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  • Candida albicans  (20)
  • dermatophytes
  • 1990-1994  (24)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; ammonium ; physiology ; medium ; growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans strain B 311-10 with and without starvation was cultivated in the minimal synthetic medium of Shepherd et al. [18], modified without biotin, aminoacids, low glucose concentration [20] and with decreasing amounts of (NH4)2SO4, to determine the optimal growth requirement for this strain. All the experiments were carried out under sterile conditions at 25 °C in a thermostat with initial O.D.s (675 nm) of 0.500 and 0.100. Cell growth was generally monitored everyday for six days with a spectrophotometer by determining the absorbance of the cultures at 675 nm. All the experiments were repeated three times and a statistical analysis of the data with a probability of 99% and 1% of error was performed to confirm the validity of the results. Best growth was obtained with starved cells at an initial O.D. of 0.100 and with a 0.1 g/L concentration of (NH4)2SO4. At this concentration, the growth of C. albicans B 311-10 was best between the first and the fourth day with the maximum at the third day. With (NH4)2SO4 concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 g/L, cell growth was the same.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1985/87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M.fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; adenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate ; cyclic AMP ; yeast-mycelium transition ; dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition in Candida albicans was induced by exogenous yeast extract, adenosine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 3′∶5′ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and its analogue N6, O2′-dibutyryl adenosine 3′∶5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) in defined liquid medium at 25°C. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was found to delay germ tube formation in yeast cells, whereas the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, theophylline and caffeine, induced a Y-M transition. Intracellular and extracellular cyclic AMP levels increased during the yeast-mycelium transition and maximum levels of intracellular cyclic AMP coincided with maximum germ tube formation. Of the many inducers and inhibitors of germ tube and mycelium formation in C. albicans tested, including incubation at 37°C or in the presence of 1.5mM CaCl2, the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (R24571) added together with CaCl2 induced the highest intra- and extracellular cyclic AMP levels. These results confirm the involvement of cyclic AMP in the yeast-mycelium transition of C. albicans.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal azoles ; Antifungal drug antagonism ; Candida albicans ; Imidazoles ; Miconazole ; Triazoles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Asymptomatic sites ; dermatophytes ; tinea cruris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty patients clinically suspected of tinea cruris were studied by collecting skin scrapings from the site of their lesions and six clinically normal sites including the thighs, scrotum, crural clefts, natal cleft and the web between their 4th and 5th toes. Dermatophytes were detected in scrapings in 46 (77%) and by culture in 36 (60%) patients from lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was isolated from 32 and Epidermophyton floccosum from 4 patients. Dermatophytes were also isolated with maximum isolation from the scrotum, crural clefts and the natal cleft in that order. Thus, when tinea cruris is treated with topical antifungal agents they should be applied also to the potential carriage sites to prevent recurrence.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 110 (1990), S. 63-76 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Caffeine ; Candida albicans ; mitotic recombination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Caffeine at concentrations of 0.5 × 10−2 M or higher inhibited cell replication and induced gene segregations in Candida albicans cultured on defined complete medium. Both responses increased incrementally with increasing caffeine concentrations, and were more severe during incubation at 37 °C than 25 °C; at 37 °C, caffeine levels above 1.5 × 10−2 M caused cellular inactivation. Caffeine effects occurred only under conditions permitting cell growth, and their magnitudes were greater for unbudded than budding cells, were influenced by cellular genetic backgrounds, and were unaffected by the presence of adenine in the medium. Evaluations of segregations for recessive auxotrophic markers of a four member linkage group carried heterozygously in a cis arrangement in treated cells established that induced segregants arise through either reciprocal or nonreciprocal recombinations. The frequency distributions of classes of reciprocal and nonreciprocal recombinants for these markers conformed with those previously obtained following induction by ultraviolet radiation, indicating that the probabilities of recombinational events within the chromosomal regions defined by the markers are not biased by the differences in kinds of initial DNA lesions caused by the two recombinagens. A panel of four protoplast fusion hybrids considered deficient for DNA repair because of enhanced susceptibilities to UV induced cellular inactivation and mitotic recombination exhibited corresponding increased sensitivities to caffeine, signifying that DNA damage induced by caffeine is subject to repair. Caffeine did not affect behavior of a variant strain exhibiting high frequency phenotypic switching between minute smooth and large rough colonial forms, and no evidence for mutagenicity of the drug was obtained with systems for detection of forward or reverse mutations. The mechanism of caffeine's recombinagenicity, and the implications of that property for genetic studies of C. albicans are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Hendersonula ; Scytalidium ; azoles ; dermatophytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The in vitro activity of seven azole compounds viz clotrimozole, isoconazole, bifanazole, fluconazole oxyconazole, Bay n 7133 and Bay L 9139 was investigated against 47 clinical isolates of pathogenic non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and dermatophytic fungi. The isolates included Hendersonula toruloidea-26, Scytalidium hyalinium-5, Scytalidium japonicum-1, Trichophyton rubrum-5, Trichophyton tonsurans-3, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes-4, Epidemophyton floccosum-2, Microporum gypseum-2 isolates. The drugs were significantly more active against the dermatophytes (MIC range 0.025–1.56 μg/ml) than non-dermatophytes (MIC range 0.39–6.25 μg/ml). Isoconazole showed more activity than the rest of the azole compound tested. Clotrimazole, fluconazole, oxyconazole, bifonazole were comparable in their inhibitory activity against both dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes. The azole derivatives, Bay n 7133 and Bay L 9139 showed higher MIC range i.e. gave a range of 0.39–1.56 μg/ml for dermatophytes and 1.56–6.25 μg/ml for non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of all the drugs tested were mostly within 2–8 times their MIC values.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 116 (1991), S. 203-208 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; mycotoxin ; gliotoxin ; virulence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida infections are major causes of morbidity in compromised human hosts, but our understanding of the virulence of Candida remains incomplete. The possibility that toxic fungal metabolites belonging to the chemical class epipolythiodioxopiperzine (ETP), which are reported to possess immunomodulating and antiphagocytic properties may be produced by Candida species was investigated. Reversed phase HPLC analysis of flash evaporated chloroform extracts of 7 day cultures of clinical Candida isolates grown in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM) with 5% fetal calf serum revealed the presence of a compound which eluted at the same time as the ETP, gliotoxin. Of 50 strains of yeast tested, 32 produced this gliotoxin-like material. This material was tested for other properties of ETP type toxins including the presence of mercaptans (Ellman reaction), ultraviolet absorbance spectrum and antibacterial activity against Micrococcus lutea. These tests revealed gliotoxin-like material from yeast cultures to be similar to commercially supplied gliotoxin. This represents the first report of the presence of ETP-like compounds in yeast and raises the possibility that ETP's may contribute to the virulence of the organism.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Ascending pyelonephritis ; Candida albicans ; Experimental model ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We developed a new experimental model of ascendingCandida pyelonephritis in female rats with leukopenia and vesicoureteral reflux. Rats were treated transperitoneally with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) to induce leukopenia 3 days before and transurethrally with diluted acetic acid solution to induce vesicoureteral reflux 1 day before inoculation ofCandida albicans strain, ATCC 10259 (containing 107 cells). Microscopy revealed acute pyelonephritis in whichCandida cells invaded from the fornix and/or papilla into the medulla within 3 days after inoculation. Between 7 and 28 days after inoculation, chronic pyelonephritis reached the cortex. The incidence of pyelonephritis increased gradually and was approximately 80% after 7 days.Candida colony counts of bladder urine specimens obtained by direct puncture were significantly greater in rats with pyelonephritis extending into the parenchyma than in those with pyelonephritis located along the pelvis (p〈0.01). These results suggest that this rat model shows the characteristic feature of ascending pyelonephritis due toC. albicans and that the severity ofCandida pyelonephritis can be estimated fromCandida counts of bladder urine.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; Dimorphism ; Germ-tubes ; Starvation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract By incubating starved and unstarved yeast cells in synthetic media with a pH of 4.5 or 6.7 at 37°C the effect of a 3 hours' glucose starvation on germ-tube production byCandida albicans was evaluated. In addition the endocellular content of total carbohydrates, glycogen, trehalose and proteins after and before the starvation were dosed. The most interesting result was the overcoming of the pH-regulated dimorphism, thanks to the starvation treatment. Infact the starved cultures produced germtubes indifferently in neutral or acid media, whereas the filamentation of the unstarved cultures was more copious in pH 6.7 medium. The endocellular content of trehalose and protein was unchanged, whereas total carbohydrates and glycogen showed a shortage after the 3 hours' glucose starvation. The possible involvements of these metabolic changes in the regulation of dimorphic transition are discussed.
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