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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 109 (1990), S. 27-31 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nine cases of histologically diagnosed Chromoblastomycosis are reported from Malaysia. All the patients were males and ranged in age from 56 to 65 years. The duration of symptoms varied from 5 months to 13 years. All the lesions were noted in the lower limbs. Malignancy was suspected clinically in 5 cases. The diagnosis was established by finding characteristic brown muriform cells in the tissue sections.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Helminthosporium maydis ; Zea mays ; Green islands/infection sites ; cytokinin activity ; pathogenicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Green islands/infection sites recorded higher cytokinin activity than surrounding tissue as well as non-inoculated tissue. This activity in infected areas increased with time of incubation while in tissue surrounding the green islands and non-inoculated tissue, cytokinin activity decreased with time of incubation. The culture filtrate extracts of H. maydis had cytokinin activity which increased with growth of the fungus. Cytokinin activity of thin-layer Chromatographic fractions from tissue and culture filtrate extracts revealed that a major portion of the activity was confined to Rf zone 0.6 to 0.8 which co-chromatographed with zeatin and zeatin riboside. Presence of zeatin and zeatin riboside in tissue and culture filtrates was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. Cytokinin substances, such as zeatin and zeatin riboside, increase at infection sites with growth of the pathogen suggesting they may be involved in the pathogenicity of H. maydis on maize.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; kwashiorkor ; excretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A group of five children with kwashiorkor, seven with marasmic kwashiorkor and one underweight child were given an aflatoxin-free diet consisting of maize meal and milk powder. Blood specimens were collected on admission; on day 4 and 10, 24 hour urine and stool samples were collected for the first ten days. Serum, urine and stool samples were analysed for aflatoxins using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection, after various extraction and clean-up procedures. The children with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor excreted aflatoxins in stools for up to 9 and 6 days after admission respectively. No aflatoxins were detected in the stools or urine of the underweight child. In kwashiorkor, urinary excretion ceased after 2 days, while in marasmic kwashiorkor urinary excretion persisted for 4 days. In stools, B1 was the type of aflatoxin detected most frequently in kwashiorkor and least frequently in marasmic kwashiorkor. Aflatoxin M2 was frequently detected in the stools of both groups of children. Estimates of the total amount of aflatoxin excreted by kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor indicate that these children were harbouring up to 4 μg/kg body weight at the time of admission. These findings establish that aflatoxins accumulate in body fluids and tissues in kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor which is only slowly eliminated.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: oral toxicity ; cyclopiazonic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a potential contaminant of processed foods, grain and poultry. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were given oral doses of 0, 0.2, 0.6, 2.0 or 4.0 mg CPA/kg body weight/day for 13 consecutive weeks to study its potential subchronic toxicity. No dose-related mortality or morbidity occurred. General appearance, behavior, body weight gain and food consumption of all groups were similar. CPA had no definite adverse hematologic or serum chemistry effects, although serum creatinine concentrations of rats given 2.0 and 4.0 mg CPA/kg BW were increased after seven and 13 weeks. Mild to focally moderate acute inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa of the gastric epithelium was found in animals given ≥ 0.6 mg CPA/kg BW. No other dose-related microscopic lesions were found. Ultrastructural examination of the livers revealed subtle disruption of the cisternal pattern of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomal detachment in animals receiving 4.0, but not 2.0, mg CPA/kg BW. These data suggest that the toxic effects in rats of repeated, daily oral exposure to CPA may be less than previously reported. The possible relationship between toxicity and CPA epimerization is considered.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: versiconal ; aflatoxin ; Aspergillus versicolorin C
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The primary product of hydrolysis of versiconal acetate catalyzed by porcine liver esterase and the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction from a soluble extract from mycelia of Aspergillus parasiticus was versiconal. Versiconal was stable at neutral pH for several hours and was rapidly converted to versi-colorin C by treatment with 0.4 M HCl. The addition of NADPH to the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction resulted in conversion of versiconal acetate to both versiconal and versicolorin C. The conversion of versiconal acetate to versicolorin C in the cell-free system is proposed to involve an esterase and an NADPH-dependent cyclase.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus flavus ; aflatoxin ; cytochemistry ; Gossypium ; ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cottonseeds having fluorescent fibers were harvested from fields in Arizona and examined utilizing light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The occurrence of fluorescent fibers indicated that seeds had been infected by Aspergillus flavus during development. Presence of A. flavus was verified by plating portions of seeds with fluorescent fibers. Hyphae, conidial heads, and conidia were identified readily in differentially-stained cotyledon tissue processed for light microscopy. Utilization of transmission electron microscopy permitted observations on lignified seed coats and cotyledons of mature cottonseeds. Hyphae were located throughout the cotyledon and in the nonlignified layers of the seed coat. The identification of hyphae in cross sections of vessel elements within the seed coat provided ultrastructural evidence supporting the hypothesis that A. flavus may enter seeds via the vascular tissue. Controls for the microscopy studies included observations on cottonseeds with no visual signs of infection and on laboratory-grown cultures of A. flavus. These observations demonstrated that the hyphae localized within fluorescent seeds had features characteristic of A. flavus and that fungal-like structures do not occur within uninfected seeds.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: DNA ; Exophiala dermatitidis ; Exophiala gougerotii ; Exophiala jeanselmei ; mitochondria ; restriction profiles ; taxonomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis with Hae III, Hind. III and Msp I was performed in 45 Exophiala jeanselmei strains (30 Phialophora jeanselmei and 15 Phialophora gougerotii strains) and 31 Exophiala dermatitidis strains. The results were as follows, 1) P. jeanselmei and P. gougerotii are identical, 2) E. jeanselmei is classified into 18 types based on restriction profiles, 3) two strains of E. jeanselmei CBS 577.76 and CBS 578.76 are identified as E. dermatitidis, 4) E. dermatitidis has no intraspecific variation and is definitely distinct from E. jeanselmei, 5) E. jeanselmei is suggested to be a complex organism because of extensive mtDNA polymorphism.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Ogiri (fermented sesame seeds) ; Aspergillus spp
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract ‘Ogiri’ (fermented sesame seeds) was prepared in the laboratory and at home by selected participants. No fungal participation was observed during the normal fermentation process. However, fungal contamination was observed when improper handling techniques were employed. Out of the 49 samples examined, 41 fungal isolates were made. Aspergillus spp were the dominant group irrespective of the locality. Toxigenic Aspergillus included A. flavus Link ex Fries, A. tamarii Kita and A. ochraceus Wilhelm. P. citrinum Thom was the only toxigenic Penicillium isolated. The role of the different types of wraps used for the fermentation, marketing and storage of the product was also determined.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Helminthosporium maydis ; carbohydrates ; green islands/infection courts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Germination and germ tube length of Helminthosporium maydis conidia did not exhibit much difference on fixed decolourized and living green leaves. However, appressoria, penetrations and colonizations were much less on decolourized host leaves and were enhanced significantly when sugars were added in the infection court. Few leached conidia germinated on the decolourized host leaves and appressoria, penetrations and colonizations effected on them by leached conidia were almost negligible. The presence of exogenous sugars and leaf leachates enabled the leached conidia to accomplish some penetrations and colonizations. Carbohydrate content of decolourized leaves and leached conidia was much less than the green leaves and non-leached conidia, respectively. Carbohydrates accumulated at the infection sites/green islands which also exhibited higher chlorophyll content.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Killer toxin production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ability of a killer yeast (Pichia anomala, UCSC 25F) to produce toxin in vivo was demonstrated, for the first time, in tissues of normal and immunosuppressed experimentally infected mice by means of a fluorescent antibody technique and a killer toxin specific monoclonal antibody. The possible significance of the findings is discussed.
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