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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 129 (1995), S. 127-127 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cultural characteristics ; Fungi imperfecti ; Fusarium sambucinum ; Fusarium torulosum ; Fusarium venenatum ; Morphology ; Taxonomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract WithinFusarium sambucinum Fuckel sensu lato three species were differentiated:F. sambucinum Fuckel s. str.,F. torulosum (Berk. et Curt.) Nirenberg comb. nov. andF. venenatum Nirenberg sp. nov. They are described and illustrated in detail.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium species ; Molecular systematics ; Ribosomal RNA sequences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Partial ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequences were determined for 11 strains ofFusarium sambucinum Fuckelsensu lato to assess by molecular genetic means, Nirenberg's recent morphotaxonomic interpretation which split the species into three distinct taxa:F. sambucinum sensu stricto, F. torulosum, and one other species, as yet unnamed (Fusarium species nova). Four sequence patterns were identified among the 11 strains. Two sequences that varied at one site were found among strains ofF. sambucinum, strains ofF. torulosum andFusarium sp. nov. showed no intraspecific variation. Interspecific comparisons revealed nucleotide sequence differences of 3–9 substitutions in the ca. 240 nucleotide rRNA segment examined. Although interspecific differences are not large in terms of percent nucleotide substitution, they are much larger than the observed intraspecific variation and support the morphological interpretation distinguishing three taxa. When the data were analysed using parsimony and bootstrapping, the three taxon tree was well supported. The phylogenetic arrangement of these strains is congruent with secondary metabolite profile similarities.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bioassays ; Enniatin B ; Fusarium ; Trichothecenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-nineFusarium isolates, representing three new taxa originated by Nirenberg fromF. sambucinum Fuckel sensu lato, namely:F. sambucinum Fuckel sensu stricto,F. venenotum Nirenb., andF. torulosum (Berk. & Curt.) Nirenb., were tested for in vitro production of toxic secondary metabolites on autoclaved corn kernels.F. sambucinum sensu stricto was able to produce type A trichothecenes and enniatin B (EB). In particular, amongst the 14 isolates tested, 5 produced only diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) (up to 700 µg/g); 1 produced only neosolaniol (NEOS) (250 µg/g); 2 produced T-2 toxin (T-2) + NEOS (up to 175 and 150 µg/g, respectively); 1 produced NEOS + DAS (300 and 100 µg/g, respectively); and 5 produced DAS + EB (up to 500 and 140 µg/g, respectively). All six isolates ofF. venenotum were able to produce only DAS (up to 100 µg/g).F. torulosum produced no trichothecenes, but four out of nine tested isolates were able to produce EB (up to 140 µg/g). Zearalenones and type B trichothecenes were not found. The toxicity of the culture extracts towardsArtemia salina L. was correlated in general with the occurrence of the above toxins, except for someF. torulosum strains. However, the lack of correlation between the amounts of toxins recovered and toxic activity observed in theGeotrichum candidum Link ex Pers. andA. salina assays suggested the presence of unknown toxic compounds.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Analytical methods ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; Avian aspergillosis ; Gliotoxin ; Turkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Turkey poults were given either of two different dosages of two different gliotoxin-producing strains ofAspergillus fumigatus. Infected lung tissue was examined postmortem for the presence of gliotoxin. Gliotoxin was found in lung tissue of ten poults infected with one strain and in seven of ten poults infected with the other strain. Concentrations of gliotoxin in the tissue exceeded 6 ppm in some of the infected tissues. The concentration of gliotoxin found in infected tissue did not appear to be correlated with the dosage of organism given. Considering the pathologic changes observed in turkey poults with aspergillosis and the production of gliotoxin during the pathogenic state in turkey poults, gliotoxin is considered likely to be involved in avian aspergillosis.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 132 (1995), S. 39-40 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 132 (1995), S. 63-64 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Luteoskyrin ; Penicillium islandicum ; Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) ; Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) ; Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) ; High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) alone in cultural media were tested for the inhibition of growth and luteoskyrin production by two toxigenic strains ofPenicillium islandicum UST-11 andP. islandicum HLT-6. In potato dextrose agar, the concentrations of BHA and TBHQ from 0.2 mg/disc, BHT from 5.0 mg/disc did affect the growth of both tested strains, but the initial concentrations of these antioxidants to reduced luteoskyrin production by UST-11 strain were BHA 0.5 mg/disc, BHT 1.0 mg/disc and TBHQ 0.4 mg/disc, while for HLT-6, BHA 0.4 mg/disc, BHT and TBHQ were 0.2 mg/disc, respectively. In grainy and powdery rice media, the effects of BHA, BHT and TBHQ on luteoskyrin production byP. islandicum UST-11 and HLT-6 were clearly demonstrated. The efficiency of the inhibitory effect was not only closely related to the concentration of antioxidants, but also completely inhibited the luteoskyrin production at a concentration of 200 mg/kg or higher. Also, the antioxidants at a concentration higher than 20 mg/kg reduced significantly the growth and luteoskyrin production by both strains ofP. islandicum.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus flavus ; Aflatoxins ; Culture method ; Glass fiber
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new method for growingAspergllius flavus for experimental studies is presented. The system consists of a humidified vial with a thick septum pierced by a pin on which a glass fiber disc is affixed. The disc contains the test solution and inoculum plus medium. The method has been used to assess the effect of variations in culture conditions on production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The AFB1 level was affected by the amount of medium placed on the disc and type of disc material. The results for different types of glass fiber and quartz discs were compared with AFB1 produced by fungus grown in liquid medium or on paper discs. When compared to a liquid medium culture there was a 15 to 20-fold increase in AFB1 for one type of disc. Incubations with less than 14 µl of medium gave satisfactory results. A crude phosphatidylcholine preparation at a concentration of 0.7% of the medium resulted in a 4-fold increase in AFB1.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Histoplasma virulence ; Macrophage deactivation ; Oxidative burst ; Superoxide production ; Yeast aggregation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It was previously reported thatHistoplasma capsulatum (Hc) yeast not only failed to stimulate a murine macrophage oxidative burst (OB), but they also blunted or abolished OB stimulation by a subsequent encounter with potent stimuli such as zymosan or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The present studies show that macrophage deactivation is proportional to the time of incubation and the dose of Hc yeast that induce the deactivated state. Hc yeast derived from a virulent strain (G217B) are more efficient inducers of macrophage deactivation than similar preparations derived from the avirulent Downs Hc strain. Yeast cells of two other pathogenic fungi,Candida albicans andCryptococcus neoformans are shown to stimulate rather than deactivate a macrophage OB.
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