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  • 1995-1999  (1,968)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Asparagus officinalis L ; Genetic map RFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher level of polymorphism (65%) was observed when a single family was screened for RFLPs using six distinct restriction enzymes. Segregation analysis of the BC progenies (40–80 individuals) resulted in a 418-cM extended map comprising 43 markers: 39 RFLPs, three isozymes and one morphological (sex). These markers are clustered in 12 linkage groups and four of them exhibited significant deviations from the expected 1∶1 ratio. One isozyme and three RFLP markers were assigned to the sex chromosome.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat ; RFLP ; Triticum dicoccoides ; T. araraticum ; Genetic divergence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Intra- and inter-specific variations in the nuclear DNA of Triticum dicoccoides Körn. (2n = 28, genome constitution AABB) and T. araraticum Jakubz. (2n = 28, AAGG), wild species, respectively, of the Emmer and Timopheevi group, were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Total DNAs of 32 T. dicoccoides and 24 T. araraticum accessions, collected from throughout the distribution areas of these species, were treated with two 6-bp cutters and hybridized with 30 nuclear DNA clones as probes to detect RFLPs. A total of 167 hybrid bands were observed per accession. All the enzyme-probe combinations showed RFLPs between accessions. The average genetic distance between the T. dicoccoides accessions was 0.0135 ± 0.0031 and that between the T. araraticum accessions 0.0036 ± 0.0015, indicative of about a four-fold intraspecific variation in T. dicoccoides as compared to T. araraticum in terms of genetic distance. No significant genetic differentiation was found for the geographical populations of these species, the genetic distance between the two species being 0.0482 ± 0.0022. The interspecific divergence corrected for intraspecific divergence was 0.0395, about three times that for T. dicoccoides and 11 times that for T. araraticum. The results show that in the wild state the Emmer and Timopheevi groups are clearly differentiated and that T. dicoccoides has much greater variation than T. araraticum, suggesting a relatively recent origin for the latter and therefore a diphyletic origin for these species.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Heritability ; Incomplete block design ; Standard error ; Bias ; Genotype by environment interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An assessment of the heritability of a trait is useful in formulating a breeding strategy for crop improvement. We have considered the estimation of broad-sense heritability from a single-location trial and from multi-locational trials conducted in incomplete blocks. Using residual maximum likelihood estimates of variance components, we estimated the heritability and obtained expressions for the estimate of its bias and its standard error. The estimation procedure is illustrated for 25 barley genotypes evaluated at four locations in West Asia and North Africa during 1992.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Alfalfa ; Megagametogenesis ; Supernumerary nuclei ; 2n eggs ; Meiotic mutants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Megagametogenesis was studied in five diploid alfalfa mutants producing 4n pollen and 2n eggs, using a stain-clearing technique. All mutants produced embryo sacs with a variable number of supernumerary nuclei both at the early (bi- and tetra-nucleate) and at the late (eight-nucleate) stages of development. The presence of supernumerary nuclei is considered to be a consequence of the production of coenocytic megaspores. The production of 2n eggs was confirmed through cytological investigation by means of the diameter of the egg-cell nucleolus. The frequency of 2n eggs was lower than the frequency of binucleated macrospores as previously determined. This discrepancy may be due to environmental effects but also to the fact that binucleated macrospores may degenerate or may, after two mitotic divisions, give rise to eight-nucleated embryo sacs counted as normals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Capsicum chinense ; Resistance gene ; Genetics ; Pepper ; Tomato spotted wilt virus ; Tospoviruses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) has been reported to be an important reservoir of resistance genes to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The genes for TSWV resistance present in three C. chinense lines (‘PI 152225’, ‘PI 159236’ and ‘Panca’) were investigated for allelism. All resistant lines were crossed with each other. Parents, F1, backcrosses and F2 populations (including reciprocals) developed from those crosses were mechanically inoculated with a highly virulent TSWV isolate. Susceptible C. annuum cv ‘Magda’ was used to check inoculum virulence. Fifty plants of the F1 hybrids; ‘Magda’ x ‘PI 152225’, ‘Magda’ x ‘PI 159236’, and ‘Magda’ x 'Panca, were also inoculated with the TSWV isolate. The resistance response in all C. chinense sources was associated with a localized, hypersensitive-like reaction that was phenotypically expressed as a prompt formation of large local lesions accompanied by premature leaf abscission. All F1 generations presented a final score of resistant; indicating that the expression of resistance to TSWV is conditioned by a dominant gene regardless of the source. The absence of segregation for resistance to TSWV that was observed in all generations of the crosses between C. chinense lines indicated that either a tightly linked group of genes exists or that the resistance is governed by the same single major gene (probably the already described Tsw gene). Previous reports have indicated that the Tsw gene is not effective against tospovirus members of serogroup II, i.e. tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and groundnut ring spot virus (GRSV). In the assay described here, all of the C. chinense lines showed, after mechanical inoculation, an identical susceptibility response to the TCSV and GRSV isolates.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: C-banding ; Genomic in situ hybridization ; Triticum aestivum ; T. umbellulatum ; Chromosome addition and translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A standard karyotype and a generalized idiogram of Triticum umbellulatum (syn. Aegilops umbellulata, 2n = 2x = 14) was established based on C-banding analysis of ten accessions of different geographic origin and individual T. umbellulatum chromosomes in T. aestivum — T. umbellulatum chromosome addition lines. Monosomic (MA) and disomic (DA) T. aestivum — T. umbellulatum chromosome addition lines (DA1U = B, DA2U = D, MA4U = F, DA5U = C, DA6U = A, DA7U = E = G) and telosomic addition lines (DA1US, DA1UL, DA2US, DA2UL, DA4UL, MA5US, (+ iso 5US), DA5UL, DA7US, DA7UL) were analyzed. Line H was established as a disomic addition line for the translocated wheat — T. umbellulatum chromosome T2DS·4US. Radiation-induced wheat — T. umbellulatum translocation lines resistant to leaf rust (Lr9) were identified as T40 = T6BL·6BS-6UL, T41 = T4BL·4BS-6UL, T44 = T2DS·2DL-6UL, T47 = ‘Transfer’ = T6BS·6BL-6UL and T52 = T7BL·7BS-6UL. Breakpoints and sizes of the transferred T. umbellulatum segments in these translocations were determined by in situ hybridization analysis using total genomic T. umbellulatum DNA as a probe
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oil palm ; Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera ; RFLP ; Genetic fingerprinting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A variety of DNA probes was used to screen a diverse set of oil palm accessions in order to identify markers with a utility in genotype discrimination. This survey included samples of the commercial oil palm native to Africa (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), the closely-related South American species [E.oleifera (HBK) Cortes] and inter-specific hybrids of the two. Of 106 major chloroplast bands none showed differences between E. guineensis and E. Oleifera. Mitochondrial and ribosomal probes were more informative inter-specifically (the former allowing identification of the maternal inheritance of mitochondria) and may be useful in hybrid breeding programmes; however, they were unable to identify polymorphism within E. guineensis. In contrast, low-copy nuclear genomic clones were able to identify intra-specific variation, though in most cases they revealed a relatively small number of allelic variants. One DNA probe showed a much larger number of band variants, revealing ten patterns amongst 13 E. guineensis accessions, and should prove useful in genetic fingerprinting and evaluation of oil-palm germplasm collections.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat ; Rye ; RAPD ; PCR ; In situ hybridization ; Dispersed repeat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Bulk segregant analysis was used to obtain a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker specific for the rye chromosome arm of the 1BL.1RS translocation, which is common in many high-yielding bread wheat varieties. The RAPD-generated band was cloned and end-sequenced to allow the construction of a pair of oligonucleotide primers that PCR-amplify a DNA sequence only in the presence of rye chromatin. The amplified sequence shares a low level of homology to wheat and barley, as judged by the low strength of hybridization of the sequence to restriction digests of genomic DNA. Genetic analysis showed that the amplified sequence was present on every rye chromosome and not restricted to either the proximal or distal part of the 1RS arm. In situ hybridization studies using the amplified product as probe also showed that the sequence was dispersed throughout the rye genome, but that the copy number was greatly reduced, or the sequence was absent at both the centromere and the major sites of heterochromatin (telomere and nucleolar organizing region). The probe, using both Southern blot and in situ hybridization analyses, hybridized at a low level to wheat chromosomes, and no hybridizing restriction fragments could be located to individual wheat chromosomes from the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of wheat aneuploids. The disomic addition lines of rye chromosomes to wheat shared a similar RFLP profile to one another. The amplified sequence does not contain the RIS 1 sequence and therefore represents an as yet undescribed dispersed repetitive sequence. The specificity of the amplification primers is such that they will provide a useful tool for the rapid detection of rye chromatin in a wheat background. Additionally, the relatively low level of cross-hybridization to wheat chromatin should allow the sequence to be used to analyse the organization of rye euchromatin in interphase nuclei of wheat lines carrying chromosomes, chromosome segments or whole genomes derived from rye.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Brassica napus ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism ; Vernalization ; Days-to-flowering ; Linkage map
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.) can be classified into annual and biennial groups according to their requirement for vernalization in order to induce flowering. The genetic control of these phenotypic differences is not well understood, but this information could be valuable for the design of breeding approaches to accelerate rapeseed improvement. In order to map loci controlling this variation, a doubled haploid population, derived from a cross between annual and biennial cultivars, was evaluated for vernalization requirement and days-to-flowering in a replicated field experiment using three treatments: no vernalization, 4 weeks of vernalization and 8 weeks of vernalization. A linkage map of 132 RFLP loci was used to locate loci controlling these traits. Marker segregation in one region of linkage group 9 was strongly associated with the annual/biennial growth habit in the unvernalized treatment and with days-to-flowering in all three treatments. Two other regions with smaller effects on days-to-flowering were also identified.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oncorhynchus kisutch ; Nested design ; Heritability ; Freshwater ; Growth rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Genetic parameters of size through sexual maturity have been relatively unexplored for Pacific salmon. In this study, individually tagged coho salmon were raised in freshwater, and the heritabilities of size and growth rate were estimated at several intervals between 13 and 24 months of age (spawning). Heritability estimates for size were moderate to high from 13 to 19 months of age, ranging from 0.36 to 0.50, and lower from 21 months to spawning at 24 months, ranging from 0.17 to 0.32. Heritabilities of specific growth rates estimated over 3-month intervals were moderate from 16 to 21 months of age, ranging from 0.21 to 0.34. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between sizes measured at different ages were moderate to high, ranging from about 0.7 to 1.0. Correlations between growth rate and size indicated that the larger fish were the fastest growing between 16 and 19 months of age and were slower growing between 19 and 21 months of age.
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