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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 118 (1980), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Stratosphere ; Aerosol layer ; Sulfates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract After briefly reviewing the observational data on the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer, the chemical and physical processes that are likely to fix the properties of the layer are discussed. We present appropriate continuity equations for aerosol particles, and show how to solve the equations on a digital computer. Simulations of the unperturbed aerosol layer by various published models are discussed and the sensitivity of layer characteristics to variations in several aerosol model parameters is studied. We discuss model applications to anthropogenic pollution problems and demonstrate that moderate levels of aerospace activity (supersonic transport and space shuttle operations) will probably have only a negligible effect on global climate. Finally, we evaluate the possible climatic effect of a ten-fold increase in the atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Ultraviolet radiation ; Photodissociation ; Schumann-Runge bands ; Herzberg continuum ; Ozone bands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Solar radiation of λ〉175 nm and of Lyman-alpha at 121.6 nm is absorbed in the mesosphere and stratosphere by molecular oxygen (λ〈242 nm) and also by ozone molecules at λ〉200 nm. This paper describes the photodissociation processes resulting from absorption in the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of molecular oxygen and also in the Hartley, Huggins and Chappuis bands of ozone. Special consideration is given to differences between the stratospheric and mesospheric problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Ozone ; Diffuse radiation influence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Previous work has shown the importance of the diffuse solar field in the photochemistry of atmospheric active species, the solar zenith angle being an effective parameter. In view of the diurnal and seasonal variability of this single quantity, in this paper estimates are presented of the daily-integrated values of the photodissociation coefficient of ozone throughout the year, for a purely molecular atmosphere in the absence of scattering and when the effects of molecular scattering are included, and for an absorbing-scattering turbid atmosphere characterized by two different aerosol loads. Also, different values of the ground albedo have been taken into account. Results are shown for a latitude of 45oN. The seasonal dependence is strong at altitudes below 20 km and less marked above 20 km. For an albedoA=0.3, the inclusion of molecular scattering increases the daily-integrated photodissociation coefficients approximately by 20% and 40% at 15 km and by 15% and 22% at 30 km, at the winter and summer solstice respectively. The presence of a heavy aerosol load modifies these results by a further factor which is approximately −5% and 10% at 15 km at the winter and summer solstice respectively, and is approximately constant at 8% throughout the year at 30 km.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: NO2 distribution ; Ozone destruction by NO x
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone by the oxides of nitrogen is believed to be an important part of the global ozone balance. The lack of sufficient measurements of NO x concentrations has impeded efforts to quantify this process. Recent measurements of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide from ground-based stations as well as aircraft and balloons have provided a first approximation to a global distribution of NO2 vertical columns at sunset. These observed vertical columns have been translated into time-dependent vertical NO2 profiles by means of a one-dimensional atmospheric photochemical model. Using recent observations of air temperature and ozone along with this information, the independent instantaneous (one second) rates of ozone production from oxygen photolysis P(O3), of ozone destruction from pure oxygen species (Chapman reactions) L(O x ), and of ozone destruction by nitrogen oxides L(NO x ) were estimated over the three-dimensional atmosphere. These quantities are displayed as zonal average contour maps, summed over various latitude zones, summed over various altitude bands, and integrated globally between 15 and 45 km. Although the global summation between 15 and 45 km by no means tells the complete story, these numbers are of some interest, and the relative values are: P(O3), 100; L(O x ), 15; L(NO x ), 45±15. It is to be emphasized that this relative NO x contribution to the integrated ozone balance is not a measure of the sensitivity of ozone to possible perturbations of stratospheric NO x ; recent model results must be examined for current estimates of this sensitivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Galactic cosmic rays ; Solar proton events ; Particle precipitation ; Chemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An assessment is made of the relative contribution of certain classes of energetic particle precipitation to the chemical composition of the middle atmosphere with emphasis placed on the production of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen species and their subsequent role in the catalytic removal of ozone. Galactic cosmic radiation is an important source of odd nitrogen in the lower stratosphere but since the peak energy deposition occurs below the region where catalytic removal of O3 is most effective, it is questionable whether this mechanism is important in the overall terrestrial ozone budget. The precipitation of energetic solar protons can periodically produce dramatic enhancement in upper stratospheric NO. The long residence time of NO in this region of the atmosphere, where catalytic interaction with O3 is also most effective, mandates that this mechanism be included in future modelling of the global distribution of O3. Throughout the mesosphere the precipitation of energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (60°≲Λ≲70°) can sporadically act as a major local source of odd hydrogen and odd nitrogen leading to observable O3 depletion. Future satellite studies should be directed at simultaneously measuring the precipitation flux and the concomitant atmosphere modification, and these results should be employed to develop more sophisticated models of this important coupling.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Wave mean-flow interaction ; Non-acceleration theorems ; Wave action
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The generalized Lagrangian-mean description is motivated and illustrated by means of some simple examples of interactions between waves and mean flows, confining attention for the most part to waves of infinitesimal amplitude. The direct manner in which the theoretical description leads to the wave-action concept and related results, and also to the various ‘noninteraction’ theorems, more accuratelynon-acceleration theorems, is brought out as simply as possible. Variational formulations are not needed in the analysis, which uses elementary principles only. The significance of the generalized Eliassen-Palm relations as conservation equations for wave activity is discussed briefly, as is the significance of the temporal nonuniformity of the generalized Lagrangian-mean description for dissipating disturbances.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 119 (1980), S. 349-355 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Borehole logs ; Coal bearing formations ; Gondwana Basin (India)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The profile of temperature gradient versus depth (T-log) has been found to be very useful for correlation with electrical resistivity log (E-log) in coal-bearing formations. A positive correlation between electrical resistivity and thermal resistivity is observed in coal sections whereas a negative correlation is found in sandstone/shale beds, thus helping in coal prospect evaluation. T logs have been used to correct the location of coal bed which had apparently been misinterpreted by the E-log. Hole to hole correlation of T-log and E-log is found to be excellent and it is observed that thermal resistivity characteristics of given formations remain fairly uniform. A rough estimation of coal grade is possible from the detailed study of the T-logs. Abrupt changes of temperature gradient as also its reversals have been observed in burnt coal sections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 119 (1980), S. 373-379 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Gravity surveying ; Topographic correction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The paper is concerned with the problems of topographic reduction in gravity prospecting. Particular emphasis is placed on topographic conditions frequently encountered in mountainous areas such as in the Alps. New master curves are developed for several cases in which steep walls followed by inclined planes are located near the gravity sites. The computation methods are outlined and the precision as well as the rapidity are tested for various cases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Fayum area (Egypt) ; Basalts ; tertiary magnetic and mineralogical properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports clear correlation between the magnetic and mineralogical properties of some basaltic rocks from Egypt. Although all the measured samples are reversely magnetized lavas, yet clear differences were found between them. A four-fold classification based on the nature of both titanomagnetite and discrete ilmenite grains is given. The classification is based mainly on the differentiation between the different stages of oxidation and these were found to be in accordance with the intensity of magnetization and susceptibility values.
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