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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) ; Methylobacterium rhodesianum ; Fructose ; Regulation ; Intracellular metabolites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of CoA metabolites and nucleotides was determined in batch cultures of Methylobacterium rhodesianum grown on methanol and shifted to growth on fructose. The intracellular concentration of CoA decreased from a high value of 0.6 nmol/mg poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-free bacterial dry mass during growth on methanol to a low value of 0.03 nmol/mg poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-free bacterial dry mass after a shift to fructose as a carbon source. The levels of NADH, NADPH, and acetyl-CoA were also lower. Under these conditions, acetyl-CoA was metabolized by both citrate synthase and β-ketothiolase, and poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis and growth occurred simultaneously during growth on fructose. Moreover, the level of ATP was approximately 50% lower during growth on fructose, supporting the hypothesis of a bottleneck in the energy supply during the growth of M. rhodesianum with fructose.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words CBB pathway ; CO2 fixation ; Transcription ; Regulation ; Proteobacteria ; Cyanobacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In phototrophic and chemoautotrophic proteobacteria, genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway of CO2 fixation are often found in clusters that are transcribed from a single promoter under control of the LysR-type transcriptional activator, CbbR. Mutations affecting CbbR prevent induction of cbb genes. Gel-retardation assays have demonstrated CbbR binding to putative regulatory regions of cbb operons, and in two cases, footprinting experiments have delimited the nucleotide sequence protected by CbbR. Fusion of cbb control sequences to reporter genes has allowed the regions required for promoter activity to be defined, and recent experiments indicate that the cbb regulon in Rhodobacter is controlled by a global two-component signal transduction system that also regulates other metabolic processes in this organism. Different ways of regulating CBB cycle enzymes that also have roles in heterotrophic metabolism have recently been discovered. In cyanobacteria, the genes of the CBB pathway are organized and regulated differently, and these oxygen-evolving phototrophic bacteria have evolved different strategies to control the assimilation of CO2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key wordsEscherichia coli ; (Mixed acid) fermentation ; Facultative anaerobic metabolism ; O2 ; Aerobic ; respiration ; Regulation ; FNR ; ArcA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In an oxystat, the synthesis of the fermentation products formate, acetate, ethanol, lactate, and succinate of Escherichia coli was studied as a function of the O2 tension (pO2) in the medium. The pO2 values that gave rise to half-maximal synthesis of the products (pO0.5) were 0.2–0.4 mbar for ethanol, acetate, and succinate, and 1 mbar for formate. The pO0.5 for the expression of the adhE gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase was approximately 0.8 mbar. Thus, the pO2 for the onset of fermentation was distinctly lower than that for anaerobic respiration (pO0.5≤ 5 mbar), which was determined earlier. An essential role for quinol oxidase bd in microaerobic growth was demonstrated. A mutant deficient for quinol oxidase bd produced lactate as a fermentation product during growth at microoxic conditions (approximately 10 mbar O2), in contrast to the wild-type or a quinol-oxidase-bo-deficient strain. In the presence of nitrate, the amount of lactate was largely decreased. Therefore, under microoxic conditions, the pO2 appears to be too high for (mixed acid) fermentation to function and too low for aerobic respiration by quinol oxidase bo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Heterologous expression ; Methane ; oxidation ; Methane monooxygenase ; Methanotroph ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The methanotrophs Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b contain particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) genes. Other methanotrophs such as Methylomicrobium album BG8 and Methylocystis parvus OBBP contain only pMMO genes. Although molecular genetic techniques are poorly developed in methanotrophs, sMMO genes were expressed in methanotrophs normally containing only pMMO genes. This was achieved by conjugation using broad-host-range plasmids containing the native promoter and sMMO genes from Mc. capsulatus (Bath) and Ms. trichosporium OB3b. sMMO genes derived from Ms. trichosporium OB3b were expressed in an active form in Mcy. parvus OBBP and in Mm. album BG8. Therefore, all of the genes required for active sMMO synthesis were contained on the broad-host-range plasmids and were expressed in the heterologous hosts. Constitutive synthesis of pMMO was observed in Mm. album BG8 when grown at high and low copper-to-biomass ratios, while transcription of the recombinant sMMO genes was only observed under growth conditions of low copper-to-biomass ratios. Therefore, the regulatory protein(s) for sMMO synthesis was also present on the plasmid used, or the heterologous host contained a regulatory system for sMMO. Expression of sMMO genes in methanotrophs containing only pMMO will assist further investigations on the expression and regulation of MMO genes in methanotrophs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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