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  • 1990-1994  (474)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Sedimentation potential ; partial molar volume ; ionic partial molar volume ; nitroamminecobalt(III) complexes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Sedimentation potentials (SP) were measured for a series of nitroamminecobalt(III) chlorides in aqueous solution. The magnitudes of the sedimentation potentials varied with the number of NO 2 − ligands in the complexes and a definite positive signal was observed for a neutral complex [Co(NO2)3(NH3)3]0. The division of the partial molar volumes of nitroamminecobalt(III) complexes based on the observed SP values resulted in comparable values of the partial molar volume for the Cl− ion, suggesting no appreciable hydrolysis nor ionic association occur for these nitroammine-cobalt(III) complexes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Diffusion ; density ; viscosity ; cyclodextrins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Diffusion, density, and viscosity data are collected for the systems α-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin in water. Frictional coefficients were computed with the help of literature activity data and a qualitative discussion of their concentration dependence was attempted.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Aqueous solutions ; aminoacids ; monosaccharides ; cosphere stability ; hydrophilic interactions ; excess enthalpy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Enthalpies of dilution of ternary aqueous solutions containing an oligomer of glycine (glycyl-glycine and glycyl-glycyl-glycine) and one of the pentoses: L-arabinose, D-lyxose, D-ribose, D-xylose, were experimentally determined. The cross coefficients of the virial expansion of the excess enthalpies were evaluated and compared with those relative to the solutions containing the same pentoses and other structure breaking solutes (glycine, urea, thiourea, biuret). The trend of these coefficients seems to depend very little on the particular pentose, with the exception of a pronounced minimum for D-ribose. Also, the cross coefficients for each of the four pentoses studied do not seem to depend on the nature of the oligomers of glycine. The results were interpreted in terms of a prevailing release of water from the hydration cosphere of the sugars. These last substances show, once more, a behavior in water more complex than that commonly thought.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Solution chemistry ; solution thermodynamics ; statistical thermodynamics ; molecular interactions ; excess volume ; excess ethalpy ; excess functions ; binary mixtures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The excess volumes and enthalpies of mixing of binary mixtures of ethyl iodide with benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene have been measured experimentally over the whole composition range at 25°C. Qualitatively the data have been explained on the basis of electron donoracceptor interactions between the ethyl iodide and aromatic hydrocarbons and also on the loss of favorable orientational order of the pure components. Flory's theory correctly predicts the sign and to some extent magnitude of the V E and H E values.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Activity coefficients ; enthalpies of solution and hydration ; enthalpy of crystallization ; lithium nitrate ; lithium nitrate trihydrate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The enthalpies of crystallization of LiNO3 and LiNO3−3H2O from aqueous solutions at 25°C, measured by a calorimetric method and determined from the previously published data on the concentration dependence of the enthalpy of solution, are reported. The results are compared with the values obtained from the concentration dependences of the activity coefficients and from the temperature dependences of the solubilities. The enthalpy of solution at infinite dilution and the enthalpy of hydration are given.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Excess molar volumes ; Nitta model ; propyl formate ; butyl formate ; n-alkanes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The excess molar volumes of eight binary systems formed of propyl or butyl formate with four n-alkanes (from C6 to C9) have been determined at 25°C and atmospheric pressure. The data were obtained indirectly from densities measured experimentally with a vibrating-tube densimeter and then compared with those estimated using the Nitta model. This method yields good predictions of the symmetry of the v E curves given an average overall error for all the systems analyzed here smaller than 6 percent.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of solution chemistry 19 (1990), S. 1-10 
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Thermal diffusion ; Soret coefficients ; mixed electrolytes ; aqueous solutions ; enthalpies and entropies of transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Practical equations are developed which relate the Soret coefficients of mixed electrolytes to the entropies and enthalpies of transport. The derived equations together with published binary thermal diffusion data can be used to estimate the Soret coefficients of mixed electrolytes. The procedure is illustrated for the systems NaCl+HCl+ water and NaCl+MgCl2+ water. Aqueous NaCl, like most salts, diffuses to the cold plate in binary Soret experiments. In aqueous HCl solutions, however, NaCl can diffuse to the warm plate, and the magnitude of its Soret coefficient can take values twice as large as those for binary solutions. The thermal diffusion of trace amounts of a salt in a solution containing a large excess of another salt is discussed. Exceptionally large Soret effects are predicted for traces of strong acids in aqueous salt solutions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Partial molar heat capacity ; partial molar volume ; nucleic acid bases ; nucleosides ; nucleotides ; sodium chloride ; calcium chloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Partial molar heat capacities $$\overline C _{p2}^o $$ and volumes $$\overline V _2^o $$ of some nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and nucleotides have been measured in 1m aqueous NaCl and CaCl2 solutions using Picker flow microcalorimeter and a vibrating tube digital densimeter. The partial molar heat capacities of transfer and volumes of transfer from water to the electrolyte solutions were calculated using earlier data for these compounds in water. The values of these transfer parameters are positive. The higher values for transfer to aqueous CaCl2 solutions reflect the stronger interactions of the constituents of the nucleic acids with Ca+2 ions than with the Na+ ions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Solution enthalpies of electrolytes ; thermodynamic characteristics of individual ions ; alkali metal salts ; tetraalkylammonium salts ; tetraphenylphosphonium salts ; ethanol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Experimentally determined are the enthalpies of solution of 12 electrolytes (LiBr, LiI, NaBr, NaI, NaBPh4, Et4NCl, Et4NBr, Pr4Br, Bu4NBr, Am4NBr, Ph4PCl, Ph4PBr) in ethanol at −50 to 55°C. ΔsHo values obtained on the basis of four different extrapolation equations are analyzed. The effect of temperature changes on the thermodynamic parameters of solvation indindividual ions are calculated using thermodynamic data for the salt crystals (lattice) with the assumption that ΔsolvC p o (Ph4P+)=ΔsolvC p o (Ph4P-).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Iso-butanol ; t-butanol ; butoxyethanol ; phenol ; benzene ; tributylphosphine oxide ; octyldimethylamine oxide ; octyldimethylphosphine oxide ; dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide ; sodium dodecylsulfate ; dodecyldimethylamine oxide ; enthalpy ; mixed micelles ; thermodynamics of transfer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The enthalpies of transfer from water to aqueous surfactant solutions, ΔH(W→W+S), of polar additives have been determined as a function of the surfactant concentration at fixed additive concentration. The surfactants used are sodium dodecylsulfate (NaDS), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO). The additives used are iso-butanol t-butanol, butoxyethanol, phenol, benzene, tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO), octyldimethylphosphine oxide (ODPO), octydimethylamine oxide (ODAO), DDAO and NaDS. A maximum was observed in the plots of ΔH(W→W+S) vs. fsms curves for ODPO and ODAO in NaDS while a small minimum was observed for TBPO. The experimental data are rationalized on the basis of the pseudo-phase transition model for the micellization process and a mass action model for the distribution of the additive between aqueous and micellar phases. The standard free energies, enthalpies and entropies of transfer of the additives from the aqueous to the micellar phases are reported. The effect of different butanol isomers on the thermodynamics of solubilization in the micellar phase has been derived. The enthalpies of transfer of benzene are always negligible with respect to those of phenol while the free energies of transfer are always comparable. Studies of symmetrical and asymmetrical additives show that asymmetry causes an increase of the free energy of transfer due to the decrease of the entropy. The thermodynamics of transfer of NaDS from the aqueous to the DDAO micellar phases and of DDAO from the aqueous to the NaDS micellar phases are compared to the thermodynamics of micellization of the two surfactants; the formation of mixed micelles seems to be energetically unfavored with respect to the pure micelles.
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