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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 148 (2000), S. 109-110 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brazil ; coccidioidomycosis ; Piauí ; outbreak
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An outbreak of coccidioidomycosis is described that involved three individuals and eight of their dogs, who had engaged in a successful hunt for nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the environs of Oeiras, a community in Brazil's north eastern state of Piauí.Diagnosis was based on clinical, serological and cultural findings. Four of 24 soil samples collected in and around the burrow of an armadillo yielded cultures of Coccidioides immitis, thus establishing the endemicity of that mould in the state of Piauí. A literature review revealed that C. immitis, aside from that state, is endemic in three other Brazilian states — Bahia, Ceará and Maranhão. These four contiguous states have semi-arid regions where climatic conditions and their flora are similar to those that exist in C. immitis's endemic regions in North, Central and South America.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Autoradiography ; barley ; cytokinins ; Dreschslera maydis ; green islands ; HPLC ; maize ; Pyrenophora teres
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Infection of Hordeum vulgare L. by Pyrenophora teresand of Zea mays by Dreschslera maydis were characterized by ‘green island’ formation, higher cytokinin levels and accumulation of metabolites in the infected areas. Higher cytokinin concentrations of the order 6-Y,Y-dimethylallylaminopurine 〉 zeatinriboside 〉 zeatin 〉dihydrozeatinriboside were detected at infection sites of susceptible hosts. By virtue of these cytokinins, infection sites may be acting as metabolic sinks helping proliferation of the pathogen. Existence of translocatory sinks at infection zones was confirmed from autoradiographic studies,where, accumulation of labeled metabolites was prominent at infection sites of susceptible hosts. Upon infection the lower cytokinin levels of resistant hosts decreased further with progress of infection. In the infected resistant hosts the concentrations of zeatin/zeatinriboside were the maximum among the four identified cytokinins. The pathogen is also capable of secreting cytokinins as evident from quantification of cytokinins in culture filtrate extracts using HPLC. Since detached leaves were used in the experiments the increase/decrease of various cytokinin levels may be attributed to pathogen influence. The increase in cytokinin levels in the susceptible host may be aiding the growth of the pathogen on one hand, while the decrease in the infected resistant host may signal the host to activate defenses against a potential pathogen at the early stage of infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: marine fungi ; shellfish farming area ; Artemia salina ; toxicity ; isolation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Toxigenic saprophytic fungi were isolated from samples of shellfish, sediment and seawater obtained from marine shellfish farming areas. The 456 strains identified included 12 different genera, with a clear predominance (68%) of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. To assess the risk of poisoning due to the presence of these fungi in shellfish farming areas, the strains were cultured in liquid medium, filtered, and tested on larvae of Artemia salina, a small crustacean highly sensitive to mycotoxins. Thirty-five point five percent of the strains proved active with this test. This study confirms the existence of fungi in shellfish farming areas, as suggested by our earlier work showing that filter-feeding shellfish accumulate toxic metabolites of fungal origin. The presence of fungi in the marine environment represents a real risk of poisoning through the consumption of contaminated shellfish.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: action potential ; beauvericin ; force of contraction ; fusarium metabolite ; smooth muscle ; heart muscle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The electromechanical and -physiological effects of beauvericin were studied in isolated smooth and heart muscle preparations of the guinea pig. Beauvericin concentration-dependently decreased the force of contraction in precontracted (60 mM KCl) terminal ilea with an IC50 of 0.86 μM, and in electrically stimulated (1 Hz) papillary muscles with an IC50 of 18 μM. This negative inotropic effect in papillary muscles was antagonised in a non-competitive way by increased extracellular calcium concentrations. Spontaneous activity in right atria was affected at concentrations 〉10 μM beauvericin. The negative chronotropic effect was less pronounced than the negative inotropic effect. In action potentials of electrically driven (1 Hz) papillary muscles, 10 μM beauvericin significantly decreased membrane resting potential until unexcitability of the preparation occurred. Despite depolarisation of the membrane the maximum rate of rise of the action potential was not changed. The action potential duration was shortened, but the decrease was only significant at times to 20% and 50% repolarisation. These data, derived from the electrophysiological experiments, not only imply an effect on the calcium current as suggested by the effects on contractility, but also an interaction with the sodium inward and potassium outward currents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Stachybotrys chartarum ; bronchoalveolar lavage ; fungi ; mycotoxins ; lactic dehydrogenase ; hemorrhage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Stachybotrys chartarum is a fungal species that can produce mycotoxins, specifically trichothecenes. Exposures in the indoor environment have reportedly induced neurogenic symptoms in adults and hemosiderosis in infants. However, little evidence has linked measured exposures to any fungal agent with any health outcome. We present here a study that focuses on quantitatively assessing the health risks from fungal toxin exposure. Male, 10 week old Charles River-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with approximately 9.6 million Stachybotrys chartarum spores in a saline suspension. The lungs were lavaged 0 h (i.e., immediately post-instillation), 6, 24 or 72 h after instillation. Biochemical indicators (albumin, myeloperoxidase, lactic dehydrogenase, hemoglobin) and leukocyte differentials in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and weight change were measured. We have demonstrated that a single, acute pulmonary exposure to a large quantity of Stachybotrys chartarum spores by intratracheal instillation causes severe injury detectable by bronchoalveolar lavage. The primary effect appears to be cytotoxicity and inflammation with hemorrhage. There is a measurable effect as early as 6 h after instillation, which may be attributable to mycotoxins in the fungal spores. The time course of responses supports early release of some toxins, with the most severe effects occurring between 6 and 24 h following exposure. By 72 h, recovery has begun, although macrophage concentrations remained elevated.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: C. neoformans var. neoformans and var. gattii ; ecology ; Egypt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Flowers from two Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in the Qutur area and one tree from the Tanta area yielded three isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Pigeon and sparrow droppings were also investigated for the occurrence of C. neoformans within the study area. Ninety five isolates of the neoformans variety of C. neoformans were recovered from 550 samples of avian droppings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal ; caryophyllene oxide ; onychomycosis model ; sheep hoof plate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Caryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid, well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics, has been tested in vitro as an antifungal against dermatophytes. Its antifungal activity has been compared to ciclopiroxolamine and sulconazole, commonly used in onychomycosis treatment and chosen because of their very different chemical structures. So, a new model has been tested, utilizing sheep hoof plates in order to simulate human nails, which are almost unobtainable for in vitro tests. Three protocols were utilized: pre-treatment. simultaneous treatment and post-treatment. Among these, the post-treatment method was the best to simulate antifungal therapy. as it permitted testing and comparing the efficiency of different antifungal drugs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: AIDS ; case reports ; cryptococcosis ; HAART ; immune reconstitution ; pathomorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Only nine cases of AIDS-related cryptococcosis have been reported until now in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART),all of them with abnormal clinical features. Two HIV-infected patients who experienced an atypical relapse of cryptococcosis shortly after the start of HAART and despite maintenance antifungal treatment, are described. Six different relapses of cryptococcal meningitis were observed in a 28-month period in a patient who obtained a poor immune recovery after HAART (as shown by a CD4+ lymphocyte count ranging from 78 to 149 cellsμL, opposed to a baseline level of 98 cellsμL). On the other hand, a patient with favorable immunological response to HAART(as expressed by a CD4+ count growing from 7 to 186 cellsμL),experienced isolated multiple indolent cryptococcal abscesses involving head,neck, the anterior thoracic wall, and regional lymph nodes, with repeatedly negative cultures, and diagnosis obtained by both histopathologic study and positive serum antigen assay. Both our case reports are representative of novel correlations between opportunistic pathogens and immune reactivity, descending from the introduction of HAART. The first episode describes an exceedingly elevated number of disease relapses despite HAART and antifungal maintenance treatment, which may descend from an incomplete immune response to antiretroviral therapy, possibly responsible for failure in obtaining eradication of yeasts, but also for lack of disease dissemination (usually leading to a lethal multivisceral involvement in the pre-HAART era). The abnormal disease course and localization of second reported patient well depicts an “immune reconstitution syndrome” probably representing a flare-up of a latent fungal infection, caused by a rapidly effective HAART. In patients treated with HAART, AIDS-related cryptococcosis cannot therefore be ruled out by the absence of neurological involvement, and by persistingly negative cultures.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cell culture ; food-borne mycotoxins ; human cytochrome P450s ; metabolic activity ; MTT assay ; transformed human cell lines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eight food-borne mycotoxins epidemiologically implicated in human disease were tested for their cytotoxic effects on human cells previously immortalised and transfected to introduce human cytochrome p450(CYP 450) genes. Such cells retain many characteristics of normal cell growth and differentiation while simultaneously having the potential of either increasing or decreasing the metabolic activity (cytotoxicity) of the challenging mycotoxins. The MTT assay provided an indication of cytotoxicity. Of the nine CYP 450s introduced CYP1A2 was most effective,rendering the cells 540 times more sensitive than the control cells to aflatoxin B1, 28 times more sensitive to aflatoxin G1 and 8-fold more sensitive to ochratoxin A. CYP3A4 resulted in the cells being 211 times more toxic to aflatoxin B1 and 8-fold more toxic to aflatoxin G1 while CYP 2A6, CYP 3A5 and CYP 2E1 also produced observable effects. No increase in metabolic activity was found using cyclopiazonic acid, deoxynivalenol,fumonisin B1, patulin or T-2 toxin. CD5Os were calculated for the mycotoxins against the non-CYP-introduced control cells. There was almost a five order of magnitude difference between the most toxic,T-2 toxin (CD50 0.0057 μg/ml) and the least toxic, fumonisin 1(CD50 476.2 μg/ml). In vitro biological assays thus provide an excellent system for quantifying the often low CD50s expressed bymycotoxins in foods.
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