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  • outcome  (14)
  • 1995-1999  (14)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Head injury ; outcome ; Glasgow Coma Scale ; children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Patients defined as having a moderate head injury on the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale scores within the ranges of 9 to 13 after acute nonsurgical procedures were selected. Almost 1600 cases were hospitalized in the Neurosurgery Department. The cases were admitted through the Emergency Unit of Gaz University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey during the period between 1979 and 1992. The group studied consisted of 231 selected patients assessed separately in paediatric, adult and elderly age groups. Possible risk factors such as: GCS score, anisocoria, unilateral or bilateral fixed pupils, impaired oculocephalic reflexes, presence of multiple systemic injuries, aetiology of head trauma, presence of linear or depressed skull fractures, space occupying mass on CT or operation was also assessed. Subarachnoid haemorrhage turned out to be the only independent significant risk factor in predicting mortality. The data about the patients who have “talked and deteriorated” were also reported so as to assisst physicians charged with the care of trauma victims.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Haemangiopericytoma ; intracranial ; outcome ; proliferation indices ; p53
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cell proliferation indices of 31 primary intracranial haemangiopericytomas (HPC) and their recurrences and metastases were correlated with the long-term recurrence, metastasis and survival rates. Paraffin-embedded specimens were used for K-67, PCNA and p53 immunostainings and for estimation of S-phase fraction (S-PF) in flow cytometry. The median Ki-67 and PCNA indices and S-PFs were 10.4, 3.2, and 4.0 for primary HPCs and 14.1, 14.1, and 5.5 for recurrences, respectively. High indices were associated with higher recurrence, metastasis and death rates, but not at the p ≤ 0.5 level. Consequently, these indices do not seem useful in planning of treatment and follow-up of meningeal HPCs. Meningeal HPCs, in contrast to meningiomas, recur almost always despite seemingly complete removal and often metastasize elsewhere in the body. This difference between two sharply demarcated tumours must reflect particularly adhesive and infiltrative properties of HPC cells and not just higher proliferation potential.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Traditional lumbar disc surgery ; dural tear ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether wide surgical exposures result in poorer outcome of lumbar disc surgery compared to smaller traditional exposures. The aim was also to assess if a dural tear has any impact on the postoperative clinical outcome. One hundred and twenty-two patients (56 women and 66 men, mean age 40.8 years) with herniated intervertebral lumbar disc and no previous back surgery, were included. Postoperatively they were grouped according to surgery as follows: surgery on one vs. two herniated discs (106 vs. 16 patients), partial vs. full laminectomy (93 vs. 29 patients), and the occurrence or not of a dural rent (8 vs. 114 patients). The outcome of surgery was evaluated one year postoperatively mainly by a composite clinical overall score (COS) and by its separate elements, which were: pain intensity in the lower-back or leg (VAS), neurological and clinical examination, functional capacity (Oswestry), and the need for analgesics. The results of the statistical regression analyses did not reveal significant differences in the postoperative outcome scores in the various groups of patients. The groups were comparable; no significant differences were seen in the pre-operative clinical overall scores.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Acute subdural haematoma ; head injury ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Traumatic acute subdural haematoma is one of the most lethal of all head injuries: the mortality rate is reported to be between 50 and 90%. We reviewed the clinical records of 1688 head injured patients admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery at C.T.O. hospital between 1982 and 1992. In 127 cases (7,5%) CTscan on admission showed acute subdural haematoma requiring surgery because the midline shift was greater than 5 mm. The overall mortality rate was 57% and 23% had functional recovery. The following variables were assessed with regard to morbidity and mortality: mechanism of injury, age, neurological presentation, time delay from injury to intervention, CTscan finding on admission. GCS and CTscan findings were found to be the most important prognostic variable. Timing of operative intervention for clot removal with regard to outcome was not statistically significant. But no conclusions regarding the importance of early haematoma evacuation can be drawn from such an oversimplifying statement, because it does not take into account factors like rapidity of haematoma development and related brain decompensation as well as additional direct brain lesions. The results of this study suggest that the extent of primary brain injury underlying the subdural haematoma is the most important factor affecting outcome.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Paediatric head injury ; computerized tomography ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors have analysed the computerized tomography (CT) findings and their correlation with the clinical state, early and late outcome in children and adolescents with head injuries (HI). This study represents clinical and CT data of 82 consecutive HI patients under 18 years of age. Among them 51 (62%) were boys and 31 (38%) girls. The application of CT to the evaluation of the morphologic manifestations of HI in children has shown some differences in forms and mechanisms of injury and in outcome compared to adults. In the paediatric HI the most frequent finding was diffuse brain swelling with CT evidence of ventricular and cisternal compression or obliteration. Prognostically the most unfavourable findings were shearing injury, intracerebral and subdural haematomas combined with brain swelling and parenchymal damage. According to the Lidcombe impairment scale, outcome from severe paediatric HI was determined in the 3rd and 6th months, one year and 2 years after the injury. The outcome two years after severe HI varied to a great extent and was better in children than in adults. Although there was long-term disruption of the patient's quality of life, our data show that as there are no predictors of individual outcomes in child HI, no child should be excluded from early and long-term rehabilitation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Skull base ; transzygomatic approach ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The transzygomatic approach has been utilised to improve access to the skull base, infratemporal fossa and orbit for a number of years. It provides a low anterolateral approach to the skull base, along the floor of the middle fossa. It allows both a transsylvian and subtemporal approach with a reduction in brain retraction and better exposure of adjacent neurovasculature structures. A long term review of 53 patients is presented highlighting outcome at two years post surgery and morbidity of the approach. It is concluded that the technique is versatile and can be used to improve exposure of a variety of anatomical locations. There is minimal long term morbidity attributable to the surgery of access and the majority of patients have had good outcomes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Arachnoid cyst ; fenestration ; surgical treatment ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors report 46 cases of primary supratentorial arachnoid cysts. Thirty-two patients presented with symptomatic arachnoid cysts, which act as space-occupying lesions and were surgically treated by fenestration. 14 patients presented with a scarsity of symptoms; for this reason they were kept under control by periodical neuroradiological examination. After a long follow-up period (median 11 years), 97% of the operated patients presented neurological improvement and a decrease in the size of the cyst; none of the patients who were not operated on showed any variation in either neurological status or size of the cyst. The authors discuss their findings in the light of the published papers.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Head injury ; intracranial pressure ; monitoring ; outcome ; waveform analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors have investigated the relationships between the amplitude of the ICP pulse wave, the mean values of ICP and CPP, and the outcome of 56 head injured ventilated patients. The ICP was monitored continuously using a Camino transducer (35 patients) or subdural catheter (21 patients). The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 6 (range 3–13; 5 patients had a GCS 〉 8 after resuscitation). Patients were grouped according to their Glasgow Outcome Score assessed at 12 months after injury. The amplitude of ICP pulse waveform was assessed using the fundamental harmonic of the pulse waveform (AMP) to avoid distortion caused by different frequency responses of the pressure transducers used in the study. Statistical analysis revealed that in patients with fatal outcome the ICP pulse amplitude increased when the mean ICP increased to 25 mmHg and then began to decrease. The upper breakpoint of the AMP-ICP relationship was not present in patients with good/moderate outcome. The moving correlation coefficient between the fundamental harmonic of ICP pulse wave and the mean ICP (RAP: R-symbol of correlation between A-amplitude and P-pressure) was introduced to describe the time-dependent changes in correlation between amplitude and mean ICP. The RAP was significantly lower in patients who died or remained in the vegetative state. In 7 patients who died from uncontrollable intracranial hypertension RAP was oscillating or decreased to 0 or negative values well before brain-stem herniation. The combination of an ICP above 20 mmHg for a period longer than 6 hours with low correlation between the amplitude and pressure (RAP 〈 0.5) was described as an predictive index of an unfavourable outcome.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Nimodipine ; outcome ; subarachnoid haemorrhage ; systemic hypotension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To determine the incidence of induced systemic hypotension in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and nimodipine treatment 87 consecutive cases were reviewed. The patients were managed according to the same Nimodipine treatment protocol. After confirmation of SAH the nimodipine treatment was started as a continuous intravenous perfusion at a dosage of 0.5 mg/h and gradually increased every 6 hours if haemodynamically tolerated until the maintenance dose of 2 mg/h was reached. Median systemic pressure was continuously measured and tolerated until a lowest limit of 75 mmHg. In 31 patients (36%) hypotension with values below 75 mmHg during at least 30 minutes was noted and needed Nimodipine reduction. Intravenous Nimodipine administration was responsible for hypotension in 26 cases as compared to 5 cases due to oral administration. 38% of all patients required support by vaso-active agents (Dopamine or Noradrenaline). There was no statistically significant difference of incidence of delayed ischaemic deterioration comparing the Nimodipine-reduction group with the normal dose group. This study demonstrates that a considerable risk exists of Nimodipine induced hypotension in intravenous administration despite gradually increasing the doses. Correction of hypotension through further induced hypervolaemia accompanied by vasoactive agents can lead to critical haemodynamic situations. We therefore recommend oral Nimodipine administration.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Aneurysm ; subarachnoid hemorrhage ; coma ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report management and outcome data on 118 patients that presented to our emergency room over a 4 year interval (1990–1994) in poor neurological condition after subarachnoid hemorrhage. All patients were treated following a strict protocol. After initial evaluation, patients underwent a head computerized tomography (CT) scan to try to understand the mechanism of coma. If CT did not show destruction of vital brain areas, a ventriculostomy was inserted and ICP measured. If ICP was less than 20 mm Hg, or if standard treatment of increased ICP was able to lower the ICP to a value less than 20 mmHg, patients were evaluated with cerebral angiogram to determine the location of the raptured aneurysm. The lesion was then treated by craniotomy for aneurysm clipping or endovascular obliteration. Postoperative monitoring for vasospasm with clinical exam and transcranial doppler studies was performed routinely. If vasospasm developed, this was managed aggressively with hypertensive, hypervolemic and hemodilutional therapy and, at times, endovascular treatment with angioplasty or papaverine. Outcome was measured at 1 year or more after treatment. Among patients who met criteria for aneurysm treatment, 47% had excellent or good neurologic outcome. There was a 30% mortality rate in these patients. In patients with high ICP, poor brainstem function or destruction of vital brain areas on CT, comfort measures only were offered and almost all died. It is concluded that an approach of early aneurysm obliteration and aggressive medical and endovascular management of vasospasm is warranted in patients in poor neurological conditions after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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