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  • Regulation  (27)
  • 1975-1979  (27)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; Amoebae ; Aminopeptidases ; Acid proteases ; Regulation ; Development ; Differential gene activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cultivation of Physarum polycephalum amoebae in two media with different protein contents revealed a regulation of aminopeptidases and proteases depending on the albumin content of the medium: in growing amoebae and plasmodia the aminopeptidases have similar isoenzyme patterns and relative activities against nitroanilides. One alanine and four leucine aminopeptidase isoenzymes were found within the slightly acid pH range. During growth amoebae secrete—different from plasmodia—leucine aminopeptidase into the medium with low protein content. In an albumin-rich medium additional alanine aminopeptidase activity was found. Out of nine plasmodial proteases four were found in amoebae too. Only one band (pI 3.6) was present in the protein-poor medium. No protease activity could be detected in the proteinrich medium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Streptococcus cremoris ; Cell wall proteinase ; Calcium dependency ; Regulation ; Translational control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The persistent accumulation of proteinase (PIII) activity in the cell wall of Streptococcus cremoris strain AM1 during growth depends on the presence of Ca2+-ions in the medium. In the absence of calcium initial accumulation of activity in the cell wall is observed, followed by a decrease to a low final level. Under this condition no increase of proteolytic activity is found in the extracellular fluid. A possible function of calcium in the stabilization of the enzyme is discussed. Prolonged accumulation of catalytically active proteinase PIII in the cell wall occurs in the absence of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis. This process involves de novo protein synthesis supported by preformed proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid, which is possibly either intrinsically long-lived or is stabilized following its transcription. The level of the extracellular concentration of amino acids and/or peptides regulates the translation of newly synthesized proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid and, possibly, the growth of the organism in milk.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Ammonia assimilation ; Glutamine synthetase ; Continuous culture ; Regulation ; Inactivation ; New synthesis ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972 was high in ammonia-limited cultures, low in phosphate-and sulphate-limited cultures and not detected in glucose-limited cultures. When ammonia was ‘pulsed’ into an ammonia-limited culture then GS activity decreased at a rate faster than that calculated if enzyme synthesis ceased and enzyme was diluted out by growth. Enzyme activity increased in ammonia-starved, phosphate-limited cultures and in the ammonia ‘pulse’ system when the added ammonia had been utilised. These increases in enzyme activity were prevented by the presence of 100 μg/ml cycloheximide. GS activity was inversely related to the intracellular concentration of glutamate.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aromatic substrates ; Regulation ; Alternating induction and repression ; Continuous culture ; Pseudomonas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pseudomonas testosteroni metabolized 4-hydroxycinnamate by an initial cleavage of the side chain to yield acetate and the aromatic moiety, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The latter was further oxidized via 4-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate, which underwent meta cleavage. During growth of the organism on 4-hydroxycinnamate, the $$Q_{O_2 } ^{\max } $$ for acetate showed an undulating pattern, which was attributed to alternating induction and repression of enzymes involved in the oxidation of acetate. Repression was caused either by 4-hydroxybenzoate or by its later metabolites, formate and pyruvate. In batch culture, P. testosteroni oxidized mixtures of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxycinnamate in a diauxic pattern. The capacity to oxidize 4-hydroxycinnamate appeared in the cells before 4-hydroxybenzoate was exhausted, indicating that the enzymes catalysing the conversion of 4-hydroxycinnamate into 4-hydroxybenzoate. were induced despite the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoate. The induction of these early enzymes of 4-hydroxycinnamate catabolism started when the molar concentration ratio of 4-hydroxybenzoate to 4-hydroxycinnamate fell below a value of 0.3. In continuous culture of P. testosteroni on a mixture of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxycinnamate, both substrates were almost completely utilized up to a dilution rate of about 0.5/h. At higher dilution rates, 4-hydroxycinnamate was decreasingly utilized so that eventually at a dilution rate of 0.74/h, its effluent concentration equalled its influent concentration. At D M, a utilization ratio of 1.23 in favour of 4-hydroxybenzoate was found to become established in the culture. The $$Q_{O_2 } ^{\max } $$ of the cells for acetate was maximal at a dilution rate of 0.38/h and decreased before 4-hydroxycinnamate utilization was at its peak at 0.59/h. This suggested that it was mainly the aromatic moiety of 4-hydroxycinnamate which was metabolized at high dilution rates. The failure to utilize acetate at high dilution rates was apparently due to the repression of its catabolic enzymes by later metabolites of 4-hydroxybenzoate and to the relatively low concentration of acetate in the fermenter. This low concentration, due to the continuous washout of acetate, prevented it from relieving the repression.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces carlsbergensis ; Yeast glycogen ; Glycogen metabolism ; Metabolic control ; Regulation ; Yeast-phosphorylase ; Yeast glycogen synthase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Saccharomyces carlsbergensis cells, growing under carbohydrate or nitrogen limitation, initially deplete their glycogen, which is resynthesized only during the late exponential phase. Cells, harvested in the carly exponential phase, are even unable to synthesize glycogen in glucose-containing phosphate buffer. This is in contrast to cells from the stationary phase which rapidly synthesize glycogen under the same conditions. Lack of O2 slows down glycogen synthesis. Contrary to cells suspended in complete medium, addition of ammonia alone to nitrogen free-media induced neither breakdown of glycogen, nor complete cessation of glycogen synthesis. Ammonia slowed down glycogen synthesis (both aerobic and anaerobic), only, in cells grown either under carbohydrate or under nitrogen limitation. Glycogen synthesis was observed 1 min after addition of glucose to a starved cell suspension in phosphate buffer. Removal of the sugar from the buffer resulted in an instantanous decrease of the glycogen level in the cells. The results indicate that glycogen-metabolism is regulated by a variety of endogenous and environmental factors.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 123 (1979), S. 259-265 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nitrogen fixation ; Nitrogenase ; Gene expression ; Protein synthesis ; Regulation ; Klebsiella pneumoniae ; Microbial ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract At growth temperatures above 37°C, Klebsiella pneumoniae does not grow in a medium containing N2 or NO 3 - as nitrogen sources. However, both the growth in the presence of other nitrogen sources as well as the in vitro nitrogenase activity are not affected at this temperature. The inability to fix N2 at high temperature is due to the failure of the cells to synthesize nitrogenase and other nitrogen fixation (nif) gene encoded proteins. When cells grown under nitrogen fixing conditions at 30°C were shifted to 39°C, there was a rapid decrease of the rate of de novo biosynthesis of nitrogenase (component 1), nitrogenase reductase (component 2), and the nifJ gene product. There was no degradation of nitrogenase at the elevated temperature since preformed enzyme remained stable over a period of at least 3 h at 39°C. Thus, temperature seems to represent a third control system, besides NH 4 + and O2, governing the expression of nif genes of K. pneumoniae.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nitrobacter ; Adenine Nucleotides ; Regulation ; Energy Charge ; Respiratory Chain ; CO2 Assimilation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. Changes of the adenine nucleotides in resting and growing Nitrobacter winogradskyi cells were measured in connection with regulating processes during nitrite oxidation and endogenous respiration. 2. After the addition of nitrite to endogenously respiring cells the ATP pool increased strongly during the first 60 sec at the expense of the ADP pool. At this point the energy charge was approx. 0.55. After the first 90 sec the ATP pool dropped, oscillating, to a lower level. The CO2 assimilation began at this point. 3. Under a nitrogen atmosphere the AMP pool increased and the ATP pool decreased. With a value of approx. 0.17 the energy charge was extremely low. When oxygen was added the Nitrobacter cells began to oxidize stored NADH. The ATP pool increased in a few seconds whereas the AMP pool decreased. The P/O ratio of endogenously respiring cells equaled 0.6 under these conditions. 4. During the changeover from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and in the presence of nitrite the nitrite oxidation and CO2 assimilation, opposed to aerobic conditions, were inhibited at first after the nitrite addition. The changeover of the respiratory chain enzymes from a reduced to an oxidized charge and the ATP increase were delayed in comparison with experiments without nitrite. According to these findings the endogenous respiration must be almost nil while nitrite oxidizing cells are growing.
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