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  • Fusarium  (14)
  • Aspergillus  (10)
  • 1990-1994  (22)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Versicolorin A ; hemiacetal ; reductase ; Aspergillus ; versicolorin C ; dihydrosterigmatocystin ; aflatoxin G2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Versicolorin A hemiacetal was converted to versicolorin C in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. The rate of reaction catalyzed by the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction was 0.43 nmol min−1 mg−1 with NADPH as cosubstrate and 0.17 nmol. min−1 mg−1 with NADH at 25°C at pH 7.4. The product from incubation of 17-hdyroxy-16,17-dihydrosterigmatocystin with the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction and NADPH was a polar compound which was converted to dihydrosterigmatocystin by 0.4 M HCl. The olar comound is proposed to be the 14,17-hydrated open-chain derivative of dihydrosterigmatocystin. Aflatoxin G2a was also reduced in this system to a polar product tentatively identified as the 13,16-hydrated open-chain derivative of AFG2. The reductase activity may be involved in the formation of reduced intermediates and aflatoxins in cultures ofA. parasiticus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium ; trichothecene ; cytotoxicity ; bioassay ; mycotoxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-six trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides (MC-72083) and Fusarium sambucinum were screened for relative cytotoxicity in cultured baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. The relative cytotoxicity was measured as LC100. The most cytotoxic trichothecenes were T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml) and the recently isolated 4-propanoyl HT-2 (5 ng/ml) and 3′-hydroxy T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml). T-2 tetraol (1 × 104 ng/ml), 8-β-hydroxytrichothecene (1 × 104 ng/ml), sporotrichiol (2 × 104 ng/ml), 8-oxodiacetoxyscirpenol (6 × 104 ng/ml) and 8-acetyl T-2 tetraol (1 × 105 ng/ml) were the least toxic of the regular trichothecenes. None of the modified trichothecenes or the apotrichothecene were very cytotoxic: 8-β-hydroxysambucoin (2 × 103 ng/ml), FS-1 (5 × 103 ng/ml), 8-α-hydroxysambucoin (8 × 104 ng/ml) and trichotriol (1 × 105 ng/ml). The modified trichothecenes, FS-2 and FS-3, were not toxic even at 1 × 105 ng/ml. The baby hamster kidney cell bioassay proved to be a very sensitive and reproducible means of screening new trichothecene mycotoxins for relative cytotoxicity.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 127 (1994), S. 167-173 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bahrain ; Distribution ; Fusarium ; Soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The prevalence and distribution of soil-inhabitingFusarium species in the soil of vegetable crops grown under custom-made plastic tunnels were studied at three geographical locations on the island of Bahrain. Six species ofFusarium representing a total of 1154 isolates were isolated on modified Komada medium. All species reported in this survey are recorded for the first time from the hot, arid desert of Bahrain.Fusarium solani andF. oxysporum were among the most frequently isolated fungi in all locations and crops.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; immunogold staining ; biotin-avidin linked immunosorbent assay ; double immunodiffusion ; aspergillosis ; aspergilloma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An immunogold assay (IGA) was developed to detect IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus. Sixteen sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspergilloma, and normal controls were studied. All sera were also evaluated for antibodies against A. fumigatus by biotin-avidin linked enzyme immunosorbent assay (BALISA) and by agar gel double diffusion method. A. fumigatus specific IgG and IgE antibodies could be detected by IGA in all the patients' sera but not in the sera of normal controls. Both IgG and IgE antibodies to A. fumigatus could be demonstrated in all the sera by BALISA and normal controls showed only low levels of these antibodies. There was a positive correlation between the degree of reactivity detected by IGA, the BALISA titer and the precipitins by agar gel diffusion. It can be concluded that IGA is a reliable, sensitive and simple method capable of detecting both IgG and IgE antibodies against A. fumigatus in patient serum.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 112 (1990), S. 93-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; fungal elements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have attempted to elucidate the natural history of pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC) based on more than 350 cases of the disease observed in the last 11 years and on data collected from the literature. The data indicate that PAIC is a dynamic process consequent to the continual growth and death of fungal elements and also with their relationships to the anatomic features of the cavity (valvular mechanisms, vascular alteration). The clinical presentations reflect immunological changes in the host. Metabolites produced by the species of Aspergillus involved affect the clinical presentation of the syndrome.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium ; maize ; moniliformin ; mycotoxins ; trichothecenes ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Forty Fusarium isolates obtained from maize fields were screened for moniliformin production on maize kernels. Twelve isolates, including seven of F. subglutinans, were found to produce moniliformin at levels ranging from 0.4 to 64 ppm. Twenty six isolates were also screened for production of deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone. Of these, 22, including all 11 isolates of F. graminearum, produced zearalenone at levels ranging from 0.1 to 96.0 ppm, while 13 produced T-2 toxin at low levels, (〈1.1 ppm). Deoxynivalenol and diacetoxyscirpenol were each produced by six isolates, also at low levels (〈1.0 ppm). Three isolates of F. graminearum and one of F. sambucinum produced four toxins simultaneously.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 116 (1991), S. 149-150 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fungal taxonomy ; new techniques ; ubiquinone systems ; Emmonsiella ; Ajellomyces ; Penicillium ; Aspergillus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An array of new techniques including biochemical, physiological and molecular biological methods are being introduced to modify or improve the systematics of fungi of biotechnological, medical and industrial importance. In some genera e.g. Penicillium and Aspergillus such a multidisciplinary approach has shown to be useful and has resolved confusing species concepts. However, in other cases the significance of new techniques is still unclear and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural instability. Taxonomists should be careful and users aware and whenever possible a pragmatic approach should be welcomed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: deoxynivalenol ; Fusarium ; grain ; New Zealand ; nivalenol ; pasture ; trichothecene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Liquid cultures of 200 Fusarium isolates selected to represent the most common species found in autumn pasture (70 isolates) and in grain (130 isolates) grown in New Zealand were analysed for trichothecenes and related compounds. Production of butenolide, cyclonerodiol derivatives and culmorins was also measured. The principal trichothecenes produced were derivatives of either nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON) or scirpentriol (Sctol), in order of frequency. The principal trichothecene producing species were F. crookwellense, F. culmorum and F. graminearum. Isolates of the first two species were predominantly NIV-chemotypes with one or two isolates respectively as Sctol-chemotypes. F. graminearum showed equal quantities of NIV- and DON-chemotypes, with the DON-chemotypes producing primarily 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON).
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Deoxynivalenol ; Fusarium ; IgA nephropathy ; Immunotoxicity ; Mycotoxin ; Trichothecene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The CH12LX cell line was used as a clonal model to assess the direct effects of vomitoxin on IgM and IgA secretion in B cells. When vomitoxin was included in LPS-driven CH12LX B cell cultures, it had multiple effects on Ig secretion. Whereas vomitoxin doses of 115 and 120 ng/ml caused 50% inhibition(ID50) of IgA and IgM production, respectively, toxin concentrations in the 5 to 50 ng/ml range slightly stimulated IgA production. However, low vomitoxin doses did not induce switching of membrane IgM+ CH12LX B cells to membrane IgA+. Total cell number was unaffected at vomitoxin concentrations up to 100 ng/ml but dropped markedly at 200 ng/ml (ID50=170 ng/ml). Using the MTT reduction assay as another measure of viability and cell function, vomitoxin was also inhibitory (ID50=130 ng/ml). Both thymidine incorporation and leucine incorporation were also inhibited by the toxin with estimated ID50s being 120 and 110 ng/ml, respectively. The results indicate that although at high doses, vomitoxin inhibits proliferation, Ig secretion and DNA/protein synthesis in the clonal B cell model, the toxin marginally stimulated IgA secretion at lower doses.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Versicolorin B ; Versiconal hemiacetal acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The sequence of steps versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) to versiconal (VL) catalyzed by an esterase and VL to versicolorin B (VB) catalyzed by VL cyclase has been previously demonstrated in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. VHA esterase and VL cyclase activities were estimated by determining the amounts of VL and VB after incubation of VHA in cell-free extracts from mycelia that were either synthesizing or not synthesizing aflatoxins. VHA esterase activity but not VL cyclase activity was present in extracts from cells grown in a nonaflatoxin-producing medium. VHA esterase activity was present in extracts from mycelia grown in aflatoxin-producing medium harvested after one to six days of incubation. VL cyclase activity was absent at one day, low at two days, maximal at three to five days, and lower at six days. VL cyclase activity appears in the later part of the growth period which is also the period of aflatoxin biosynthesis. This supports a role for VL cyclase in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.
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