire était dans 8 cas une fracture en tear-drop, et dans 12 cas une fracture-dislocation. Le mécanisme lésionnel était soit la flexion-compression, soit la flexion-rotation, soit l'hyperflexion, soit encore l'hyperextension. Une lésion médullaire complète a été retrouvée dans 10 cas, un syndrome central de la moelle dans 5 cas, une atteinte radiculaire isolée dans 3 cas, un syndrome médullaire antérieur dans 1 cas, et une fonction neurologique normale dans un seul cas. Dans les suites lointaines, la fusion de la greffe a été observée dans tous les cas, sans désaxation rachidienne apparente, ni rupture de l'implant, ni démontage aseptique du matériel. L'aggravation neurologique n'a jamais été observée. Un cas, compliqué d'une infection tardive a guéri sans problème après ablation de la plaque, mise à plat et antibiothérapie. Une fistule de l'hypopharynx due à une perforation du sinus piriforme est apparue à la suite de bronchoscopies répétées 12 mois après l'intervention. II n'y avait aucun signe de démontage de l'implant et la lésion était consolidée. Du point de vue neurologique, les 10 patients présentant une lésion médullaire complète sont restés inchangés; ceux présentant des lésions médullaires incomplètes se sont améliorés de 1 à 2 degrés selon l'échelle de Frankel; ceux présentant une atteinte radiculaire isolée ont totalement récupéré et le patient neurologiquement intact est resté inchangé. Le présent travail et les données rapportées dans la littérature démontrent que dans les lésions du rachis cervical, la chirurgie antérieure associée à la fixation par plaque vissée, permet de réaliser une décompression neurologique complète grâce au contrôle visuel direct. D'un autre côté, la chirurgie postérieure peut n'obtenir qu'une décompression incomplète avec maintien de la détérioration neurologique qui s'y associe. L'instrumentation antérieure par plaque s'est montrée mécaniquement valable, même si elle est moins stable que les montages postérieurs. Les avantages de la chirurgie antérieure comparés à ceux de la chirurgie postérieure sont tels que les risques spécifiques sont acceptables. La chirurgie postérieure n'est indiquée que si la réduction orthopédique préopératoire ne peut pas être réalisée.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
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    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 115-115 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Synthèse du collagène ; Liaisons collagène ; Entraînement ; Rachis ; Disque intervertébral ; Collagen synthesis ; Collagen crosslinks ; Exercise ; Spine ; Intervertebral disc
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The effect of long-term exercise on the intervertebral disc collagen concentration (hydroxyproline), collagen-synthesizing enzymes (prolyl-4-hydroxylase, PH, and galactosyl-hydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase, GGT) and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks was studied in ten female beagle dogs. The dogs were run on a treadmill for 1 year starting at the age of 15 weeks. The daily running distance was gradually increased to 40 km, which distance the dogs ran for the final 15 weeks. Ten untrained dogs from the same breeding colony served as controls. The nucleus pulposus and anterior and posterior halves of the annulus fibrosus of C2–3, T10–12, L4–5 disc segments were analysed. Crosslinks were measured from the anterior annulus fibrosus of the T10–11 disc. Hydroxyproline and hydroxypyridinium concentrations remained similar in both groups. PH and GGT were significantly elevated by running in the posterior annulus fibrosus of the thoracic and lumbar discs and in the lumbar nucleus pulposus. In the thoracic nucleus pulposus GGT was reduced significantly. The results suggest activated collagen metabolism in the posterior annulus fibrosus of the thoracic and lumbar discs as a result of locally increased strains on the spine.
    Notes: Résumé Cette étude porte sur l'effet d'un entraînement au long cours sur la concentration discale en collagène (hydroxyproline), en enzymes intervenant dans la synthèse du collagène (prolyl-4-hydroxylase, PH et galactosyl-hydroxylysyl-glucosyltransférase, GGT) et en liaisons hydroxypyrinidium (Pyr) chez dix beagle femelles. Ces chiens ont été entraînés à la course pendant une année, à partir de l'âge de 15 semaines. La distance quotidiennement parcourue a été progressivement augmentée jusqu'à 40 km par jour durant les 15 dernières semaines. Dix chiens non entraînés et provenant du même élevage ont servi de témoins. La zone centrale des disques et les moitiés antérieure et postérieure de l'annulus provenant des disques C2-C3, T10–T11, T11–T12, et L4–L5 ont été soumises à une analyse biochimique. Les liaisons chimiques ont été étudiées au niveau des constituants de la partie antérieure de l'annulus du disque T10–T11. Les concentrations en hydroxyproline et en Pyr sont restées semblables dans les deux groupes. Sous l'action de la course, la PH et la GGT sont apparues significativement élevées dans la partie postérieure des anneaux fibreux des disques thoraciques et lombaires et dans les zones centrales des disques lombaires. Dans les zones centrales des disques thoraciques, la GGT était significativement réduite. Ces résultats laissent supposer que l'élévation du métabolisme du collagène dans la partie postérieure des anneaux fibreux thoraciques et lombaires résulte de l'augmentation locale du surmenage rachidien.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Discite ; Antibiothérapie prophylactique ; Céfuroxime ; Augmentin ; Discitis ; Prophylactic antibiotics ; Cefuroxime ; Augmentin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The incidence of discitis following discectomy is reported at between 0.75% and 3.0%. We believe this rate could be reduced if an antibiotic that penetrated the disc tissue with an appropriate spectrum were to be given prophylactically to cover surgery. A prospective study of 20 patients undergoing routine lumbar discectomy was performed. Ten patients received Augmentin 1 2 g and ten received cefuroxime 1.5 g pre-operatively. In eight patients sequestrated disc fragments were analysed, and the majority were found to have drug levels higher than in the attached disc material; the reasons for this are discussed. We conclude that Augmentin penetrates damaged disc material to a limited extent, but cefuroxime achieves levels effective against the most commonly implicated pathogens in discitis tissue and is a rational choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis during lumbar discectomy.
    Notes: Résumé La fréquence des discites survenant après discectomie varie de 0,75% à 3,0% et nous pensons qu'elle pourrait être encore plus réduite si l'on protégeait le geste chirurgical par une antibiothérapie prophylactique pénètrant le tissu discal et de spectre approprié. Une étude prospective a été réalisée chez vingt patients subissant une discectomie lombaire de routine. Dix patients ont reçu en préopératoire 1,2 g d'Augmentin et dix autres 1,5 g de Céfuroxime. Chez huit patients, des fragments discaux exclus ont été analysés et dans la plupart d'entre eux on a trouvé un taux de médicament supérieur à celui retrouvé dans le matériel discal en place: les laisons en sont discutées. Nous pensons en conclusion que l'Augmentin pénètre le matériel discal endommagé de manjère limitée, mais le Céfuroxime y atteint des taux efficaces contre les germes pathogènes le plus communément impliqués dans le tissue de discité et représente un choix raisonnable dans l'antibiothérapie prophylactique de la chirurgie discale lombaire.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Arthrodèse rachidienne ; Instrumentation rachidienne ; Douleur ; Spinal fusion ; Spinal instrumentation ; Pain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Sixty-eight patients with idiopathic scoliosis who had undergone Harrington instrumentation at least 10 years previously (mean follow-up 14 years) were asked to return to our hospital for review. History and clinical examination were performed in 49 individuals (72%), radiographs in 44 individuals (64%). Pain was evaluated by means of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire and pain drawings according to Ransford. Segmental range of motion according to Begg and Falconer as well as sagitial translational motion measured according to Wiltse and Winter and to Morgan and King were evaluated in flexion/extension radiographs. Pain depended on fusion level. It occurred in 80% of those in whom fusion was carried down to L4 or lower vertebrae. There was no relationship between fusion level or pain on the one hand and segmental range of motion or increased translation on the other hand, and none between lordosis, pain and increased translation. Increased sagittal translocational motion of more than the measurement error of 5 mm does not seem to be an important cause of pain in individuals in whom Harrington instrumentation was carried down to low vertebral levels.
    Notes: Résumé 68 patients présentant une scoliose idiopathique et traités depuis au moins dix ans par l'instrumentation de Harrington (délai postopératoire moyen: 14 ans) ont été convoqués pour un examen de contrôle. 49 sujets (72%) ont eu un interrogatoire et un examen clinique et 44 (64%) un contrôle radiographique. La douleur a été évaluée à l'aide du questionnaire de la douleur de Dallas et des représentations graphiques de la douleur selon Ransford. L'amplitude de la mobilité segmentaire selon Begg/Falconer ainsi que la translation sagittale mesurée selon Wiltse/Winter et Morgan/King ont été évaluées sur des clichés dynamiques en flexion/extension. La douleur a été retrouvée, dépendant du niveau de fusion. Si la fusion a été étendue vers le bas au niveau ou au dessous de L4, la douleur est apparue dans 80% des cas. Il n'y avait pas de relation entre d'une part le niveau de la fusion ou la douleur et d'autre part l'amplitude du mouvement segmentaire ou l'accroissement de la translation; il n'y avait pas non plus de relation entre la lordose, la douleur et l'excès de translation. Une translation sagittale accrue, supérieure à l'erreur de mesure de 5 mm, ne semble pas être une cause importante de douleur chez des individus chez qui l'instrumentation de Harrington a été descendue jusqu'aux niveaux vertébraux inférieurs.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
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    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 177-177 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 23
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    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 180-190 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Rachis cervical ; Arthrite rhumatoïde ; Traitement chirurgical ; Indication chirurgicale ; Techniques opératoires ; Cervical spine ; Rheumatoid arthritis ; Surgical treatment ; Indication for surgery ; Operative techniques
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary About 20% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis complain about neck problems based on instability and deformity. As a consequence, pain, myelopathy, and severe neurological deficit may occur. Results reported in the literature were not encouraging as regards surgical decompression and stabilization. However, new surgical techniques allow a more aggressive strategy towards the complex problem of the instable cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent instability of C1/2 can be stabilized by a posterior atlantoaxial screw fixation, a three-dimensional multidirectional construct with few complications. For the inclusion of the occiput into the fusion and the extension of the fusion down to the lower cervical spine, a titanium Y-plate is presented as a successful implant. While through a posterior approach, stability may be achieved, decompression is preferably done by anterior diskectomy or vertebrectomy. Encouraging results with a significant recovery of neurological deficits justify an early intervention in cases of instability of the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Notes: Résumé Près de 20% des patients atteints d'arthrite rhumatoïde se plaignent de problèmes cervicaux liés à l'instabilité et aux déformations. La douleur, la myélopathie, et de graves déficits neurologiques peuvent en être les conséquences fâcheuses. Les résultats rapportés dans la littérature n'encouragent pas à réaliser la décompression et la stabilisation chirurgicales. Cependant de nouvelles techniques chirurgicales permettent une stratégie plus aggressive vis-à-vis des problèmes complexes posés par l'instabilité rhumatoïde du rachis cervical. L'instabilité C1-C2, la plus fréquente, est traitée sans grandes complications par une fixation atlanto-axoidienne postérieure au moyen d'un vissage réalisant un montage tridimensionnel. Pour l'incorporation de l'occipital dans la fusion et l'extension de l'arthrodèse jusqu'au rachis cervical inférieur, l'auteur présente une plaque en Y en Titane, dont l'efficacité est démontrée. Alors que la stabilisation peut être réalisée par un abord postérieur, la décompression quant-à elle est faite de préférence par discectomie ou vertébrectomie antérieure. Des résultats encourageants, avec notamment une récupération neurologique importante permettent de justifier une intervention précoce dans les cas d'instabilité cervicale d'origine rhumatoïde.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Moelle spinale ; Racines spinales ; Compression médullaire ; Laminectomie ; Vertèbres cervicales ; Spinal cord ; Spinal nerve roots ; Spinal cord compression ; Laminectomy ; Cervical vertebrae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Paralysis of the arm with radicular distribution occurring after posterior decompression of the cervical spinal cord included C5, C6, C7 and C8 roots, in isolation or combined. The most frequent patterns of paralysis were C5 and C6 root involvements of the motor-dominant type. The overall frequency of occurrence in our series was 11% (20 cases of postoperative paralysis in 188 surgical cases), but the frequency varied with the posterior decompression method. The higher frequency of postoperative paralysis was noted in the group in which the surgical procedures selected were considered as enabling the expanded dura to exert its traction power more easily on the extradural portion of the roots. Radiographical analyses showed that C5 roots which satisfied the following two conditions were more prone to sustain postoperative paralysis: first, location at the level of the highly expanded dural tube and, second, lying in the foramina with a higher degree of anterior protrusion of the superior process. In the majority of cases with C5 motor-dominant paralysis, the postoperative cord-root pouch distances of the C5 anterior roots were unchanged or even decreased compared with the preoperative ones, but the extradural portions of the C5 roots were elongated in all cases. These findings support the validity of mechanisms of postoperative paralysis which were deduced from the anatomical investigations.
    Notes: Résumé Une paralysie brachiale de topographie radiculaire, survenant après une décompression postérieure de la moelle spinale, impliquait de manière isolée ou associée les racines C5, C6, C7 et C8. Les formes les plus fréquentes de ces paralysies comportaient l'atteinte des racines C5 et C6 réalisant un tableau neurologique à prédominance motrice. La fréquence globale de cette complication a été de 11% dans notre série (20 cas de paralysie postopératoire sur 188 cas opérés), mais cette fréquence a été variable selon la méthode de décompression postérieure utilisée. La plus grande fréquence des paralysies postopératoires a été notée dans le groupe de patients où des techniques chirurgicales choisies semblaient faciliter davantage la transmission des forces de traction durale à la portion extradurale des racines. Les analyses radiographiques ont montré que les racines C5 qui remplissent les deux conditions suivantes ont davantage tendance à présenter une paralysie postopératoire: 1° par leur localisation au niveau de l'expansion maximale du sac dural et 2° par leur situation dans le foramen qui présente le plus haut degré de protrusion antérieure du processus articulaire supérieur. Dans la majorité des cas présentant une paralysie motrice prédominant en C5, les distances postopératoires entre la moelle et les culs-de-sac radiculaires des racines antérieures C5 étaient inchangées et même diminuées en comparaison des distances préopératoires, mais les portions extradurales des racines C5 étaient allongées dans tous les cas. Ces découvertes renforcent la validité des mécanismes des paralysies postopératoires déduits des recherches anatomiques de la lère partie de ce travail.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Discographie ; Discomanométrie ; Disque intervertébral. Rachis lombaire ; Key words ; Discography ; Discomanometry ; Intervertebral disc ; Lumbar spine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A new discomanometry system was developed and evaluated for application in the lumbar spine. The diagnostic reliability of discography, manometry and discomanometry (a combination of both methods) was assessed in 20 lumbar cadaver spines (95 intervertebral discs) with regard to the diagnosis of non-contained intervertebral discs. The sensitivity was 92% for manometry and 78% for discography. This indicates that 22% of the non-contained discs could not be correctly identified with common discography. The specificity was 98% for manometry and 100% for discography, indicating that contained discs could be easily identified with both methods. A combination of manometry and discography provides a high sensitivity (98%) as well as high specificity (98%). It is concluded that discomanometry is a simple, cost-effective and reliable diagnostic procedure which can precede percutaneous nucleotomy without additional risks or relevant efforts. It allows the differentiation between contained and non-contained intervertrebral discs with a high degree of diagnostic reliability in an experimental setting, which justifies its further application in patients.
    Notes: Résumé Un nouveau système de discomanométrie a été développé et évalué afin d'être appliqué au rachis lombaire. La fiabilité diagnostique de la discographie, de la manométrie et de la discomanométrie (combinaison des deux méthodes) en matière de hernie discale, a été évaluée sur 20 rachis lombaires de cadavres (95 disques intervertébraux). La sensibilité était de 92% pour la manométrie et 78% pour la discographie. Cela indique que 22% des disques présentant une hernie ne pouvaient pas être identifiés par la discographie de routine. La spécificité était de 98% pour la manométrie et 100% pour la discographie, indiquant que les disques intacts pouvaient être aisément identifiés par les deux méthodes. Une combinaison de la manométrie et de la discographie assure une grande sensibilité (98%) ainsi qu'une haute spécificité (98%). En conclusion, la discomanométrie est un procédé diagnostique simple, économique et fiable que l'on peut pratiquer avant la nucléotomie percutanée sans risques ni efforts supplémentaires importants. Elle permet de distinguer les disques intervertébraux intacts des disques rompus avec une grande fiabilité diagnostique expérimentale, ce qui justifie son utilisation chez les patients.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
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    European spine journal 2 (1993), S. 239-241 
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Lymphome anaplasique à grandes cellules Ki-1 ; Vertèbres thoraciques ; Compression médullaire ; Anaplastic large cell Ki-1 lymphoma ; Thoracic vertebrae ; Spinal cord compression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Anaplastic large cell Ki-1 lymphoma is a very rare tumour that involves predominantly lymph nodes, the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a case of anoplastic large cell Ki-1 lymphoma arising in two thoracic vertebrae in a 14-year-old boy.
    Notes: Résumé Le lymphome anaplasique à grandes cellules Ki-1 est une tumeur très rare atteignant surtout les noeuds lymphatiques, la peau et le tractus gastro-intestinal. Cet article se rapporte au diagnostic et au traitement d'un lymphome anaplasique à grandes cellules Ki-1 se développant dans deux vertèbres thoraciques chez un garçon de 14 ans.
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  • 27
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    Constructive approximation 9 (1993), S. 501-507 
    ISSN: 1432-0940
    Keywords: Primary 30E10 ; Secondary 31C12 ; Harmonic approximation ; Jordan arcs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract If a real interval is mapped by a continuous, proper injection into a noncompact Riemannian manifold of dimension at least two, then every continuous function on the image arc can be approximated arbitrarily closely by functions harmonic on the entire manifold.
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  • 28
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    Springer
    Constructive approximation 9 (1993), S. 473-500 
    ISSN: 1432-0940
    Keywords: Primary 33D70 ; 05A19 ; Secondary 33D20 ; Multiple basic hypergeometric series ; Very well-poised on unitary or symplectic groups ; C ℓ nonterminating6ϕ5 summation theorem ; C ℓ terminating6ϕ5 summation theorem ; C ℓ Bailey pair ; C ℓ Bailey transform ; C ℓ Bailey lemma ; C ℓ Bailey chain ; C ℓ littleq-Jacobi polynomials ; Plane partition generating functions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract TheC ℓ nonterminating Cℓ summation theorem is derived by appropriately specializing Gustafson's6ψ6 summation theorem for bilateral basic hypergeometric series very well-poised on symplecticC ℓ groups. From this, the terminating6ϕ5 and, hence, terminating4ϕ3 summation theorem is obtained. A suitably modified4ϕ3 is then used to derive theC ℓ generalization of the Bailey transform. The transform is then interpreted as a matrix inversion result for two infinite, lower-triangular matrices. This result is used to motivate the definition of theC ℓ Bailey pair. TheC ℓ generalization of Bailey's lemma is then proved. This result is inverted, and the concept of the bilateral Bailey chain is discussed. TheC ℓ Bailey lemma is then used to obtain a connection coefficient result for generalC ℓ littleq-Jacobi polynomials. All of this work is a natural extension of the unitaryA ℓ, or equivalentlyU(ℓ+1), case. The classical case, corresponding toA 1 or equivalentlyU(2), contains an immense amount of the theory and application of one-variable basic hypergeometric series, including elegant proofs of the Rogers-Ramanujan-Schur identities. TheC ℓ nonterminating6ϕ5 summation theorem is also used to recover C. Krattenthaler's multivariable summation which he utilized in deriving his refinement of the Bender-Knuth and MacMahon generating functions for certain sets of plane partitions.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-0940
    Keywords: Primary 33A25 ; Secondary 33A30 ; 11F10 ; 39B10 ; Schwartz functions ; Hypergeometric functions ; Arithmetic geometric mean iteration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The arithmetic-geometric mean iteration of Gauss and Legendre is the two-term iterationa n +1=(a n +b n )/2 and $$b_{n + 1} = \sqrt {a_n b_n } $$ witha 0≔1 andb 0≔x. The common limit is2 F 1(1/2, 1/2; 1; 1−x 2)−1 and the convergence is quadratic. This is a rare object with very few close relatives. There are however three other hypergeometric functions for which we expect similar iterations to exist, namely:2 F 1(1/2−s 1, 1/2+s; 1; ·) withs=1/3, 1/4, 1/6. Our intention is to exhibit explicitly these iterations and some of their generalizations. These iterations exist because of underlying quadratic or cubic transformations of certain hypergeometric functions, and thus the problem may be approached via searching for invariances of the corresponding second-order differential equations. It may also be approached by searching for various quadratic and cubic modular equations for the modular forms that arise on inverting the ratios of the solutions of these differential equations. In either case, the problem is intrinsically computational. Indeed, the discovery of the identities and their proofs can be effected almost entirely computationally with the aid of a symbolic manipulation package, and we intend to emphasize this computational approach.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-0940
    Keywords: 41A05 ; 65D05 ; Triangulation ; Interpolation ; Irregular surfaces
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We introduce an interpolation scheme to generate a class of irregular surfaces. The analysis is first carried out for a triangleT. We define the function ϕ on a subsetX, dense inT. In terms of the construction parameters of ϕ, we establish sufficient conditions for its uniform continuity so that it would be possible to extend it to a continuous function on the whole ofT. We do the same analysis in the case of a rectangleR.
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  • 31
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    Constructive approximation 9 (1993), S. 543-546 
    ISSN: 1432-0940
    Keywords: 41A05 ; Tchebycheff polynomial ; Uniform norm ; Triangular region
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A bivariable polynomial of total degreen that has minimal uniform norm on a triangular region is given explictly.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Recombination ; Yeast ; radmutants ; Endo/exonuclease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Extracts of S. cerevisiae cells can catalyze homologous recombination between plasmids in vitro. Extracts prepared from rad50, rad52 or rad54 disruption mutants all have reduced recombinational activity compared to wild-type. The rad52 and rad54 extracts are more impaired in the recombination of plasmids containing double-strand breaks than of intact plasmids, whereas rad50 extracts are deficient equally for both types of substrate. The nuclease RhoNuc (previously designated yNucR), encoded by the RNC1 (previously designated NUC2) gene and regulated by the RAD52 gene, is not required for recombination when one substrate is single-stranded but is essential for the majority of recombination events when both substrates are double-stranded. Furthermore, elimination of this nuclease restores recombination in rad52 extracts to levels comparable to those in wild-type extracts.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Rat ; Ribosomal protein ; 60S Ribosomal subunit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This communication reports on a single-copy gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is homologous to the rat ribosomal protein gene L21. The yeast and the rat genes show 59% identity in DNA sequences and in the predicted protein sequences. This yeast gene is, therefore, assumed to code for an as yet unassigned ribosomal protein (URP1). The URP1 open reading frame is 480 nucleotides long and can encode a protein of about Mr 18 200. Like most of the other known ribosomal protein genes, URP1 is interrupted by an intron in its 5′ terminal part and it is preceeded by upstream sequence elements which usually regulate transcription of these genes. Northern blot analysis reveals that the URP1 gene is actually expressed in vivo.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast genome ; Direct repeats ; Restriction map ; Rhodophyte
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A detailed restriction map of the chloroplast genome of the red alga Porphyra purpurea has been constructed. Southern hybridization experiments with cloned or gel-purified restriction fragments and PCR products indicate that the P. purpurea chloroplast genome is approximately 188 kb in size. This circular molecule contains two rRNA-encoding repeats (approximately 4.9 kb) that separate the genome into single-copy regions of 34 kb and 144 kb. Interestingly, these repeats are arranged in a direct orientation. In addition, DNA sequencing of the ends of both repeats revealed that the two rRNA repeats are not identical. No intramolecular recombination between the repeats can be detected. We discuss the possibility that the chloroplast genome of P. purpurea is organized like that of the ancestral chloroplast.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Evolution ; Algae ; Plastid ; Endocytobiosis ; Molecular clock ; psbD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The nucleotide sequences of the plastidal psbD genes of Bumilleriopsis filiformis and Porphyridium purpureum (encoding the D2 protein of photosystem II) are reported in this paper. The Bumilleriopsis sequence clusters together with Porphyridium when a most parsimonious protein tree of D2 sequences is constructed. A composite D1/D2 protein-similarity network reveals that neither the three red algal sequences nor the two heterokontophyte sequences (Bumilleriopsis, xanthophytes and Ectocarpus, phaeophytes) group together. Therefore, the Heterokontophyta and Rhodophyta may be heterogeneous groups. Instead, it emerges that the D1/D2 proteins of Porphyridium and Bumilleriopsis clearly form a tight cluster. D1 and D2 proteins apparently do not provide a reliable molecular clock. These results fit into hypotheses proposing a polyphyletic origin for complex plastids, even among the supposedly “natural” group of heterokontophytes.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Sporulation mutants ; Reporter genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Reporter genes consisting of sporulation-specific promoters fused to lacZ were used as markers to monitor the sporulation pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains transformed with these lacZ gene fusions expressed β-galactosidase (assayable on plates using the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-gal) in a sporulation-dependent manner. Mutagenesis experiments performed on transformed strains resulted in the recovery of a number of novel sporulation mutants. Three classes of mutants were obtained: those which overexpressed the reporter gene under sporulation conditions, those which did not express the gene under any conditions, and those which expressed the gene in vegetative cells not undergoing sporulation. On the basis of the blue colony-colour produced in the presence of X-gal these have been described as superblue, white, and blue vegetative mutants, respectively. These were further characterised using earlier reporter genes and other marker systems. This study established that the multicopy reporter plasmids chosen do not interfere with sporulation; they are valid tools for monitoring the pathway and they provide a way to isolate mutations not readily selected by other markers.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Transformation ; Plasmid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have compared a number of procedures for the transformation of whole cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and assessed the effects of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) or ethanol, both of which have been reported to enhance transformation efficiency. We find that simplified methods benefit from the addition of one of these compounds, and although differences are observed between strains as to the more beneficial reagent, peak transformation efficiency is, in general obtained with 10% DMSO or 10% EtOH. Increases of between six- and 50-fold are observed, despite a reduction in cell viability, and at this concentration the two compounds are not additive in their effects. The optimum level appears to depend on a balance between improved DNA uptake and reduced cell viability. As a result of this work we present a straightforward and rapid transformation procedure.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chromosome fragmentation ; MEL gene family ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nine members, MEL2–MEL10, of the MEL gene family coding for α-galactosidase were physically mapped to the ends of the chromosomes by chromosome fragmentation. Genetic mapping of the genes supported the location of all the MEL genes in the left arm of their resident chromosomes.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Aspergillus niger ; Genetic maps ; Mitotic mapping ; AmdS transformants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This paper provides a genetic map of Aspergillus niger. At present 84 markers have been assigned to eight linkage groups. The chromosomal location of 60 markers is presented in this paper. The allocation of markers is based on recombination due to mitotic crossing over. Various methods for selection and analysis of homozygous recombinants were applied, using colour, auxotrophic and resistance markers. In addition, transformants carrying the heterologous Aspergillus nidulans gene coding for acetamidase (amdS) were used for mitotic mapping of markers in several linkage groups. In most of the transformants the amdS insert appeared to be centromere-distal to all known genetic markers, thus extending the eight linkage groups has been determined. On the basis of these and earlier experiments tentative genetic markers were found on both arms of the chromosomes, except for chromosomes II and IV. The genetic distance between markers and the centromere varies from about 10-4 (LG I, II, V) up to more than 10-2 (LGIII, VI, VIII). The total frequency of mitotic recombination per genome in this fungus has been estimated to be at least 1.2×10-1.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Acetolactate synthase ; N-acetylglutamate kinase ; tRNA genes ; Chloroplast genome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary To isolate the gene encoding the amino-acid biosynthetic enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS) from the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis, PCR experiments were carried out using P. umbilicalis DNA as the template and degenerate oligonucleotides representing conserved regions of ALS amino-acid sequences. Interestingly, the PCR product (0.9 kb) hybridized exclusively to the plastid DNA of this red alga. DNA sequencing of two contiguous EcoRI plastid DNA clones revealed a 590 aminoacid open reading frame with 55 to 61% identity to cyanobacterial ALS sequences. A second gene (argB) encoding another amino-acid biosynthetic enzyme, Nacetylglutamate kinase, was identified upstream of, and on the opposite strand to the gene encoding ALS (ilvB). This is the first molecular characterization of a gene for an arginine biosynthetic enzyme from any plant. In addition, two tRNA genes, trnT(GGU) and trnY(GUA), were detected downstream from ilvB while four tRNA genes, trnfM(CAU), trnA(GGC), trnA(GGC), trnS(GCU) and trnD(GUC), were found downstream from argB. trnA(GGC) is not found in the chloroplast genomes of land plants.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA-protein interactions ; Trichoderma reseei ; cbh2 promoter ; β-glucuronidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A 613-bp fragment of the 5′ upstream region of the Trichoderma reesei cbh2 gene (coding for the cellulolytic enzyme cellobiohydrolase II) has been isolated and sequenced. Fusion of this fragment to the E. coli uidA gene (coding for β-glucuronidase) leads to-albeit low-expression of β-glucuronidase activity in the presence of cellulose and upon the addition of low molecular weight inducers (sophorose, lactose) of cellobiohydrolase II. It also governed the formation of β-glucuronidase activity during sporulation and its transport to the conidial surface. However, despite the presence of a signal peptide in the cbh2:uidA fusion, β-glucuronidase was not secreted in T. reesei. Defined fragments of the 613-bp promoter region were isolated and used to identify areas involved in the regulation of cbh2 expression by protein-DNA binding assays. At least two binding areas-between-443/-363 and-363/-173, respectively-were identified. In both areas, the DNA-protein complex observed was appreciably larger when cell-free extracts from sophorose-induced mycelia were used. This suggests that at least one of the proteins regulating cbh2 transcription is itself induced by cellulose.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; 3′ phosphoglycerate kinase ; Gene disruption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We report the isolation of a pgk - mutant strain of Aspergillus nidulans by means of a gene disruption strategy, and demonstrate that the pgk gene is located on chromosome VIII. The pgk - mutant conidiates poorly, will only grow on media supplemented with both a glycolytic and a gluconeogenic carbon source, and is inhibited by hexoses.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Fungal growth ; Neurospora crassa ; Snowflake ; Heterokaryons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mutations sn (snowflake) JL301 and C136, in the centromere region of linkage group I in Neurospora crassa, are at 0.6–3.0 map units to the left of the os-4 locus. Strains carrying snJL301 produce very short aerial hyphae and only arthroconidia, and do not grow in high salt media. snC136 strains produce aerial hyphae, with abnormally large and rounded blastoconidia, at the top of the agar slant cultures, and revert to wild-type growth in high salt media. Studies with forced primary heterokaryons indicate that snJL301 is recessive while snC136 is a semi-dominant and gene-dose dependent allele, with respect to the wild-type. Taken together the results show that: (1) the sn mutations are allelic with a differential pleiotropic phenotype, and (2) snC136 may code for a partially functioning gene product while sn-JL301 appears to be a null allele.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: 3-Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) ; Penicillium citrinum ; Molecular cloning ; Gene structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene coding for 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) in ML-236B (compactin)-producing Penicillium citrinum was isolated from the recombinant phage lambda library using the corresponding Aspergillus nidulans pgk gene as a probe. The P. citrinum pgk gene has an open reading frame of 1,254 bp, encoding a protein of 417 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,079 daltons. The position of the two introns, 59 and 60 bp respectively, was deduced from an homology comparison with the sequence of the A. nidulans pgk gene. The PGK protein of P. citrinum shows extensive high homology to the PGKs of four other fungi: P. chrysogenum (93%), A. nidulans (84%), Trichoderma reesei (78%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (68%). Almost total conservation is found in P. citrinum of residues thought to be important for the structure and function of the yeast enzyme. The strong codon preference found has greater similarity to that in other filamentous fungi than in yeast. A DNA fragment encompassing the pgk gene was shown to hybridize a 1.35-kb poly(A)+RNA, sufficient to encode the PGK polypeptide. A fused gene, pgk-hpt, containing the putative pgk promoter and the open reading frame of the Escherichia coli hygromycin B phospho-transferase (hpt) gene was constructed, and was successfully used to transform P. citrinum to a hygromycin B (HmB)-resistant phenotype.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: nad6 ; Flowering plants ; Mitochondrial gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have isolated the Brassica campestris mitochondrial gene nad6, coding for subunit six of NADH dehydrogenase. The deduced amino-acid sequence of this gene shows considerable similarity to mitochondrially encoded NAD6 proteins of other organisms as well as to NAD6 proteins coded for by plant chloroplast DNAs. The B. campestris nad6 gene appears to lack introns and produces and abundant transcript which is comparable in size to a previously described, unidentified transcript (#18) mapped to the B. campestris mitochondrial genome. An alignment of NAD6 proteins (deduced from DNA sequences) suggests that B. campestris nad6 transcripts are edited. Southern-blot hybridization indicates that nad6 is present in the mitochondrial genome of all of a wide range of flowering plant species examined.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: ARS ; mtDNA ; Replicon dosage ; Yeast plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The rep1 region of the yeast mitochondrial genome, a putative replication origin, contains a weak autonomously replicating sequence (ARS). Nucleotidesequence and deletion analyses have identified two 11-base pair ARS consensus sequences, numerous near matches to the ARS core, and a region of curvature that may contribute to ARS function. Based on the amplified nature of petite-derivative mitochondrial DNA encompassing this locus, we have constructed plasmids containing an increasing dosage of ARS elements. The rep1 ARS element can have an additive effect on plasmid stability when present either as a tandem dimer or as an unlinked pair. However, the presence of a third ARS copy does not further enhance plasmid stability. These results indicate that measurable dosage effects can be defined only in circumstances where weak ARS elements are employed, and that plasmid maintenance within yeast cells is saturable and varies among the different sequences promoting replication.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: C male-sterile cytoplasm ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; cms-C ; atp6
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract RNA editing was analysed in the mitochondrial ATPase complex subunit 6 gene (atp6) transcripts of the C male-sterile cytoplasm (cms-C) of maize. The only copy of atp6 in cms-C, designated C-atp6, is a triple gene fusion product comprised of DNA sequences derived from atp9, atp6, and an unknown origin. Sequences of cDNAs revealed 19 C to U alterations resulting in 16 amino acid residue changes compared to the genomic sequence. The only C to U edit in the 39-nucleotide sequence similar to atp9 was comparable to a change in the complete atp9 mRNAs of Petunia, Oenothera, wheat, and sorghum. The 442 nucleotides of unknown origin were not edited. The 18 editing events within the atp6 homologous region were similar to those in the atp6 transcripts of sorghum. RNA editing in maize C-atp6 transcripts introduces a translational stop codon at the same position where it is created by editing in sorghum and Oenothera atp6 mRNAs and is already present in atp6 open reading frames of most other plant and non-plant organisms. Our results, along with other reports on editing in chimeric transcripts, indicate that RNA editing is not influenced by rearrangements but instead is sequence specific.
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  • 48
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    Current genetics 23 (1993), S. 166-174 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Rice ; Oryza sativa ; Chloroplast genome ; Transcription map
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The complete nucleotide sequence (134,525 bp) of the chloroplast genome from rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains four rRNA genes, 30 tRNA genes, and over 100 genes that encode proteins. However, expression of only a few of these genes, namely psbA, rbcL, and atpB/E, has been detected. We constructed the complete transcription map of rice chloroplast DNA by Northern hybridization of total RNA from rice seedlings, using subclones from a clone bank of rice chloroplast DNA as probes. Approximately 90% of the chloroplast genome was transcribed, as detected by a non-radioactive hybridization system. Most of the genes on the chloroplast DNA are organized as clusters and are co-transcribed as long primary transcripts. We identified 16 polycistronic transcripts from the rice chloroplast genome. Furthermore, the genes for components of photosystems I and II, the gene for the large subunit of RuBisCO, the genes for ATPase, the genes for components of the cytochrome complex, and the rRNA genes were expressed at the highest levels.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: cpDNA ; structural rearrangements ; Gene mapping ; Evolution of grasses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of structural rearrangements of the chloroplast genome found in grass cpDNA in comparison to that of tobacco was systematically checked in the cpDNAs of representative monocots. The physical map of lily cpDNA, which shares a key position in the diversity of monocotyledonous plants, was constructed to assess whether three inversions found in grass cpDNA are common in monocots. Specific probes for the detection of (1) intron loss in the rpoC1 gene, (2) insertional sequence gain in rpoC2, (3) deletion of ORF2280 in the inverted repeats, (4) non-reciprocal translocation of rpl23, and (5) rearrangements of ORF512, were hybridized to cpDNAs of lily, onion, spiderwort, two turf grasses, and wheat. The existence of intervening sequences in the rpoC1 and rpoC2 genes was also confirmed by PCR analysis. All markers used in the study revealed that structural rearrangements of the chloroplast genome were restricted to grasses, indicating that drastic structural alterations of the chloroplast genome had occurred in the ancestor(s) of grasses. These results also suggest that structural analysis of the chloroplast genome is applicable to the phylogenetic reconstruction of related plants.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Splicing ; Group II intron ; Chloroplast ; Branch point
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To investigate the mechanism of chloroplast mRNA splicing in vivo, RNAs from four spinach chloroplast group II intron-containing genes were analyzed. For each of these genes, atpF, rpoC1, petD, and petB, Northern analysis of chloroplast RNAs detected putative lariat-intron/3′ exon-splicing intermediates. Treatment of these RNAs with HeLa cell-debranching extract caused the putative splicing intermediates to disappear, thereby confirming their identities. The lariat-splicing intermediates were further examined by reverse transcriptase extension to determine the branch point location. The in vivo branch points of the atpF and petD introns were found to be eight bases upstream of their respective 3′ intron/exon boundaries. In contrast, no splicing intermediates could be detected by primer-extension analysis of petB and rpoC1. This unexpected result served to demonstrate that the quantity of lariat-intron/3′ exon-splicing intermediates present in the chloroplast RNA population is considerably less in the cases of rpoC1 and petB compared to atpF and petD. The steady-state level of any splicing intermediate is the result of a balance between the splicing kinetics of a particular RNA and the susceptibility of the splicing intermediate to degradation. We conclude that the balance between these two factors varies significantly for chloroplast introns, even for those, such as petB and petD, that are transcribed from the same promoter.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; c-myc epitope ; Fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In order to facilitate the process of epitope-tagging of yeast proteins, we have constructed two Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors that allow fusion of a sequence encoding an epitope of the human c-myc protein at the 3′ end of any gene. An example of the use of this technique is presented.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Fission yeast ; Mating-type switching ; Double-strand break ; Recombination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mating-type switching in the fission yeast, S. pombe, is initiated by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) between the mat1 cassette and the H1 homology box. The mat1-cis-acting mutant, smt-0, abolishes mating-type switching and is shown here to be a 263-bp deletion. This deletion starts in the middle of the H1 homology box, 31 bp from the site of the DSB, and extends into the flanking region distal to mat1. The sequence of the region distal to H1 in the wild-type is also presented. In this region we observe a bias in the distribution of purine residues between the two DNA strands.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Phosphoglucose isomerase ; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase ; Heterologous gene expression ; Multi-enzyme aggregates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two glycolytic enzymes, phosphoglucose isomerase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be replaced by their heterologous counterparts from Escherichia coli and Drosophila melanogaster. Both heterologous enzymes, which show respectively little and no sequence homology to the corresponding yeast enzymes, fully restored wild-type properties when their genes were expressed in yeast deletion mutants. This result does not support notions of an obligatory formation of glycolytic multi-enzyme aggregates in yeast; nor does it support possible regulatory functions of yeast phosphoglucose isomerase.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Recombination ; DNA repair ; Gene conversion ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The HO endonuclease was used to introduce a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) in an interval designed to monitor mitotic recombination. The interval included the trp1 and his3 genes inserted into chromosome III of S. cerevisiae between the CRY1 and MAT loci. Mitotic recombination was monitored in a diploid carrying heteroalleles of trp1 and his3. The normal recognition sites for the HO endonuclease were mutated at the MAT alleles and a synthetic recognition site for HO endonuclease was placed between trp1 and his3 on one of the chromosomes. HO-induced cleavage resulted in efficient recombination in this interval. Most of the data can be explained by double-strand gap repair in which the cut chromosome acts as the recipient. However, analysis of some of the recombinants indicates that regions of heteroduplex were generated flanking the site of the cut, and that some recombinants were the result of the cut chromosome acting as the genetic donor.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Brassica ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Ogura radish
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The orfB locus of the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) radish mitochondrial genomes has been characterized in order to determine if this region, which has previously been correlated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus cybrids (Bonhomme et al. 1991; Temple et al. 1992), could also be involved in radish CMS. In normal radish, orfB is expressed as a 600-nucleotide (nt) transcript. In Ogura radish, orfB is present as the second gene of a 1200-nt transcript that also contains a 138-codon open reading frame (orf138). Sequences showing similarity to orf138 are present in normal radish, but are not expressed.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Phaseolus coccineus ; Phaseolus vulgaris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To identify regions of the mitochondrial genome that potentially could specify cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Phaseolus coccineus (including P. polyanthus), and to define differences amongst P. coccineus lines, mitochondrial (mt)DNA restriction patterns and Southern blots of total DNA from sterile and fertile lines were analysed. By restriction endonuclease mapping we isolated a region which was specific to CMS lines flanking an F1-ATPase α-subunit (atpA) gene. DNA sequence analysis of this region showed 99.9% homology to the region previously isolated from P. vulgaris CMS Sprite. A high frequency of plants carrying the CMS-fragment was observed in a wild Phaseolus population, perhaps explaining the occurrence of inter- and intraspecific gene flow observed in the autogamous species P. vulgaris.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Sugar beet ; atpA ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Homologous rearrangement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have characterized the mitochondrial atpA (the alpha subunit of F1-ATPase) gene from male-fertile cytoplasm (cv TK81-0) of sugar beet. The gene is 1518-bp long and encodes a polypeptide of 506 amino acids. The atpA mRNA sequence is modified by three C-to-U RNA editing events, all of which alter the encoded protein sequences. In order to examine the genome organization of the atpA locus in cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beet, atpA-containing clones were isolated from Owen CMS (TK81-MS) and a different source of CMS [I-12CMS(2)] cytoplasm respectively. The sequences of the atpA coding region from TK81-MS and I-12CMS(2) are identical to each other and to the corresponding TK81-0 sequence. However, the TK81-0 and TK81-MS loci diverge completely 47 bp upstream of the initiation codon, resulting in different 5′ transcript termini for the two genes. On the other hand, the point of divergence between the TK81-0 and I-12CMS(2) atpA genes was found to occur after 393 bp 3′ to the TAA stop codon. Our results also show the 3′-flanking sequences of I-12CMS(2) atpA to be present elsewhere in the mitochondrial genomes of TK81-0, TK81-MS and I-12CMS(2), suggesting the possible involvement of these repeated DNA elements in the sequence rearrangements.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Cuscuta ; Parasitic plant ; Chloroplast genome ; Plastid evolution ; psbA ; Gene expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a 5.3-kb region of the plastid DNA (ptDNA) from the heterotrophic holoparasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. The cloned area contains genes for the D1-protein (32-kDa protein; psbA), tRNAHis (trnH), ORF 740 (homologous to ORF 2280 from Nicotiana tabacum), ORF 77 (homologous to ORF 70), tRNALeu (trnL) and a hypothetical ORF 55 which has no homology to any known gene among higher plants. This 5.3-kb area is colinear with a 12.4-kb region of tobacco ptDNA and has therefore undergone several deletions totalling 7.1 kb. Most of the missing nucleotides belong to one large deletion in the ptDNA of C. reflexa of approximately 6.5 kb. This deletion involves two ribosomal protein genes, rpl2 and rpl23, as well as the transfer RNA for Isoleucin (trnI) and a region encoding 1540 amino-acid residues of an ORF 2280 homologue, as compared to tobacco chloroplast DNA. This is remarkable since the remaining genes, especially the psbA gene, are highly conserved in C. reflexa. Furthermore, we found that the expression of the psbA gene is in the same range as in the autotrophic Ipomoea purpurea which belongs to the same family as Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae). Here we hypothesize a total loss of rpl2 and rpl23 in the entire genome of C. reflexa. The phylogenetic position of, and the evolutionary change of ptDNA from, Cuscuta are discussed.
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