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  • Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  (973)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Strömungsmechanik
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (973)
  • Sage Publications
  • 1995-1999  (973)
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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (973)
  • Sage Publications
  • Springer  (48)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The MELD program is employed to evaluate the Slater average potential v(r) felt by an electron at the point r within an atom. The characteristic radius R of the atom is then defined by the classical turning point equation v(R) = -I, where I denotes the first ionization potential of the atom. The atomic radii defined in this way have a close correlation with the van der Waals atomic radii. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We calculate the resonant and antibound state energies for a Morse potential with a centrifugal barrier using Siegert boundary conditions. Starting with a complex wave number k (purely imaginary for bound and antibound states), we integrate numerically from the origin up to a matching point using Numerov's method. The inward integration is performed using the corresponding (first-order) Riccati equation. The complex eigenvalues are found by matching the two logarithmic derivatives. We find narrow shape resonances within the well, above the dissociation limit, and broad resonances above the centrifugal barrier. Antibound states are found even with J = 0. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Characters of irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group corresponding to the two-row Young diagrams, i.e., describing transformation properties of N-electron eigenfunctions of the total spin operators, have been expressed as explicit functions of the number of electrons N and of the total spin quantum number S. The formulas are useful in various areas of theory of many-electron systems, particularly in designing algorithms for evaluation of spectral density moments. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Numerical experiments with a nonlinear (λχ4) oscillator which has its harmonic frequency changing randomly with time reveal certain interesting features of its dynamics of quantum evolution. When λ = 0, the level populations are seen to oscillate. But, as the nonlinear coupling is switched on (λ 〉 0), a threshold is reached at λ = λc when the evolution is seen to be characterized by an abrupt transition dominantly to the highest available state of the unperturbed (initial) oscillator. It is shown that this transition probability is maximized at a particular value of λ. The time threshold for this transition decreases with increasing nonlinear coupling strength. The numerically obtained structures of the underlying quantum-phase spaces of the linear and nonlinear random oscillators are examined. Possible use of these results in a problem of chemical origin is explored. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one) was studied by the semiempirical AM1 and PM3 and ab initio STO-3G*, 3-21G*, and 6-31G* methods. The goals were to compare those methods and to know the electronic structure of the hormone. Full geometry optimization was performed, and two crystal conformers (T1 and T2), and experimental dipole moment in solution were used for comparison. One conformer with a dipole moment similar to the solvated conditions was generated. Total energy, entalphies, dipole moments, charges, electrostatic potentials, and highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated. Root-mean-square (RMS) index of the theoretical molecules against T1 and T2 showed best results with the 3-21G* and 6-31G* methods, while AM1 gave better energies than PM3. Dipole moments were directed toward the OH group and the botton face of the A ring. The frontier orbitals were located along the C4-C5 π bond, particularly the LUMO was split between C4 and C5, predicting the action of enzymes at C5 yielding to 5α and 5β-reduced androgens. Electrostatic potentials might be also of biological importance since they are coincidental with the dipole-moment orientation. Finally, it is interesting that the solvatedlike conformer, its properties, and the OH group laid between the same group of T1 and T2 and with a total energy between the crystals and the gas phase or in vacuo conditions. This results might also explain the biology of testosterone and use them to model the hormone-receptor interaction. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mechanism and kinetics for the decomposition of β-hydroxypropaldehyde, primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones, were studied by using ab initio RHF/6-31G and RHF/6-31G* methods. The activation barriers of these reactions were refined to be 39.57, 40.10, and 36.80 kcal mol-1 at the MP2/ /RHF/6-31G* level, respectively. The calculated results show that each decomposition is a concerted process with hydrogen transferring and bond breaking via a six-membered cyclic transition state. The thermal rate constants of the decomposition of primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones were obtained by calculating microcanonical probability fluxes through each transition state. It is theoretically confirmed that methyl substitution at the hydroxyl carbon of β-hydroxyketones causes a small enhancement in rates. The theoretical investigations of the mechanism and the rate constants are in agreement with the experimental results. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Simple molecular orbital calculations are employed in searching electronic parameters which may characterize the chemical carcinogens. Using frontier orbitals, the carcinogen-DNA bond formation is described as an electron transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of DNA to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the carcinogen. Analysis of the DNA bases units shows that the electron donation occurs preferentially at the guanine site. The calculated low LUMO energy of several carcinogens indicate correctly the electrophilic character of these compounds. The difference between the carcinogen and the ultimate carcinogen is analyzed. Epoxides, free radicals, alkylating agents, and other metabolite forms are studied. A reasonable correlation is found between the LUMO energy and the carcinogenic function. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We presented a calculation of the total and partial decay widths of vibrational predissociation (VP) of the HeI2 molecule for low initial vibrational excitations from the lowest van der Waals (vdW) state with total angular momentum J = 0. A time-dependent golden rule wave-packet method was employed in our numerical calculations for the decay widths. The computed total decay widths, lifetimes, and rates of VP are in fairly good agreement with those extrapolated from the experimental data available. Predicted total decay widths as a function of initial vibrational levels exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior. These results demonstrate that a quantum mechanical decay mode for low vibrational excitation remains as well. The total propagation time needed in the time-dependent golden rule wave-packet calculations is much shorter than is the lifetime of the predissociation of HeI2. It is shown that the final-state interaction between the fragments is important for determining the final rotational-state distribution (partial decay width). We find that the major peak position in the final rotational-state distribution shifts to lower rotational energy levels with increase of the initial vibrational quantum number, which is evidently different from that for higher vibrational levels. This fact can be clearly explained by the dependence of the amount of kinetic energy released to the product degrees of freedom on the initial vibrational state. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1065-1078 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: very precise eigenvalues ; very accurate grid method ; general solution for Schrödinger equations ; rapidly convergent treatment for helium eigenvalues ; superconvergence ; optimization of grids ; treatment of continuum ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An extension to the theory of Schrödinger equations has been made which enables the derivation of eigenvalues from a consideration of a very small part of geometric space. The concomitant unwanted continuum effects have been removed. The theory enables very convergent or “superconvergent” calculations. In the case of the helium ground state, E=-2.90372437703411987 Eh was obtained from 251 terms. The result is comparable to that from the largest variation calculations so far carried out reinforced by extrapolation techniques. The theory is extensible to atoms and molecules irrespectively of the number of electrons or nuclear centers. In these cases, the advantage of “superconvergent” calculations will be more pronounced than in the case of helium.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1065-1078, 1997
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio study on the reaction of the ground state (3D) and the excited state (1D) of Sc+ with methane was performed. Reaction channels on the singlet and triplet potential surface (PES) and the reaction mechanism are examined and discussed. Three regions of the potential surface was studied: the molecular complex, the C(SINGLE BOND)H insertion products, and the transition states for the reaction. Comparisons between singlet and triplet PESs show that the excited state (1D) of Sc+ has more reactivity with methane than does the ground state (3D) due to the spin quantum number conservation with the more stable insertion intermediate. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An efficient expansion method for the evaluation of VB matrix elements is introduced. The overlaps of VB wave functions of N electrons can be treated as algebrants, i.e., generalized determinants, of N × N matrices. An algebrant can be expanded with subalgebrants of lower orders in a successive way. By choosing Rumer spin bases and appropriately arranging the expansion, it is found that the number of unique subalgebrants involved in the expansion increases in a quite moderate way with N. In contrast to the traditional symmetric group approach, which explicitly utilizes all N! representation matrices, the new strategy incorporates the group theoretical factors in a simple way in the successive expansion. As only the unique subalgebrants are further expanded, the computational effort required by the new strategy scales in a very acceptable manner with the increasing number of electrons. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 62: 245-259, 1997
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical solutions to the Yukawa-like screened Coulomb nuclear attraction and electron repulsion molecular basic integrals, as well as to the basic integrals required to compute the virial coefficient, over Gaussian basis functions, are derived and cast into a practical closed form, suitable to interface with modern codes for the calculation of molecular electronic structure. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The geometries and S-H, S-S, and S-C bond dissociation energies for hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen disulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were calculated with both ab initio (ROHF and MP2), hybrid (BHandH, BHandHLYP, Becke3LYP and Becke3P86), and nonlocal (BLYP and BP86) density functional theory (DFT) methods. In all studies the 6-31 + G(d) basis set is used. The computed results are compared to the experimentally obtained values, targeting the selection of a suitable ab initio or DFT method for the study of these systems. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The H2 interaction with the Pd dimer and trimer were studied using multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MC-SCF) calculations with the relativistic effective core potential (RECP); the correlation energy correction was included in the extended multireference configuration interaction (MRCI), variational and perturbative to second order. Here, we considered the Pd2 first six states: 3Σ+u, 1Σ+g, 3Πg, 3Δxy, 1Σ+u, and 3Σ+g. For them, the four geometrical approaches included were the side-on H2 toward Pd2, for the hydrogen molecule in and out the Pd dimer plane; the perpendicular end-on H2 toward Pd2; and the perpendicular end-on Pd2 to H2. The Pd2 ground state is 3Σ+u, which only captures H2 in the C2v end-on approach, softly relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. The closed-shell 1Σ+g captures the H2 molecule in all the approaches considered: The side-on approach of this state presents deep wells and relaxes the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond, and the end-on approach captures H2 with a relatively longer H(SINGLE BOND)H distance and also a deep well. The 3Πg state was the only one which did not capture H2. For the triangular Pd3 clusters, H2 was approached in the C2v symmetry in and out of the Pd3 plane. In the triangular case, H2 was absorbed in both spin states, with deep wells and relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H distance. The linear Pd3 singlet and triplet states capture outside of the Pd3 and break the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Highly accurate upper bounds for several 2Pe states of the Li isoelectronic series obtained by extensive Hylleraas-Cl calculations are given. The best value for the 22Pe state (1s2p2) of Li is -5.21373920 au. The evaluation of the occurring integrals is given explicitly. Additionally, we present some expectation values and isotope energies of the Li isoelectronic series. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An analysis of the anisotropic Heisenberg model is carried out by solving the Bethe ansatz solution of the model numerically as a function of the anisotropy parameter for finite N. A brief introduction to the limit of the infinite chain is presented. The energy for a few special limiting cases of the anisotropy parameter in the Hamiltonian are worked out. Numerical results for finite cycles as well as for the infinite chain are given. Comparison can then be made with the case of finite increasing N. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Roothaan-Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculations are carried out for the ground states of the atoms from helium to xenon using a minimal basis set of Slater-type functions whose principal quantum numbers are allowed to take variationally optimal noninteger values. The resulting energies are substantially superior to those obtained previously under the usual restriction that principal quantum numbers be positive integers. The energy lowering relative to the single-zeta wave functions of Clementi and co-workers ranges from 0.0066 Eh in He to 11.2 Eh in Xe. Our results are superior to those obtained by Höjer using a minimal basis set of unconventional binomially screened basis functions. Noninteger principal quantum numbers benefit d-orbitals the most; physically realistic negative d-orbital energies are obtained in all cases including those transition-metal atoms for which a conventional single-zeta STF basis leads to positive d-orbital energies. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The importance of the hybridization displacement charge (HDC) in describing molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps was demonstrated by studying six molecules; pyrazine N-oxide, para-nitropyridine, 5-nitropyrimidine, 3-nitropyridazine, N2, and N2O. It is shown that continuously distributed HDC-corrected Löwdin charges reproduce the MEP features of these molecules, most of which have competing electrophilic sites, in agreement with ab initio results. Further, it is found that for homonuclear diatomic molecules MEP minima can be located properly using HDC-corrected Löwdin (or HDC-corrected Mulliken) continuously distributed charges, but these features cannot be obtained using the conventional Löwdin (or Mulliken) charges. It was shown that the order of molecular electric field (MEF) values near the different electrophilic sites becomes changed when one moves away from the molecules. Thus, pyridine-type nitrogen atoms are the preferred binding sites close to the molecules, while at large distances, effects of oxygen atoms of the NO groups become dominant. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We compare geometry configurations, vibrational properties, and electronic structures of (HF)2 in a free state and inside argon atom shells Arn. For the first stage, molecular dynamics calculations for the (HF)2 · Ar62 heterocluster are performed with the help of model potentials HF(SINGLE BOND)HF, Ar(SINGLE BOND)Ar, and Ar(SINGLE BOND)HF. Then, ab initio quantum chemistry analysis is carried out for the smaller systems (HF)2 · Ar15 and (HF)2 · Ar6 when keeping the argon atoms closest to the trapped dimer. We conclude that the hydrogen-bonded complex (HF)2 gains some extra stability inside the argon shells, originating primarily from a decrease of intermolecular distance RFF. Electronic structure calculations are in accord with the changes in dynamical properties, namely, a noticeable increase in the vibrational frequency assigned to the F(SINGLE BOND)F stretching mode (+25 cm-1) and decrease in rms deviations for the corresponding coordinate δFF. In addition to these changes, the argon atoms of the nearest solvent shell donate a small fraction of electron charge which is spent for an increase of population of the antibonding orbital σ*Hf(SINGLE BOND)Ff of the free monomer unit and shift orbital energies primarily of the lone-pair fluorine species. These shifts are greater than the changes due to geometry alterations and the possible inaccuracies of the calculation scheme. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Some types of atomic vibrations in a chain of the DNA type constructed of G-C pairs were studied. These are the atomic vibrations of the lateral groups of guanine and N(3)H(1)H(2) of cytosine connected by the hydrogen bond h-b-1 and the vibrations of the centers of masses of bases in the direction parallel to bonds h-b-i, i = 1-3. The vibrations mix partially due to the dependence of the energy of the bond h-b-1 on its length and split into two bands because of the interaction between neighboring base pairs. It was shown that the excitation of the bond h-b-1 results in the splitting off of the two local vibrations and in a small deformation of the chain in the vicinity of the pair with the localized hydrogen bond. The law of the dispersion of band vibrations, values of the split-off frequencies, and degree of poly(dG)-poly(dC) chain deformation were determined. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Restricted geometry optimizations at the ab initio SCF level with the 3-21G basis set were employed to investigate the conformation space of flavone acetic acid (FAA) and its related compounds. All the conformations are produced from a conformation which is, according to our previous work, probably the active conformation in terms of antitumor activity shown by these compounds. Detailed studies on FAA were carried out while only brief discussions are made on the analogs. The main results obtained are that (1) FAA is a very flexible molecule, e.g., with the energy barrier up to about 3 kcal mol-1 from the reference conformation, the important torsional angle τ1 can change from 27.0° to 117.0°, τ2 from -168.0° to 2.0°, and τ3 from -50.0° to 30.0°; (2) the hydrogen-bonding effect plays an important role in determining lower-energy conformations; (3) among all the FAA conformations considered, some are active and some are inactive; (4) it seems that the analogs will have similar behavior to FAA when the torsional angle τ3 is restricted to the values which are around the equilibrium values; and (5) the hypothesis put forward previously has been further developed in this work. Now, we postulate that efficient charge transfers will lower the energy and that proper charge transfers will activate the molecule. There are mainly two different types of charge transfer corresponding to two different types of conformation, which are specified in this article. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: He I photoelectron (PE) spectra of four carboxylic acids and five esters are measured. Semiempirical and ab initio quantum chemical calculations are used for the interpretation of the spectra. The complex approach which uses empirically established relationships (the dependence of valence electron ionization energies on proton affinities in the gas phase, on the core level ionization energies, and on the structure) was developed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two alternative dehydration reactions C(OH)4 → (HO)2CO + H2O and C(OH)4 + H2O → (HO)2CO + 2H2O are studied by ab initio Becke3LYP/6-311 + G** and MP2/6-31G** methods. Calculated energy and geometry characteristics of intermediates and transition states predict a catalytic effect of one water molecule and the exothermism of the transformations. Relevant HF/6-311 + G**, HF/6-31G**, HF/6-31G, and HF/3-21G calculations were performed for comparison. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1079-1089 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: large-order perturbation theory ; lie algebra ; three-body problem ; symbolic computations ; helium atom ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The method of o(4, 2) operator replacements is generalized. As a result, the series whose limiting values when the variable goes to  +∞ should correspond to the two-electron atom energies now have rational coefficients. This generalization allows one also to compute the series for the case of singlet S symmetry, a case which could not be considered in the previous original formulation of the method. Series with rational coefficients for the helium singlet and triplet S ground-state energy are calculated up to order 41 and 45, respectively. Moreover, symbolic computations also allow one to give the first few coefficients of these series for arbitrary values of the nuclear charge Z. Finally, a new method for analytic continuation to the limit  +∞ is presented for the energies of the helium singlet and triplet ground states.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1079-1089, 1997
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: relativistic pseudopotentials ; heavy atoms ; method of molecular calculation ; electronic structure ; Gaussian approximation ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Gaussian expansions of the generalized relativistic effective core potential (GRECP) components are reported for elements Hg through Rn. The accuracy of the analytical GRECPs is estimated by calculations of atomic transition energies with the numerical one-configurational wave functions in comparison with Dirac-Fock calculations. The results of the corresponding calculations with the RECPs of other groups are also given. An “averaged error” in the reproduction of the transition energies without the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell is an order of magnitude smaller than that for the RECPs of other groups. As is demonstrated for the transitions with the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell in mercury, the largest absolute error of the GRECP is only 1.5-2 times smaller than that of the energy-adjusted pseudopotential (PP) or the RECP of Ross et al. with the same space of explicitly treated electrons. However, the dispersion of these errors is 19⋅10-4 au for the energy-adjusted PP, 35⋅10-4 au for the RECP of Ross et al. and only 4⋅10-4 au for the GRECP. One-configurational spin-averaged calculations of the molecular properties for HgH and HgH+ are carried out and compared with the corresponding results of Häussermann et al.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1107-1122, 1997
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: MD simulations ; liquid surface ; formamide ; molecular orientation ; molecular surface density ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid formamide(HCONH2) were carried out using the GROMOS software. The formamide molecule is represented by all of its atoms with all internal degrees of freedom. In contrast to other simulations dealing with bulk properties, this study focuses on the interface liquid-vacuum for the first time. We show that the molecular plane is tilted out of the surface, exposing the HCO group to the vacuum.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1123-1131, 1997
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: metathesis reactions ; bond order ; free valence ; minimum energy path ; nonsynchronization ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A few simple atom-transfer reactions (i.e., Ȧ+X-A→A-X+Ȧ) are studied by quantum mechanical ab initio methods. Emphasis is given to the detailed analysis of density matrices rather than to the energetics. Results reveal that during these reactions a small free valence always develops on the migrating atom at the transition state. The barriers in these reactions arise from the greater extent of bond cleavage in the reactant than that of bond formation in the transition state. Analysis of bond orders estimated from bond lengths using Pauling's relation also leads to the fact that the bond-cleavage process is more advanced than is the bond-formation process in these reactions.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1099-1106, 1997
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 17O and 2H quadrupole coupling constants of rovibrational levels of 17O1H+, 17O2H+, and 16O2H+ in their X3Σ- state have been calculated from molecular wave functions that explicitly describe nuclear motion. The 17O quadrupole coupling is predicted to be strong and its vibrational dependence differs from that known for other nuclei A in the first-row hydrides AH or AH+. The deuterium coupling in 17O2H+ and 16O2H+ is found to be weak and its behavior is similar to that of other first-row hydrides. The change with rotational excitation is unimportant. The quadrupole hyperfine patterns of 17O2H+ in its ground state are dominated by the strong oxygen coupling. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 29
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Insertion of CO2 into the transition metal-hydride bond of [RhIIIH2(PH3)3]+, CuIH(PH3)2, and RhIH(PH3)3 was theoretically investigated with ab initio MO/MP4, SD-CI, and CCD methods. The geometries of reactants, transition states (TS), and products were optimized at the Hartree-Fock level, and then MP4, SD-CI, and CCD calculations were performed on those optimized structures. The TS of the CO2 insertion into the CuI(bond)H bond is the most reactantlike, while the TS of the CO2 insertion into the RhIII(bond)H bond is the most productlike. The activation energy (Ea) and the reaction energy (ΔE) were calculated to be 6.5 and -33.5 kcal/mol for the CO2 insertion into the Cu1(bond)H bond, 21.2 and -7.0 kcal/mol for the CO2 insertion into the Rh1(bond)H bond, and 51.3 and -1.1 kcal/mol for the Rh111(bond)H bond at the SD-CI level, where negative ΔE represents exothermicity. These results are discussed in terms of the M(bond)H bond energy and the trans-influence of the hydride ligand. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-31G*//HF/3-21G* level have been carried out to study Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide. The CH ··· O electrostatic interaction detected in some of the transition structures located could be decisive in the control of the exo/endo stereoselectivity of this type of reaction. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A recently proposed pair population scheme is investigated for ab initio SCF and spin-coupled wave functions. All the required expressions are rederived, in very compact form, and efficient computational schemes are presented for their evaluation. As representative examples of different types of bonding, pair populations and related quantities are examined for H2, LiH, BeH, CH4, H2O, and B2H6. Various “effective valencies” are also considered. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 32
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 33
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: On the grounds of results from quantum chemical calculations, we introduce spin-catalysis as a new concept, and classify different types of chemical reactions according to this concept. We propose a general definition of spin-catalysis as phenomena in which chemical reactions are promoted by substances which assist in overcoming spin-prohibition or in which the activation barrier is lowered through spin uncoupling induced by a paramagnetic catalyst. A number of known phenomena fall into this definition and can be classified according to two main categories: (1) spin-orbit coupling induced and (2) paramagnetic-exchange induced spin-catalysis. Other types of spin-catalysis are also discussed: (3) processes with participation of substances which assist in (a) photochemical and (b) thermal or electrochemical generation of active particles by energy and - by electron transfer [radicals, diradicals, O2(1Δg), etc.], reacting further without spin-prohibition: (4) processes induced by an external magnetic field. Processes (3) and (4) are quite general and well known; their inclusion in the spin-catalysis classification does not introduce any new findings for the chemical kinetics, but the general features, which unite them with the important catalytic processes of the first two types, serve as a useful guide in catalysis theory. Few models of spin-catalytic processes have been simulated for the purpose of illuminating the principles of spin-catalysis; the cis-trans isomerization of ethylene catalyzed by molecular oxygen, the external heavy atom effect in ethylene photochemistry, and some others. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 34
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We study an example of a generalized Friedrichs model, in which a continuous-continuous coupling produces a pair of resonances as branch cuts of the analytic continuation of the reduced resolvent of the perturbed Hamiltonian to the second sheet of the Riemann surface associated to a transformation of the type w = z + α √z. To define the perturbation, we use the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators proposed by the group of St. Petersburg. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dependence of the intramolecular charge transfer through the σ-electron systems of substituted hydrocarbons on the spatial arrangement of the X(SINGLE BOND)Cα and Cβ(SINGLE BOND)Cγ bonds has been studied using the perturbation theory for the one-electron density matrix (DM). Analytical expressions for the populations of the orbitals pertinent to the cis- and trans-bonds with respect to the X(SINGLE BOND)Cα bond have been obtained and analyzed. The Hamiltonian matrix elements determining the predominant direction of the above-defined charge transfer (cis or trans) have been revealed. The electron-accepting and electron-donating substituents (X) have been considered separately and the dependence of the resulting charge-transfer direction on the properties of substituent has been established. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A possibility of stabilization in an external homogeneous electric field on the HeH2(21 A′) metastable state relative to its nonadiabatic decay into the 1 1A′ state is investigated theoretically. If the lowest vibrational levels of the HeH2 (2 1A′) state might be stabilized, one would try to detect the radiative transition 1 1A′ ← 2 1A′ from these levels and thus to verify experimentally the existence of the HeH2 (2 1A′) state. It is shown that the separation between the potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the states in question and the energy of their avoided crossing point do increase in the field. Moreover, it is shown that in the fields with strength up to 107 V/cm the nonadiabatic decay of the 2 1A′ state along one of the vibrational modes may be closed. However, along two other modes such decay still may occur. It is noted nevertheless that the question of such stabilization possibility in inhomogeneous fields (i.e., in ionic crystal or on its surface) is still open. The effect of the field was taken into account within an analytic two-level model. The unperturbed PESs were calculated by the CASSCF method. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using the ab initio coupled cluster method, correlation energies were calculated for a number of molecules composed of first-row atoms. The results of computations can be fitted rather well with simple analytic formulas. The main result of the present investigation is that intraatomic part of the correlation energy is proportional to sum of squares of valence electron charges on atoms composing the molecule. The proportionality coefficient depends on the basis set used. Independently, the approximations were introduced which allow for good estimation of intraatomic correlation energy by using M øller-Plesset second-order perturbation calculations only. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Temperature dependence of the experimental photoemission spectra of the high-Tc superconductors have been interpreted and simulated by the recently formulated molecular nonadiabatic theory of the electron-vibrational interaction. The change of the spectral feature below Tc, particularly formation of the narrow, near Fermi surface (FS) edge, peak separated by the dip from a broad spectral band at higher binding energies has been shown to be the consequence of the nonadiabatic electron-phonon coupling and corresponding properties of the nonadiabatic polarons. Simulation yields very good fit to the experimental temperature-dependent spectra, with the calculated value of the gap 30.5 meV. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 39
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Crystal-orbital calculations on the three-dimensional disodium deoxyguanosine-5′-monophosphate tetrahydrate, disodium uridine-3′-monophosphate tetrahydrate, monosodium monoprotonated deoxyadenosine-5′ monophosphate hexahydrate, and disodium deoxycytidine-5′ -monophosphate heptahydrate crystallohydrates were carried out in a Hartree-Fock all-valence-electron approximation using the CRYSTAL92 routine package. The first, the second, and the last compounds were found to be insulators, whereas the third one should be considered a two-dimensional semiconductor. The structural basis for these findings is discussed, with special reference to the semiconductivity and intermolecular interactions in solid-state samples of polymeric nucleic acids. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 41
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No Abstracts.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Alkali-doped polyacetylene is considered as an electron-transfer system. To estimate the reorganization energy due to bond-length changes when electrons are added or subtracted, we applied the (U)MP2 and CASSCF methods to small systems of the type H(CH)NH. The simple tight-binding (Hückel) model with bond-length-dependent resonance integrals has been applied to the same and larger polyenes. The bond lengths are obtained via the bond orders for the various oxidation states. The results agree very well with the ab initio results and experiments for small polyenes. Odd-N and even-N systems behave differently. In odd-N systems, a structural “soliton” exists in the neutral molecule. An electron can be added or removed without bond-length change. In even-N chains, with perfect bond alternation in the neutral molecule, the bond length changes when an electron is accepted occur over about 20 carbon atoms. The reorganization energy tends to a constant value (0.22 eV) as the chain length is increased. Soliton structure is studied as a function of out-of-plane torsional defects and it is found that an additional electron is localized primarily on a segment with an odd number of carbon atoms. In the presence of positively charged ions, electrons are attracted toward this charge and positive solitons formed at some distance from the perturbing ion. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 43
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: To elucidate the physical origin of relativistic changes of molecular properties, exact theorems, perturbation theory, and Hartree-Fock-Slater-Pauli calculations are exploited. The relativistic molecular virial theorem offers insight into the relativistic and nonrelativistic, kinetic, and potential energy contributions to the bond energy. In general, there exist two contributions to the relativistic correction of a molecular property: the relativistic change at the nonrelativistic equilibrium geometry and the change of the nonrelativistic property due to the relativistic change of the equilibrium geometry. Sometimes the first and sometimes the second contribution is the dominant one. Accurate numerical results for H+2-like systems are obtained using direct relativistic double perturbation theory. In some cases, near-degenerate perturbation theory is mandatory. Relativistic changes of chemical bond energies are often proportional to the density change in the K-shell when the bond is formed. Relativistic corrections to many properties (and also to the 1s2-correlation energy) are often proportional to Z2α2. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three specific model systems, HCo(CO)4, Na · NH3, and NO/Pt(111), are used to extend the strategy of vibrationally mediated photodissociations of organometallics, via small clusters of metal atoms and small molecules, to photodesorption of small molecules from metal surfaces. All systems and strategies are similar with respect to breaking metal-ligand bonds by means of infrared IR and visible or ultraviolet UV photons. Specific properties of the systems call, however, for different implementations of the overall tools. In the case of HCo(CO)4, traditional continuous wave (CW) IR + UV 2-photon excitations enhance the rates of HCo bond homolysis. A detailed analysis discovers three effects which result from Franck-Condon transitions in the domains of vibrationally excited wave functions: (i) ultrafast (≈ 20 fs) bond rupture starting from the steeply repulsive wall of the potential energy surface of the excited singlet state; (ii) efficient fast (≈ 200 fs) predissociation via tunneling through neighboring potential barriers; and (iii) decreasing contributions from indirect dissociations via slow (≈ 46 ps) intersystem crossing induced by spin-orbit coupling. In the case of Na · NH3, we suggest a vibrationally mediated pump-and-dump scheme, similar to the strategy of Tannor, Rice, and Kosloff, with proper control of the delay (ca. 70 fs) between ultrashort (ca. 30 fs) pump-and-dump laser pulses. Ultimately, this strategy shifts specific lobes of the vibrationally excited wave packets into a steeply repulsive wall of the potential energy surface of the electronic ground state, with subsequent fast (ca. 100 fs) ruptures of the NA(SINGLEBOND)NH3 bond, similar to effect (i) for HCo(CO)4. Finally, we show that a similar, vibrationally mediated pump-and-dump scheme may also support photodesorption of NO from Pt(111), with an intrinsic relaxation step for the electronically excited system NO/Pt(111) instead of active pump-and-dump control for Na · NH3. All strategies are simulated by fast Fourier transform propagations of representative wave packets on two potential energy surfaces. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 45
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using density functional theory with Becke's gradient correction for the exchange part and Vanderbilt's ultrasoft pseudopotentials, we investigated [Be(H2O)n]2+ clusters for n = 1 and 3. A new scheme implemented with the Car-Parrinello method is used, upon which no periodic boundary conditions are imposed so that isolated and possibly charged molecules can also be treated dynamically in a plane-wave basis. Harmonic vibrational frequencies are obtained via a fit of the molecular dynamics trajectory in terms of harmonic oscillators, for which we use a fragmentation scheme to analyze complex spectra. Based on this combination of techniques, we find good agreement with data from SCF calculations and correlated methods. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 46
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A review is given of many-body perturbation methods, particularly in the all-order and coupled-cluster forms. Relativistic many-body schemes are analyzed in terms of one- and two-photon potentials, derived by means of QED. A complete second-order (nonradiative) calculation for He-like ions is presented, including repeated Breit interactions as well as the effects of retardation and of negative-energy states, but omitting the Lamb shift. Numerical results of some Lamb-shift calculations are also given. From the analysis, conclusions can be drawn concerning the accuracy of certain relativistic many-body approaches. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 47
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many of the important properties of transition-metal complexes depend on the low-energy excitation spectrum formed by d-electrons of the central transition-metal atom. The spectra of this type are usually fit to the well-known crystal field theory or to the angular overlap model. The result of the fitting is a set of parameters which are considered as characteristics of the electronic structure of the complex such as strength of the ligand field or types and extent of metal-ligand bonding. We present here a short account of the effective Hamiltonian method recently developed to calculate the splitting of the d-levels by the ligands and the resulting d-d spectra of transition-metal complexes together with some results of its application to the mixed-ligand complexes with the general formula ML4Z2, where M = V, Co, Ni; L = H2O, NH3, Py; and Z = H2O, NCS-,C -l. Particular attention is paid to the V(H2O)4Cl2 and Co(H2O)4Cl2 compounds. The former seems to have tetragonal structure, whereas for the latter, our method predicts a spatially degenerate ground state for the tetragonal arrangement of the ligands. That must lead to the Jahn-Teller distortion, which is actually observed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three isoelectronic reactions, proton transfer (PT), hydrogen abstraction (HA), and electron transfer (ET), of NH+3 with NH,3 H2O, and HF have been studied using ab initio molecular orbital calculations. For the reaction of NH+3 + H2O, the energy of the transition state (TS) is higher than that of the reactants. This is consistent with the experimental observation that the rate constant is less than the average dipole orientation (ADO) rate constant. It seems reasonable that the reaction rate for the reaction NH+3 + H2O would hardly depend on the v2 mode of NH+3 at least for low-lying excited states (Eint≤ 0.714 eV) of the v2 mode, because the v2 mode contributes mainly to the normal mode orthogonal to the reaction coordinate at the TS. This is consistent with experimental observation. A similar prediction can be made for the NH+3 + HF reaction. The electron-transfer processes for the HA reactions have been examined in terms of the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). The order of reactivity with NH+3 is NH3 〉 H2O 〉 HF. It is found that the degree of the electron transfer and the reactivity are correlated with the absolute hardness (η) of NH3, H2O, and HF. This is in accord with the softness as the chemical reactivity index in the density functional theory. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The results of ab initio RHF/3-21G, RHF/6-31G*, and MP2/6-31G** / / HF/6-31G* calculations for 10 possible configurations of OM4H6 molecules (MO · 3MH2, M = Be, Mg) are reported. Five isomers of OBe4H6 and three isomers of OMg4H6 have been found within an energy range of ã 15 kcal mol-1. The “lanternlike” C3v structure is the most favorable one for both complexes. Both molecules OM4H6 are stable to decomposition through all of the studied pathways. Chemical bonding in the OMk polyhedra containing two-, three-and four-coordinated oxygen atoms is discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction mechanism of the α, α and α, β elimination of hydrogen fluorides from alkyl fluorides has been studied theoretically. For fluoroethane as a reactant, the transition state (TS) optimized at the level of the 6-31G** basis set shows that the α, β elimination proceeds via a four membered-ring TS with a barrier height 64.6 kcal/mol, while the α, α elimination, via a three-membered ring TS with a 83.7 kcal/mol barrier. Four substituents, CH3, CN, F, and NH2, were used to investigate the substituent effect of elimination by using the 3-21G basis set. The calculated barriers show that NH2-substituted alkyl fluorides favor both the α, α and α, β elimination and these two reactions would be expected to proceed simultaneously. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 52
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  • 53
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  • 54
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Irregularities in the connection of the high- and low-density forms of the Perdew-Zunger correlation energy functional lead to computational difficulties that are removed by a new parametrization. These parametrizations and a number of other correlation functionals are compared and discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 55
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The general expression for the sixth-order Møller-Plesset (MP6) energy, E(MP6), has been dissected in the principal part A and the renormalization part R. Since R contains unlinked diagram contributions, which are canceled by corresponding terms of the principal part A, E(MP6) has been derived solely from the linked diagram terms of the principal part A. These have been identified by a simple procedure that starts by separating A into connected and disconnected cluster operator diagrams and adding terms associated with the former fully to the correlation energy. After closing all open disconnected cluster operator diagrams, one can again distinguish between connected and disconnected energy diagrams, of which only the former lead to linked diagram representations and, therefore, contributions to E(MP6). The connected diagram parts of A have been collected in four energy terms E(MP6)1, E(MP6)2, E(MP6)3, and E(MP6)4. The sum of these terms has led to an appropriate energy formula for E(MP6) in terms of first- and second-order cluster operators. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 56
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In this article, an attempt was made to develop an activation process model. The average energy of the translational motion of the atoms, taking part in the elementary activation process and being in the thermodynamic equilibrium with thermal radiation, was obtained using the quantum canonical Gibbs distribution and the model principles of elementary activation. The degeneracy and exclusion of some excited vibrational levels were taken into consideration, the result being a strong dependence of the probability of surmounting the activation barrier on the behavior of the excited vibrational states of the quantum subsystems. As an application of the development model, the formulas of the preexponential factor for solid-state atomic diffusivity and first-order chemical reaction rate constants were derived. Quantitative analysis of the atomic diffusion in solids in the framework of our model has made it possible to describe the diffusion processes in metals, covalent semiconductors, as well as diffusion anomalies, connected with the “nonclassical” behavior of the empirical Arrhenius dependence. A possible physical essence of a kinetic compensation effect is discussed. It was shown that compensation may be caused by only changing the degeneracy of the vibrational levels of the quantum subsystems. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 57
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Based on a cluster operator formulation of sixth-order Møller-Plesset (MP6) perturbation theory equations for the calculation of MP6 in terms of spin-orbital two-electron integrals are derived. Efficiency has been gained by systematically using intermediate arrays for the determination of energy contributions resulting from disconnected cluster operators. In this way, the maximum cost factor of O(M12) (M being number of basis functions) is reduced to O(M9). The implementation of MP6 on a computer is described. The reliability of calculated MP6 correlation energies has been checked in three different ways, namely (a) by comparison with full configuration interaction (CI) results, (b) by using alternative computational routines that do not involve intermediate arrays, and (c) by taking advantage of relationships between fifth-order and sixth-order energy contributions. First applications of the MP6 method are presented. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A comparison of sixth-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energies (MP6) with the corresponding full configuration interaction (FCI) energies shows that in the case of equilibrium geometries MP6 values differ by just 1.7 mhartree. MP6 correlation energies turn out to be important for systems with oscillatory convergence behavior as well as for systems with considerable multireference character. Contributions from pentuple (P) and hextuple (H) excitations are mostly positive and smaller than 1 mhartree in the cases investigated. Initial oscillations in the convergence behavior of a MPn series result from positive fifth-order T energy contributions to the correlation energy. In these cases, MP6 correlation energies are relatively large (T contributions dominate the total correlation energy) and absolutely necessary when estimating the convergence limit of the MPn series. MP6 is an O(M9) method and, therefore, can only be used for relatively small electron systems. More economic alternatives are given by the approximated MP6 methods MP6(M8) and MP6(M7), which involve O(M8) and O(M7) operations, respectively. According to calculated absolute and relative energies, MP6(M7) is an attractive alternative to full MP6 because it offers reasonable sixth-order results for cost comparable to those of MP4. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The characteristic polynomial associated with π-electrons of conjugated molecules are discussed by using subgraphs derived from molecular graphs as a basis for their construction. A practical method has been developed for evaluating the coefficient aK of conjugated molecules. Applying this method, the general formulas of evaluating the coefficient aK for homologous conjugated molecules have been obtained. The approach is illustrated on a few simple conjugated systems, including also a few polymeric systems. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three different ways of getting reliable estimates of full configuration interaction (FCI) correlation energies are tested, namely (a) by Padé approximants [k, k] and [k, k - 1], (b) by using extrapolation formulas, and (c) by Feenberg scaling of Møller-Plesset (MP) correlation energies. By using MPn energies up to sixth order, i.e., MP2, MP3, MP4, MP5, and MP6, it was possible to test the convergence behavior of the Padé series [1, 0], [1, 1], [2, 1], [2, 2] and the Feenberg series up to sixth order where in the latter case a scaling factor λ(5) (scaling of the second-order wave function, FE2) rather than the previously tested λ(3) (scaling of the first-order wave function, FE1) was considered. Investigation of 26 different correlation energies for systems with monotonic convergence in the MPn series (class A systems) or initially oscillatory convergence behavior (class B systems) indicates that Padé approximants lead in some cases to reasonable estimates of FCI correlation energies, but in other cases, in particular for class B systems, they give too negative correlation energies. Both monotonic and oscillatory behavior for the Padé series is observed where it is possible to predict its convergence behavior on the basis of calculated MPn energies. The best estimates of the FCI correlation energy are obtained by FE2 scaling. At sixth-order FE2, values for atoms and molecules with equilibrium geometry differ on the average by just 0.146 mhartree from FCI correlation energies. The FE2 correlation energies all converge monotonicly. Also, FE2 scaling reduces the exaggeration of MP6 correlation energies for class B systems. However, surprisingly good estimates of FCI energies are also obtained by simple extrapolation formulas based on MP4, MP5, and MP6 correlation energies. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Quantum chemical and molecular modeling computations on large molecular systems are defined for the computational facilities assumed to be available from now to the next 4 years. We considered a few topics which are requiring much attention. The correlation energy is discussed in some detail and we have presented two new functionals, called the J-functional and the K-functional, which make use of Coulomb or exchange-type integrals. In addition, we report new computational results for the Coulomb-Hole-Hartree-Fock approximation. Very brief summaries on new developments in relativistic Dirac-Fock computation and in density functional theory, on the advantages gained by using different basis sets in the same computation, and on the promises of parallel computing conclude the article. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We investigated the dependence of the electrostatic potential on the size and the shape of various cluster models of the MgO(100) surface. Both Mg2+ and O2- adsorption sites have been considered. The clusters were embedded in a large array of point charges to provide a representation of the Madelung potential. We found that the electrostatic potential in the adsorption region shows a marked dependence on the size of the cluster, in particular, for non-stoichiometric clusters where the number of cations and anions differs considerably. These oscillations are due to (a) the different contribution to the electrostatic potential given by a point charge or by an extended ion, and (b) by the polarization of the ions at the cluster border. The effect of the oscillations in the electrostatic potential on the chemisorption properties was investigated for the case of CO2 interacting with surface and defect O2- sites of the MgO surface. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Electronic properties of a water molecule embedded in a water droplet are studied in the framework of the generalized self-consistent reaction field approach, using ab initio Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction wave functions. Electrostatic and inductive effects of the surrounding water molecules were calculated with the help of configurations drawn from a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Basis-set effects and solute-solvent interaction operator representation are examined. Embedding energies and liquid-phase multipole moments obtained from the present mixed quantum-classical model are compared with corresponding quantities for purely classical water models. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Extensive self-consistent real-space recursion-method calculations were performed for the Pt overlayer or the Pt7 cluster on the Ni(111) surface and for hydrogen chemisorption on these systems. Correlations between the surface-atom local density of electronic-state properties before chemisorption, surface reactivity, and the initial-state contribution to the metal core-level shifts, respectively, is documented and discussed. The experimentally observed catalytic properties of Pt—Ni alloy surfaces are also briefly considered. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: On the basis of a nonempirical pair potential, the temperature dependencies of the long-range-order parameter of NiTi and AuPd are calculated. The suggested effective potential approach allows one to describe the changes in phase relations. The evaluation of the internal mixing energy of alloys is carried out in the framework of the static concentration waves theory of Khachaturyan. The model outlines the technique to calculate the values of the energy parameters of the ordering process from first principles. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of the d6 iron(II) complexes with bulky organic ligands (like [Fe(bipy)2(NCS)2]) can exist in two spin forms: in the low-spin (S = 0) form at low temperature and in the high-spin (S = 2) form at high temperature. In the crystal phase, the transition between these two forms may be either smooth or abrupt. Recently, the abrupt spin transitions were identified with the first-order transitions between different ordered phases occurring in the binary mixtures of the two spin forms of the complex. Here, we apply the method widely used in the field of binary metal alloys to the analysis of the spin transitions. The molecules undergoing the spin transition are modeled by octahedra of variable size which interact when they are immediate neighbors in the crystal lattice. We show that some simple assumptions concerning the intermolecular interaction and crystal geometry relaxation allows one to get the desired first-order phase transitions together with a satisfactory description for the crystal compressibility as a function of temperature. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 69
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the present article, polymethine and annulene electronic spectra are described in a unique way by means of the Pariser-Parr-Pople method. The analytical expressions were derived for the first π-electron transitions energies. The character of the annulene spectra, like the character of the open-chain spectra, was shown to be dependent on the ratio between electron and site numbers. The Dahne's triad theory and the existence of finite energy gap in polymethines are discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 70
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We extend our own previous applications of the microscopic coupled-cluster method (CCM) to quantum antiferromagnets. In particular, we carry out a systematic calculation involving high-order multispin correlations for the spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg models on the one-dimensional chain and the two-dimensional square lattice. Their ground-state properties are obtained as functions of the anisotropy parameter. Our CCM analysis not only produces accurate results for such physical quantities as the ground-state energy which are comparable to the best results from other techniques, but it also enables us to study the quantum phase transitions of the spin models in a systematic and unbiased manner. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 71
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The potential energy surfaces of β-hydroxypropionic acid and 3-aminopropionamide have been investigated by means of RHF/4-31G calculations. Structures, reaction paths for internal rotations, and the respective energy barriers are reported. The influence of the various intramolecular interactions on structural and energetical properties is shown and compared to the results previously obtained for β-alanine. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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