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  • 1990-1994  (473)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The effects of variations in stroke volume on the intensity of cardiac stimuli was examined in a series of three experiments that empolyed classical psychophsical methods to assess heartbeat detection. Stroke volume was manipulated by passive body tilt and recorded using impedance cardiography while subjects performed heartbeat detection tasks. The postural manipulation generated little or no change in contractility or momentum but did produce substantial changes in stroke volume. However, this potential source of variation in cardiac stimulus magnitude did not influence either the precision of heartbeat detection or the temporal location of heartbeat sensations. It is concluded that the intensity dimension of the heartbeat stimulus is not determined by stroke volume.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Heart period, systolic time intervals, low and high frequency heart period variability, blood pressure, and respiration were measured in female subjects under three drug conditions (saline, atropine sulfate, metoprolol) while sitting and standing on three consecutive days. Following preinfusion baseline recordings, saline, metoprolol (14 mg), or atropine sulfate (2 mg) was infused for 15 min (by using a double-blind procedure). Recordings were taken during a postinfusion baseline and in response to an orthostatic stressor (standing versus sitting postures). At the end of the metoprolol session, atropine sulfate was infused and responses were monitored during the post-infusion (i.e., double blockade) baseline and during orthostatic stressor. Analyses of the blockade data revealed that the preejection period (PEP) reflected sympathetic but not vagal influences on the heart, and high frequency (HF, 0.12–0.40 Hz) heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reflected vagal but not sympathetic influences on the heart. No other measure provided a specific index of the tonic sympathetic or vagal activation of the heart. Postinfusion PEP under saline predicted individual differences in postinfusion cardiac sympathetic activation, whereas postinfusion heart period (but not HF variability) under saline predicted individual differences in postinfusion cardiac vagal activation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Scalp current density analysis of the auditory evoked response to 1-kHz tone bursts delivered at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) (from 1 s to 2 min in separate runs) shows that two different frontal components can be observed and functionally dissociated in the N1 time range: one is elicited for all ISIs, peaks at about 95 ms poststimulus, and has a full recovery time below 8 s; the second is elicited only by infrequent stimuli (ISIs 〉 4 s), peaks around 140 ms, and significantly increases in amplitude with increasing ISIs. The first component can be considered a new obligatory component in N1 elicited simultaneously with the responses in auditory cortex; the later component could correspond to the orienting Component III of Näätänen and Picton (1987).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: In four experiments, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were evoked by visually presented word pairs in a task requiring responses to occasional target pairs. In Experiments 1 and 2, some pairs comprised items that had been presented previously. These repeated pairs consisted of words that had been paired together when first presented (same context condition) or words that had first been presented on consecutive trials (different context condition). ERP repetition effects were equivalent in the two conditions. In Experiment 3, same-context repeats were contrasted with a condition in which a repeated word was paired with a new word. Only the same-context pairs evoked a repetition effect. Experiment 4 showed that repetition effects to different- and same-context repeats remained equivalent when first presentations of the members of different-context pairs were separated by six intervening trials. We conclude that the ERP repetition effect shows little sensitivity to local context.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: We evaluated the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) of 50 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 55 of their relatives, 31 first-episode bipolar patients and 35 of their relatives, and 113 nonpsychiatric subjects and 42 of their relatives. The frequency characteristics of the EEG showed moderate stability for a subgroup of these subjects (n= 106) who were tested twice, approximately 9 months apart. Both the schizophrenia and bipolar patients showed a generalized pattern of increased delta and theta and decreased alpha activity. The bipolar patients demonstrated additional right hemisphere activity that was not present among the schizophrenia patients and nonpsychiatric subjects, a finding consistent with hypotheses concerning nondominant hemisphere involvement in the regulation of elated mood. The schizophrenia patients' female relatives and/or relatives with affective disorders and the bipolar patients had significantly reduced peak alpha frequencies. This finding may be related to reduced information processing capacity among these subjects.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 31 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: A previous study by Fitzgibbons and Simons (1992) confirmed that subjects identified as anhedonic consistently report a reduced experience of pleasure when confronted with hedonic stimuli (i.e., color slides). Evidence that this emotion-processing deficit extended from the verbal report to the physiological and behavioral domains was mixed but suggested that poor imagery might be associated with the reduced capacity to experience pleasure. The present experiment was designed to test this hypothesis more directly. Anhedonic and normal control subjects were presented scripts, which they were to imagine as vividly as possible. During both script presentation and imagery, heart rate, skin conductance, and facial muscle activity were recorded. Verbal reports of emotional experience were obtained subsequent to each image. The physiological data, as well as an imagery questionnaire, were consistent with the poor imagery hypothesis and also with data from other laboratories (Lang, 1984), which suggests that imagery may be a fundamental aspect of emotion processing in humans.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: In a series of two experiments, subjects read sentences wherein words were flanked in the lower visual field by irrelevant words (i.e., flankers). The visual angle between the words in the sentence and the flanker words was manipulated (i.e., 0.57°, 0.97°, 1.37°). Sentence endings were either congruent or inconguruent; incongruent endings elicited a large N400 component. Flanker effects were observed for sentence final words on electrophysiological measures during the reading task and on subsequent recognition memory performance for sentence final and new words. For both measures, the flanker effect interacted with the congruency of the sentence ending as well as the visual angle between the sentence final word and its flanker. The largest and earliest flanker effects were observed for congruent endings at the smallest visual angle (0.57°); congruent endings and flankers in intermediate visual angle (0.97°) conditions displayed a similar flanker-related negativity but with a longer onset latency (490 vs. 280 ms). Congruent endings and their flankers in the largest visual angle (1.57°) conditions revealed no flanker effect.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a group of 13 men with severe developmental dyslexia and 15 matched normal controls. Auditory and visual stimuli, presented in separate reaction time tasks of graded difficulty, were used to elicit ERPs. No group differences in P300 were seen under relatively undemanding task conditions. However, as task demands increased, visual P300 was reduced in the dyslexic men as compared with the normal readers. An Abbreviated Conners Parent Rating Scale was used to assess retrospectively childhood symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additional analyses revealed that the dyslexics with a history of many symptoms of ADHD in childhood (high ADHD) accounted for the group differences in P300; the dyslexics with a history of few or no such symptoms (low ADHD) were indistinguishable from the controls at all electrode sites. Furthermore, whereas the low-ADHD dyslexics showed the same himispheric asymmetry in auditory P300 as did the controls (right 〉 left), auditory P300 was more symmetrically distributed in the high-ADHD dyslexics. The results are interpreted as suggesting that a distinct brain organization may characterize dyslexic men with a history of concomitant deficits in attention.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 31 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: To examine the hypothesis that the relaxation response is associated with an increase in cardiac parasympathetic tone, the frequency components of heart rate variability during relaxation training were investigated in 16 college students. Electrocardiograms and pneumograms were recorded during a 5-min baseline period followed by three successive 5-min sessions of the autogenic training (relaxation) or by the same periods of quiet rest (control), while subjects breathed synchronously with a visual pacemaker (0.25 Hz). Although neither the magnitude nor the frequeney of respiration showed a significant difference between relaxation and control, the amplitude of the high-frequency component of heart rate variability increased only during relaxation (p= .008). There was no significant difference in the ratio of the low-frequency (0.04–0.15 Hz) to the high-frequency amplitudes. The increased high-frequency amplitude without changes in the respiratory parameters indicates enhanced cardiac parasympathetic tone. Thus, our results support the initial hypothesis of this study. Enhanced cardiac parasympathetic tone may explain an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of the relaxation response.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 31 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Event-related potentials (ERPs) following infrequent and frequent stimuli were studied as subjects moved from wakefulness to sleep. Subjects were instructed to respond to the infrequent “target” stimuli (attend condition) or to ignore the stimuli (ignore condition). Parietal P300, prominent following target ERPs in wakefulness under the attend condition, disappeared in association with reduced behavioral responsiveness and emergence of a central negativity (N350). The N350 and preceding and following positivities (P220 and P450) became the dominant feature of both target and nontarget ERPs under both attend and ignore conditions. The P220-N350-P450 complex was larger and peak latencies were shorter under the attend condition. Peak amplitudes tended to be larger following targets, especially under the attend condition. The findings suggest that, although the processes under-lying P300 are less likely to be engaged, processing of stimulus deviance and task relevance continues in sleepiness and sleep, and is reflected by variance in N350 and related activity.
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