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  • Candida albicans  (22)
  • dermatophytes  (6)
  • 1985-1989  (28)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: lung ; macrophage ; neutrophil ; Candida albicans ; cyclophosphamide ; cortisone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortisone (CA) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) treatment of mice was used to investigate the relative contributions of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and inflammatory neutrophils (PMN) in the initial defense against intratracheal challenge (IT) with Candida albicans. Mice treated with either CA or Cy were susceptible to IT challenge with 10–100 x less C. albicans than were untreated mice. Untreated mice rapidly eliminated C. albicans from their lungs with the majority of the organisms being cleared within three hours of challenge. Mice treated with CA initially cleared some of the C. albicans but were unable to clear all the C. albicans as did the untreated mice. Mice treated with Cy were unable to clear C. albicans from their lungs. Candida albicans did not disseminate from the lungs of untreated mice, while in both of the treated groups, C. albicans disseminated to the liver, spleen, brain and kidneys, rapidly killing the treated hosts. Analysis of the changes in cells in lung lavage fluids collected at various times after C. albicans challenge, revealed that large numbers of PMN accumulated in the lungs of both untreated and CA-treated mice, whereas PMN were virtually undetectable in lavage fluids from Cy-treated mice. Resident PAM from untreated mice were able to kill approximately 70 % of 105 C. albicans in a 3 hr in vitro killing assay. By contrast, at similar effector: target ratios, resident PAM from Cy-treated mice killed only about 20% of the inoculum and resident PAM from CA-treated mice were unable to kill C. albicans. PMNs from both untreated and CA-treated mice killed approximately 70% of 105 C. albicans in vitro. The data indicates that both PAM and PMN were critical to the initial clearance of C. albicans from pulmonary tissue. The accumulation of PMN in the lungs appeared to be required for the complete clearance of C. albicans from the lungs yet was not sufficient to inhibit dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs in CA-treated mice. The presence of PAM with in vitro candidacidal abilities appeared to be required for both the clearance of C. albicans and inhibition of dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs. Compromise of either PAM or PMN function can lead to increased pulmonary susceptibility to C. albicans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 108 (1989), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidiasis ; clotrimazole ; fluconazole ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of human mucosal surfaces. Colonization of oral and vaginal mucosa by this yeast is antagonized by the resident normal bacterial population. However, antibacterial therapy can alter the normal flora to allow fungal cells to attach, grow and invade host tissues. We studied the antimicrobic activity of fluconazole against clinical isolates of oral and vaginal bacteria and Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; we also compared the bactericidal activity of fluconazole with clotrimazole in vitro by microbiologie assay. Fluconazole lysed fungi but did not change the ultrastructure of bacteria. Clotrimazole, but not fluconazole, was bactericidal against lactobacillus and streptococcus, the principal species of the oral and vaginal cavities. We conclude that Candida albicans, but not oral and vaginal bacteria, is susceptible to fluconazole. These observations help explain the antimycotic specificity of fluconazole and its efficacy against candidiasis in humans.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; yeast-mycelium transition ; calcium ; calmodulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition of Candida albicans (3153A) was induced by 1.5 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O in defined liquid medium, pH 7, at 25 °C. Germ tube formation was detected after approximately 8 h and peaks of maximum germination occurred at approximately 20 h in all experimental treatments. Non-toxic concentrations of the calmodulin inhibitor R24571 almost completely suppressed germ tube formation whereas trifluoperazine (TFP) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were only about half as effective. Further Ca2+ addition failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of R24571 and induced only about 10% of the cells inhibited by TFP or A23187 to germinate.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 104 (1988), S. 81-85 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; hepatic trapping ; monosaccharides ; adherence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The initial clearance of Candida albicans in situ by hepatic tissue was investigated using the isolated perfused mouse liver model in combination with various monosaccharides. When 106 yeasts were infused into untreated ICR mouse livers, approximately 61±2% (X + SEM) were recovered from the liver and 13±2% in the effluent for a total recovery of 74±2%. This suggests that 26±2% of the infused yeasts were eliminated within the liver and that a total of 87±1% were trapped (% in the liver + % killed) by the liver. In contrast, when either D-mannose or alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, but not glucose, sucrose, lactose or mannitol, were added to perfusion media (1% w/v) the ability of hepatic tissue to trap C. albicans decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, with increasing concentrations of monosaccharide. Decreased trapping was due to the interaction of these monosaccharides with hepatic tissue and not directly with yeasts. The data suggest that one component of in situ hepatic clearance of C. albicans was the binding of mannose containing structures on the surface of yeasts, most probably by hepatic mannose receptors.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of the hair in 285 sheep from the West Bank of Jordan was analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value for different fungal species found were calculated. Ninenty six species which belong to 36 genera were isolated. Forty one of these species were either well-known agents of animal and human mycoses (Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum nanum, M. canis, and others), or have been isolated from human and animal lesions (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium tropicum, Acremonium kiliense, Aphanoascus fulvuscens, Aspergillus versicolor, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and others). These pathogenic fungi comprised 75.4% of all fungi recovered from the hair of sheep. This animal seems to represent an adequate reservoir for several dermatophytes and several potentially pathogenic fungi.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: reactive oxygen species ; Sporothrix schenkii ; Candida albicans ; polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of the supernatants obtained from the liquid culture medium ofSporothrix schenkii andCandida albicans on the generation of superoxide anion (O 2 − and hydroxyl radicals OH., the elements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and chemilimunescence (CL), a measure of several ROS, by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was examined. In our study, it was shown that the supernatant ofS. schenkii increased all types of ROS generation examined and CL, while that ofC. albicans increased OH. generation and CL. The effect of the supernatants ofS. schenkii on OH. generation and CL and that ofC. albicans on CL were most remarkable when the supernatant obtained 8 weeks after the inoculation was used. The supernatant ofS. schenkii was shown to be a much more potent stimulant than the supernatant ofC. albicans. This ROS-stimulating effect of the supernatant ofS. schenkii was heat stable but not dialyzable. These findings suggest the possible role of ROS produced by infiltrated PMNs in the inflammatory skin lesions induced byS. schenkii.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; delayed-type hypersensitivity ; antibody responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans E-139 produced pure mycelial and yeast cultures in a low sulphate medium at different temperatures. The influence of the morphological phase, dose and viability of the fungi on the kinetic of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and anti-mycelial and anti-yeast antibodies have been studied in mice injected intraperitoneally. The mycelial form elicited higher DTH levels than the yeast phase. This effect seems to be related to its antigenic properties. The effect of dose on the immune response depends on the viability of the fungus. The mycelial cytoplasmic antigens were more effective than the yeast ones in detecting antibodies induced during the experiments, particularly during the later stages of the observation periods, suggesting that such antigens may be useful in the serodiagnosis of Candida infections.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 93 (1986), S. 61-63 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal activity ; algae ; dermatophytes ; pathogenic yeasts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antifungal activity of 15 mediterranean algae species on some dermatophyte strains (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and Torulopsis glabrata) has been tested following a modification of Aubert's technique. Among the algae species studied, Falkenbergia rufolanosa is the most active in front of all the fungi tested.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 96 (1986), S. 109-113 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: siderophores ; Candida albicans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans secretes both hydroxamate and phenolate-type siderophores when grown under iron-restricted conditions. The inhibition of candidal growth by iron limitation was reversed by the addition of supplemental hydroxamate on phenolate siderophores. Both siderophores produced equal stimulation of growth suggesting that C. albicans could utilize both siderophores with equal efficiency. Addition of heterologous siderophores from both bacteria and fungi also supported growth of the yeast in a deferrated medium. These results suggest that C. albicans has an iron-uptake mechanism which enables it to obtain iron by utilizing candidal and non-candidal siderophores.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1982/84
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1982 to 1984 in the United States. The survey included 59 locations with data from 49 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 46.8%, T. tonsurans 33.3%, T. mentagrophytes 10.1%, Microsporum canis 4.5%, Epidermophyton floccosum 3,5%, M. gypseum and T. verrucosum both 0.7%, M. audouinii and T. terrestre both 0.1%, and T. violaceum 0.06%. No isolations of M. ferrugineum or T. schoenleinii were reported. Temporal increases were observed for frequencies of T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans and M. canis, and decreases occurred for frequencies of E. floccosum and T. rubrum when the data from this survey were compared by the goodness of fit test to data of the 1979 to 1981 survey. The percent of dermatophyte isolations identified as T. tonsurans correlated significantly with the percentage of blacks in cities of 100000 or more people.
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