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  • Aflatoxin  (13)
  • 1990-1994  (13)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus flavus ; aflatoxin natural ; semisynthetic and synthetic media
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the aflatoxin producing capacity of 41 Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from the mycoflora present of natural media (wheat, rice and mixed feed) synthetic medium (Aflatoxin Producing Ability Medium) and semisynthetic media (Coconut Agar Medium and Glucose Yeast Extract Agar) were compared. Aflatoxins were analysed on days 4 and 8 post-inoculation under an incubation temperature of 28 °C. A total of 30 strains (75.7%) were producers on natural media as detected by Thin Layer Chromatography: 23 strains on wheat, 27 on rice and 12 on mixed feed. The results by qualitative flourescence tests on synthetic and semisynthetic media were: 3 strains positive on Coconut Agar Medium (CAM) 1 on Glucose Yeast Extract Agar (GY + Agar) and none on Aflatoxin Producing Ability Medium (APA).
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus flavus ; Central Japan ; Soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In Kanagawa Prefecture, located in central Japan, aflatoxin-producingAspergillus flavus was isolated in 4 (2.5%) of 160 field soil samples. In the 4 fields, whose soil contained aflatoxin-producingA. flavus, the annual average temperature of the sampling sites of the soil ranged from 13.8 to 15.1°C. Of all the isolated strains of aflatoxin-producingA. flavus, 4 strains, isolated from a single soil sample, produced large amounts of aflatoxin B1 and B2 when incubated in coconut agar, peanut agar, peanuts or trilaurin-added rice, although they did not produce aflatoxin when incubated in rice, yeast extract-sucrose broth or sucrose-low salts broth.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Biodeterioration ; ‘Donkwa’ ; Fungi ; Relative humnidity ; Storage time
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A total of 14 fungal species, mostly toxigenic, were isolated from 50 samples of ‘donkwa’ snack obtained from 16 producers. All of the isolates recorded substantial growth, though at varying rates, on the 2% snack agar provided. They also induced a reduction in the oil and an increase in free fatty acids of the substrate suggesting their participatory roles in deterioration. Most of the snack samples analysed contained initial amounts of aflatoxins above the ‘safe’ permissible level (30 ppb). The initial toxin levels increased substantially with storage time under 79.5, 89.5 and 100% ambient relative humidities but increased only slightly when samples were kept at 71% relative humidity. Almost constant toxin levels were recorded throughout the study period under 51% relative humidity. Accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in samples was most enhanced at 89.5% relative humidity. Comparatively, greater amounts of aflatoxin B1 accumulated under all conditions than the amounts recorded for aflatoxin G1.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Versicolorin B ; Versiconal hemiacetal acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The sequence of steps versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) to versiconal (VL) catalyzed by an esterase and VL to versicolorin B (VB) catalyzed by VL cyclase has been previously demonstrated in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. VHA esterase and VL cyclase activities were estimated by determining the amounts of VL and VB after incubation of VHA in cell-free extracts from mycelia that were either synthesizing or not synthesizing aflatoxins. VHA esterase activity but not VL cyclase activity was present in extracts from cells grown in a nonaflatoxin-producing medium. VHA esterase activity was present in extracts from mycelia grown in aflatoxin-producing medium harvested after one to six days of incubation. VL cyclase activity was absent at one day, low at two days, maximal at three to five days, and lower at six days. VL cyclase activity appears in the later part of the growth period which is also the period of aflatoxin biosynthesis. This supports a role for VL cyclase in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Lymphocytes ; Mice ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This investigation sought to determine whether splenic lymphocytes obtained from Balb/C mice exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) showed any ultrastructural changes which could account for the immunodysfunction attributable to aflatoxins. Lymphocytes obtained from Balb/C mice administered aflatoxin B1 in olive oil daily for three weeks were studied using both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The lymphocytes demonstrated ultrastructural changes primarily in the mitochondria where marked internal dissociation of the cristae was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. All other cellular organelles were unaffected. No significant alterations in external structure were observed under scanning electron microscopy. The findings of this study indicate that AFB1 administration does not affect the surface topography of lymphocytes, but AFB1, by causing extensive mitochondrial damage, may affect the way in which these cells function. This could be a possible explanation for the immunodysfunction associated with AFB1.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Histochemical/Histoenzymic studies ; Ochratoxin and inclusion body hepatitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of feeding mycotoxins, i.e. aflatoxin B1 (1.25 ppm from 3 to 38 days of age) and ochratoxin A (0.5 ppm from 3 to 38 days of age) along with inclusion body hepatitis virus (IBHV) inoculation (at 10 days of age) singly and in combination was studied in broiler chicks. Birds in combined treatment groups, i.e. aflatoxin fed and virus inoculated and ochratoxin fed and virus inoculated, showed more changes in activities of phosphatases (AKPase, ATPase, G-6-Pase and ACPase) in liver and kidney tissues than their respective individual treatment groups with a few exceptions. Reduction in the activities of oxido-reductases in liver and kidney tissues were almost comparable in different treatment groups. The increase in muco-polysaccharides reaction was more marked in both the combined treatment groups than the single treatment groups. Intensity of lipid reaction was more in ochratoxin virus combination group than either alone.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus flavus ; Aspergillus parasiticus ; Peanut ; Soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Environmental control plots adjusted to late season drought and elevated soil temperatures where inoculated at peanut planting with low and high levels of conidia, sclerotia, and mycelium from a brown conidial mutant ofAspergillus parasiticus. Percentage infection of peanut seeds from undamaged pods was greatest for the subplot containing the high sclerotial inoculum (15/cm2 soil surface). Sclerotia did not germinate sporogenically and may have invaded seeds through mycelium. In contrast, the mycelial inoculum (colonized peanut seed particles) released large numbers of conidia into soil. Soil conidial populations of brownA. parasiticus from treatments with conidia and mycelium were positively correlated with the incidence of seed infection in undamaged pods. The ratio ofA. flavus to wild-typeA. parasiticus in soil shifted from 7:3 to 1:1 in the uninoculated subplot after instigation of drought, whereas in all subplots treated with brownA. parasiticus, the ratio of the two species became approximately 8:2. Despite high levels of brownA. parasiticus populations in soil, nativeA. flavus often dominated peanut seeds, suggesting that it is a more aggressive species. Sclerotia of wild-typeA. parasiticus formed infrequently on preharvest peanut seeds from insect-damaged pods.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus flavus ; A. parasiticus ; Cyclopiazonic acid ; ELISA ; Groundnuts (peanuts) ; Israel ; Sterigmatocystin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two hundred strains of the Aspergillus flavus group isolated from groundnuts (peanuts) growing in Israel were examined for their ability to produce mycotoxins in potato dextrose (PD) broth. Almost 77% of the isolates produced aflatoxin; aflatoxins B1 and B2 were formed by most of the isolates. Simultaneous production of aflatoxins of groups B and G was detected in only 0.5% of the isolates. Microscopic examination revealed that 98% of the isolates wereA. flavus and only 2%A. parasiticus. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 22.5% of the isolates, including 3.5% that produced only CPA. Sterigmatocystin was detected in only 2% of the isolates and only one isolate produced aflatoxin simultaneously with CPA and sterigmatocysin. The dry weight (DW) of mycelium, 7 days after inoculating the medium, was between 71–110 mg/30 ml medium in more than 70% of the isolates. A general decrease in the pH was observed and 75% of the isolates reduced the pH to 4.5 or below. After 14 days, a small increase in DW and an increase in the pH toward neutrality was observed. On PD agar, 30% of the isolates produced sclerotia, including 5% that produced them profusely. No correlation between mycelial growth, changes in pH of the medium, sclerotium formation, and aflatoxin accumulation could be observed. The mycotoxigenic potential of theA. flavus strains isolated from groundnuts seems to be relatively high and may present a potential threat to human and animal health.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Moisture ; Parboiled rice ; Rice bran ; Storage fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The changes in moisture content, storage mycoflora and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in bran from untreated or raw rice (Rr) and parboiled rice (Pbr) stored in small lots in polyethylene bags were studied at 15-day intervals up to 60 days, using five lots of each type of bran. Deterioration was more rapid with reference to all the three parameters, in Rr bran compared to Pbr bran, the former becoming completely overgrown and caked with fungi by the end of 60 days.Aspergillus flavus was the dominant fungus in Pbr bran, whereasA. candidus andTrichoderma viride were abundant in Rr bran. The frequency of incidence as well as concentration of AFB1 increased with storage time in both types of bran, but the rate of increase as well as overall concentration were much higher in Rr bran. Thus raw rice bran is unsuitable for prolonged storage.
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