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  • 1960-1964  (148,458)
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  • 1
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    New York, NY : Elsevier
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Enzymes
    Notes: This is a series title, single volumes see link below.
    ISSN: 1557-7988
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  • 2
    Call number: QZ200Z:41
    Keywords: Oncology / Congresses
    Notes: Holdidngs of ZB: 1964-1988; Please search for single title in "Signatur" QZ200Z:41
    ISSN: 0069-4800
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  • 3
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    Stuttgart : Enke
    Call number: WB700:12(2)/1/Mag ; WB700:12(2)/2/Mag ; WB700:12(2)/3/Mag
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Abth. Die allgemeinen acuten Infectionskrankheiten.--2. Abth. Die chronischen Infections- und Intoxications-Krankheiten, parasitäre Krankheiten, infectiöse Wundkrankheiten und chronische Ernährungs-Anomalieen.--3. Abth. Die Organkrankheiten
    Pages: 3 v.
    Edition: 2. vollständig neue Bearbeitung.
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  • 4
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    Chicago : American association for cancer research
    (Cancer research, v. 18, no. 8, pt. 2, etc)  
    Call number: QZ200Z:14/Suppl./Mag
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents / periodicals ; Neoplasms / drug therapy ; Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy
    Notes: Continued in Cancer chemotherapy reports.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Résumé Candida vanriji Capriotti a été trouvée dans des jus de raisins non sulfités conservés à basse température, au voisinage du point de congélation. Ce travail étudie les caractères physiologiques et le métabolisme jusqu'à maintenant peu connu de cette nouvelle levure.
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  • 6
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    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 225-229 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary An experimental method for the determination of the 14C-distribution in poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid is described. Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid is converted to crotonic acid and further oxidized with KMnO4 to acetic acid and CO2. The activity in the carboxyl-groups of crotonic acid and acetic acid was measured following Schmidt-degradation.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung der 14C-Verteilung in Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure wird angegeben. Man überführt Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure in Crotonsäure und oxydiert diese mit Kaliumpermanganat zu Essigsäure und CO2. Die Carboxylgruppen der Crotonsäure und der Essigsäure werden durch Schmidt-Reaktion erfaßt.
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  • 7
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    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 230-235 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Hydrogenomonas H 16 accumulates poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid at the end of the exponential growth phase or in a mineral nutrient solution without a nitrogen source and containing a number of organic acids. Following the incorporation of specific 14C-labelled organic acids, the 14C-distribution in poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid was determined. The results reveal, that acetic acid and crotonic acid are incorporated into the polymer as a whole, lactic acid however, with the loss of C1 and succinic acid following two decarboxylation steps. In an atmosphere of hydrogen and oxygen the assimilation of organic substrates is carried out by means of the energy from the oxygen-hydrogen reaction.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Am Ende der exponentiellen Wachstumsphase oder in einem Mineralmedium ohne Stickstoffquelle bildet Hydrogenomonas H 16 aus einer Reihe von organischen Säuren Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure. Nach dem Einbau von spezifisch 14C-markierten organischen Säuren wurde die 14C-Verteilung in der Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß Essigsäure und Crotonsäure als Ganzes, Milchsäure unter Verlust von C1 und Bernsteinsäure nach zwei Decarboxylierungsschritten in das Polymere eingebaut werden. Unter Knallgas erfolgt die Assimilation der organischen Substrate mit Hilfe der Energie aus der Knallgasreaktion.
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  • 8
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    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 236-250 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHBA) isolated from Hydrogenomonas H 16 following an 8 sec 14CO2-incorporation is already uniformly labelled. It was shown, that the synthesis of PHBA from carbon dioxide takes place via 3-phosphoglyceric acid, pyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. During the synthesis of PHBA, one of three CO2-molecules previously fixed is lost in an oxydative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. It is therefore evident that the CO2-fixation of growing cells will be larger than that of cells storing PHBA. Only one tenth of the ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase, which would be necessary for the measured CO2-fixation, could be determined in the crude extract of Hydrogenomonas H 16. The carboxylase was purified about 20-fold.
    Notes: Zysammenfassung Bereits nach 8 sec 14CO2-Fixierung ist die aus Hydrogenomonas H 16 isolierte Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure (PHBS) gleichmäßig radioaktiv markiert. Es werden Beweise dafür erbracht, daß die PHBS aus Kohlendioxyd über 3-Phosphoglycerinsäure, Brenztraubensäure, Acetyl-CoA und Acetacetyl-CoA synthetisiert wird. Während der PHBS-Synthese geht so eines von drei fixierten CO2-Molekülen durch oxydative Decarboxylierung der Brenztraubensäure wieder verloren. Damit steht im Einklang, daß die CO2-Fixierungsleistung wachsender Zellen größer ist als die PHBS-speichernder. Nur ein Zehntel der Ribulose-1,5-diphosphat-Carboxylase, die für die gemessene autotrophe CO2-Fixierungskapazität erforderlich wäre, konnte im Rohextrakt von Hydrogenomonas H 16 nachgewiesen werden. Das Enzym ließ sich 20 fach anreichern.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary 1. The influence of chloramphenicol (CAP) on the pigment metabolism of some Chlorococcales with and without secondary carotenoids has been studies. CAP inhibits the decomposition of the chlorophylls and the primary carotenoids and the synthesis of the secondary carotenoids. There is no interruption of the formation of the chlorophylls, carotenes and primary xanthophylls. 2. These effects of CAP are independent of light. 3. The inhibition by CAP is reduced by using phenylserine, serine, phenylalanine, and alanine as sources of nitrogen. 4. The possibility that the decomposition products of chlorophylls and phytosterines might act as precursors in the biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids has been discussed.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Das Antibioticum Chloramphenicol (CAP) hemmt den Abbau von Chlorophyllen und Primärcarotinoiden sowie den Aufbau der Sekundärcarotinoide einiger Grünalgen. Dagegen beeinflußt es nicht die Bildung der Primärpigmente und den Abbau der Sekundärcarotinoide. 2. Diese Wirkungen von CAP sind unabhängig vom Licht. 3. Bei Verwendung verschiedener Stickstoffquellen heben Phenylserin, Serin, Phenylalanin und Alanin die Blockierung durch CAP zum Teil auf. 4. Die Biosynthese der Sekundärcarotinoide wird diskutiert und auf Abbauprodukte des Chlorphylls und auf Phytosterine als mögliche Ausgangssubstanzen hingewiesen.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary 1. The decomposition of beech-wood and spruce-wood by the white rot fungus Polyporus versicolor was investigated by light and electron microscopy. 2. In early stages of decay the hyphae preferably spread by penetrating the pits; bore-holes through the cell walls were found only occasionally. The decomposition of the cell wall starts from the cell lumen. Along the hyphae on the cell wall lysis zones occur, in which the wall substances are decomposed by the ecto-enzymes of the hyphae. All cell wall layers are attacked equally; the lignin containing middle lamella and the cell corner, however, proved to be more resistant. 3. Besides the lysis zones on the cell wall, rhomboid figures were observed, which probably arise due to an earlier hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. 4. Heavily attacked cell walls show in ultrathin sections a loosened texture and large cavities and on replicas a cloddy appearence. 5. Along the hyphae frequently myco-fibrils occur, which occasionally may cover larger parts of the cell walls. Their origin and possible unction is being investigated further.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Der Abbau von Buchen- und Fichtenholz durch den Weißfäuleerreger Polyporus versicolor wurde licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. 2. Die Ausbreitung des Mycels erfolgt in den ersten Abbaustadien vorwiegend durch die Tüpfel und weniger mit Hilfe von Zellwanddurchbohrungen. Die Zellwände werden vom Lumen aus enzymatisch abgebaut, wobei längs der Hyphen lytische Zonen entstehen. Hierbei werden alle Wandschichten lagenweise angegriffen. Die ligninreiche Mittellamelle und die Zellkanten sind widerstandsfähiger. 3. Außer den Lysiszonen wurden auf den Zellwänden auch rhomboide Abbaufiguren beobachtet, die auf einer vorausgehenden Hydrolyse der Polysaccharide beruhen dürften. 4. Stark angegriffene Zellwände erscheinen im Dünnschnitt teilweise aufgelockert mit langgestreckten Kavernen, während der Abdruck ein schollenförmiges Gefüge mit kleinflächigen Bruchstücken der einzelnen Lamellen wiedergibt. 5. Längs der Hyphen sind häufig Mycofibrillen vorhanden, die größere Zellwandbereiche bedecken könne. Ihre Entstehung und mögliche Funktion werden weiter untersucht.
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  • 11
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    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 286-295 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The stability in the soil of a new penicillin (methicillin) which is resistant to staphylococcal penicillinase, has been investigated. The results revealed its inactivation in both sterile and non-sterile soils of p H 7.4–7.6, with indication of biological inactivation in the latter. Three strains identified as Pseudomonas spp., were isolated by enrichment technique from the soil, and were found able to inactivate methicillin through production of an exocellular enzyme destructable at 90°C. Such an enzyme proved to be a type of penicillinase that inactivated benzyl penicillin more actively than methicillin.
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  • 12
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    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 277-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An investigation was made to follow the effect of streptomycin on the soil microflora using a direct method of observation together with plate counting technique on some selective media. It was reported that the bactericidal effect of streptomycin in the first week of application to soil, has masked an early stimulatory effect manifested by stimulation of two bacterial species appearing on mannitol nitrogen-free agar plates. One of these bacterial species identified as Pseudomonas sp. was able to fix small but significant amounts of nitrogen. The direct observation technique enabled to observe some aspects of microbial stimulation in soil. Stimulation of large cocci, identified as Hansenula sp., long bacterial rods, and Fusarium solani were successfully observed by such technique. Enrichment technique helped in isolating Hansenula sp. and F. solani; F. solani formed a mat on the surface of treated soil 50 days after streptomycin application. The recorded aspects of stimulation were claimed to be due to microbial equilibrium disturbance as a result of applying streptomycin to soil. Suggestion for further investigations was offered to verify the possible significance of such aspects of stimulation in controlling soil-borne pathogens.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Beobachtungen über das Verhalten kleiner, an sich unbeweglicher Teilchen in der Nähe beweglicher Proteus-Bacillen, sowie Dunkelfeld-beobachtungen an auf Agar sich entwickelnden Kolonien erlaubten festzustellen, daß die Geißeln auch in gewissen Entwicklungsstadien der Kolonien funktionieren, in denen bei den Bacillen nichts von Bewegung zu merken ist. 2. Wird bei der Einsaat von älteren Kulturen ausgegangen, so besteht der erste Cyclus der neuen, in Entwicklung begriffenen Kolonie aus folgenden Formen: Kurzformen — mittellange Stäbe — lange Schwärmformen — Kurzformen. Alle sind begeißelt. Die Kurzformen sowie ihre Geißeln sind auf festen Nährböden unbeweglich. Mittellange Stäbchen werden nur in der zweiten Hälfte ihres Daseins beweglich; die Geißeln beginnen aber schon lange vorher, Bewegungen auszuführen. Dem Zustand normal koordinierter Bewegungen geht eine Periode der Unkoordination voran. Anfänglich sind aber auch koordinierte Bewegungen zu schwach, um auf die Bacillen bewegungsauslösend zu wirken. Bei den ausschwärmenden Langformen sind die Bewegungen des Geißelapparates so rasch, daß sie nicht ausgezählt werden können. Am Ende der Schwärmperiode werden die Langformen unbeweglich; dabei fahren aber die Geißeln fort, ihre Schraubenbewegungen auszuführen. Dieser Zustand kann 30–90 min andauern, wonach sich vollständige Bewegungslosigkeit einstellt. 3. In den Perioden schwachen Funktionierens des Geißelapparates können seine Bewegungen durch plötzliche Intensitätssteigerungen der Belichtung für kurze Zeiten (20–30 sec) wieder auf die ursprüngliche Stärke gebracht werden. 4. Geißeln langer Proteusstäbe wirken nicht einzeln, auch nicht in Form von Einzelbüscheln, sondern, bilden um diese Bacillen einen einheitlich wirkenden undulierenden Bewegungsapparat. Koordinations-erscheinungen zwischen seinen verschiedenen Teilen sind festzustellen.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. Synchronized cells of Chlorella fusca Shihira et Krauss were studied by means of the electron microscope in a developmental stage preceding cellular cleavage. 2. The cell wall consists of a thin but complex layer intensely staining with KMnO4 and a thicker inner layer which could only be contrasted by lead hydroxide. The inner layer contains a densely interwoven network of fibrils presumably consisting of cellulose. 3. The chloroplast shows some deep incisions so that it is divided into several patches. It is not known whether these form a coherent system or not. 4. There are no chloroplast lamellae (thylakoids) in the central body of the pyrenoid which is surrounded by several starch plates. 5. The elements of the endoplasmic reticulum are preferentially situated in the outer region of the cytoplasm between the chloroplast and the plasma membrane. They appear to be mostly flattened vesicles. 6. The mitochondria are also concentrated in the periphery of the cell. They are rodshaped, strongly bent in many directions and very poor in inner structures. 7. The dictyosomes are regularly lying between the pyrenoid and the nucleus, thus revealing a certain polarity of the cell.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The fimbriae of the star-forming bacterium Pseudomonas echinoides are monopolar inserted long threads. They are able to attach to the fimbriae of other cells and to contract themselves, irreversibly joining several cells to a stable star-like cluster. In star--mutants the fimbriae have lost their adhesive properties and their contractability. The fimbriae are about 50 Å in diameter and show a fine structure with a periodicity of about 50–80 Å. Cells with active fimbriae adhere to red blood cells, but only with their fimbriated pole. This haemadsorption is inhibited by mannose. The monopolar fimbriae described here are compared with the peritrichous fimbriae of the Enterobacteriaceae.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Fimbrien des sternbildenden Bakteriums Pseudomonas echinoides sind monopolar inserierte lange Fäden, die die Fähigkeit besitzen, sich mit Fimbrien anderer Zellen zu verbinden, sich dann zu kontrahieren und so mehrere Zellen zu Sternen irreversibel zusammenzuheften. Bei stern--Mutanten haben die Fimbrien die Haftfähigkeit und die Kontrahierbarkeit verloren. Der Durchmesser der Fimbrien beträgt etwa 50 Å. Sie weisen eine Querstruktur mit einer Periode von 50–80 Å auf. Zellen mit aktiven Fimbrien heften sich auf Erythrocyten fest, aber nur mit ihrem fimbriierten Pol. Diese Hämadsorption wird durch Mannose verhindert. Die hier beschriebenen monopolaren Fimbrien werden mit den peritrichen der Enterobacteriaceen verglichen.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The oxidation of branched C5-dicarboxylates has been studied with microorganisms obtained from enrichement cultures with each of these acids. Bacteria grown on itaconate, mesaconate or methylsuccinate oxidize most of these compounds rapidly; (+) citramalate is oxidized 2–4 times as rapidly as (-) citramalate; and citraconate only feebly. Citraconate-grown cells do not oxidize itaconate and oxidize feebly mesaconate and methylsuccinate; they oxidize (-) citramalate 3–4 times faster than (+) citramalate. Cell-free extracts of various strains grown on different C5-dicarboxylates contain pronounced mesaconase activity, varying amounts of citraconase and hardly any itaconase activity.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 18
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    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 344-378 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Examination of the root surfaces of Medicago tribuloides Desr. with phase contrast microscopy or electron microscopy using thin sections revealed the presence of a layer of material outside the root surface. In thin sections of KMnO4 fixed roots this layer was composed of a thin electron dense layer, an electron dense granular matrix of varying width and an enclosing electron dense membrane. After inoculation with an effective Rhizobium strain, rhizobia were found aggregated in a definite zone adjacent to the root surface when either living roots were examined by phase microscopy or thin sections by electron microscopy. This layer was also found in inoculated and uninoculated roots of Trifolium fragiferum and T. pratense. The bacteria were packed with inclusion granules and lay enclosed by a membrane layer adjacent to the granular matrix seen in uninoculated roots. The ultrastructural organisation of root hairs is essentially similar to that of other differentiated root cells. The replicated surface of the uninoculated root hair wall is largely amorphous with a few sculptured portions resembling a cuticle layer. The inoculated root hair wall often shows areas of exposed, open microfibrillar meshwork with rhizobia sitting on the microfibrils. The rhizobia resemble a flagellated, coccoid swarmer form of Rhizobium which is found in the barrel medic rhizosphere.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The only carbohydrate utilized by Hydrogenomonas strains H 1, H 16 and H 20 is fructose; chemolithotrophically grown cells of strain H 16 oxidize this sugar following a lag-period of 20 min. Fructose is metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff-pathway. During the adaptation to fructose, the level of the following enzymes increases in the cells: phosphoglucoseisomerase, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase and the enzymes characteristic of the Entner-Doudoroff-pathway. During the change from chemolithotrophic to organotrophic growth, with fructose serving as a substrate, the activity of ribulose-diphosphate carboxylase is reduced by 75% within 2 hrs. However, following repeated growth in a fructose medium, this enzyme activity decreases only very slowly. Consequently fructose-grown Hydrogenomonas H 16 is capable of fixing carbon dioxide via the Calvin cycle.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Hydrogenomonas-Stämme H 1, H 16 und H 20 nutzen als einziges Kohlenhydrat Fructose; chemolithotroph gewachsene Zellen des Stammes H 16 oxydieren diesen Zucker nach einer lag-Phase von 20 min. Die Fructose wird über den Entner-Doudoroff-Weg umgesetzt; während der Adaptation erhöht sich der Gehalt der Zellen an Phosphoglucose-Isomerase, Glucose-6-phosphat-Dehydrogenase und an den für den Entner-Doudoroff-Weg charakteristischen Enzymen. Die Aktivität der Ribulosediphosphat-Carboxylase geht bei der Adaptation an Fructose innerhalb von 2 Std um 75% zurück, sinkt dann aber während mehrerer Fructose-Passagen nur langsam ab. Folglich kann selbst mit Fructose gewachsener Hydrogenomonas H 16 Kohlendioxyd über den Calvin-Cyclus fixieren.
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  • 21
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 118-121 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Two U.V. induced mutants of nitrogen-fixing Anabaena doliolum have been isolated: 1. 5M 16 — This strain characterised as glucose-requiring nitrogen-fixing mutant, does not grow photo-autotrophically in the basal medium but does so when supplemented with glucose. Its growth rate is rather slow on AA-1, AA-3 and AA-4 but it grows very fast on AA-2. 2. L Y-5M8/5M12 — This strain characterised on the basis of periodic occurrence of massive lytic property, characteristic of each supplemented medium, grows initially for some time and then the whole population undergoes lysis.
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  • 22
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 109-117 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Mutant strains of Anabaena cycadeae Reinke have been isolated after ultra-violet irradiation. All the four mutants described appear to be stable. They have been identified on the basis of their pigment composition, nutritional requirements, photoautotrophic growth and reaction to light. Strain 10 M 1 L is a non-nitrogen-fixing mutant as indicated by its inability to grow on basal medium (AA) deficient in combined nitrogen. Strain 10 M 1 L /10 M 1 D is apochlorotic, and grows very slowly on medium AA-3 both in light and dark but comparatively better under the latter condition. Strain 10 M 1 L /10 M 2 D is deficient in β-carotenoid, photosensitive and able to grow in dark only on AA-3 medium while strain 10 M 1 L /10 M 3 D is a photoheterotrophic nitrogen-fixer.
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  • 23
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 136-149 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A reexamination of Physoderma maculare Wallroth the type species of the genus, on Alisma, confirms Clinton's (1902) account of the production of an epibiotic stage from resting spore zoospores. The latter on mature host tissue may also give rise to the endobiotic stage which bears resting spores. On seedlings, however, resting spore zoospores produce only epibiotic sporangia. The fungus could not successfully infect Sagittaria, a closely related host.
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  • 24
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 203-212 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Aus Blasia pusilla-Blattohren isolierte Nostoc sphaericum-Lager wurden u.a. auch in verschiedenen stickstofffreien Nährlösungen rein kultiviert. Die Algen wuchsen hierin bei Zimmertemperatur und ohne Zusatzbeleuchtung gut. Der Stickstoffgehalt wurde nach 90 und 140 Tagen an durch UV-Bestrahlung (4 min, 30 cm Abstand) erhaltenen bakterienfreien Kulturen ermittelt. Mit Hilfe der Mikro-Kjeldahl-Methode ließen sich in 10 ml Kulturflüssigkeit (mit Algen) durchschnittlich 0,615 bzw. 1,05 mg Stickstoff nachweisen. Danach ist Nostoc sphaericum entgegen anderslautenden Ausführungen von Lhotsky (1946) doch befähight, atmosphärischen Stickstoff zu binden, wie dies schon Molisch (1925 und 1926) und Vouk u. Wellisch (1931) behaupteten. Eine genaue Überprüfung der Hormogonienentwicklung bei Nostoc sphaericum ergab, daß sich die Zellen des Trichoms nicht nur quer teilen. Häufig treten im hormogonalen Zustand in einigen Zellen auch Längsteilungen auf. Die durch solche Teilungen entstandenen Tochterzellen reihen sich sogleich wieder so in den Zellverband ein, daß ein einreihiges Trichom resultiert. Sie teilen sich darauf wieder quer zur Trichomachse. Durch diesen eigentümlichen Teilungsmodus kommen schraubig gebaute Trichome zustande.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Colchicine at 5 and 10 p.p.m. increased both phosphorus uptake and incorporation into organic forms (nucleoproteins or other simpler organophosphorus compounds). Continuous supply of colchicine at 20 p.p.m., almost checked phosphorus uptake during the second 24 hours of the experiment. The absorbed nitrates were utilised through the classical reduction steps. It appears also that colchicine had an inhibitory effect on the nitrite reductase that increased by increasing the concentration of the drug. Continuous supply of colchicine at its highest concentration (20 p.p.m.) checked completely the protein building during the second 24 hours of the experiment, though nitrate absorption continued; a phenomenon that caused the accumulation, in the tissue medium systems, of large amounts of peptide nitrogen. The mechanism of nitrate reduction as affected by colchicine treatment was fully discussed.
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  • 26
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 239-246 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der hier beschriebene neue Vertreter der Chytridiaceen lebt als Parasit auf der Oospore von Eudorina elegans. Der Thallus ist eukarpisch, monocentrisch und entwickelt sich intramatrikal und extracellular. Das Sporangium entwickelt ein verhältnismäßig langes Entleerungsröhrchen, was das charakteristischste Gattungsmerkmal dieses Pilzes darstellt. Die geschlechtliche Fortpflanzung verläuft in einem sehr frühen Entwicklungsstadium beider Gametangien. An dem “Zoosporenrest” des ganz jungen weiblichen Thallus befestigt sich eine “männliche Zoospore”, die sich dann mit einer Zellhülle überzieht. Nachher bildet sich zwischen den Hüllen der beiden “Zoosporenreste” ein echter Kopulationsschlauch, worauf die Plasmogamie und danach die Entwicklung einer Dauerspore folgt.
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  • 27
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 247-258 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die hier beschriebene neue einzellige Alge, Vertreter der Unterklasse Protococcineae, lebt als Parasit in Vaucheria dichotoma. Der infizierte Teil des Vaucheria-Fadens trennt sich durch Zellwände ab, wodurch die Infektion lokalisiert wird. Die ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung geschieht durch Teilung der Mutterzelle in vier Tochterzellen. Die Anhäufung der Parasiten im infizierten Fadenabschnitt führt allmählich zu dessen Absterben. Damit hört zugleich auch die ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung des Parasiten auf und beginnt seine geschlechtliche Fortpflanzung, welche mit der Ausbildung von Dauerstadien (Zygosporen) endet. Bei der geschlechtlichen Fortpflanzung entwickeln sich zwei Kategorien von Gameten: kugelige und längliche. Die kugeligen Gameten — welche sich zeitlich vor der länglichen entwickeln — kopulieren unter sich, indem sie eine sehr schwache Reaktion aufweisen. Die länglichen Gameten funktionieren nur als Mikrogameten; sie kopulieren mit kugeligen Makrogameten (vermutlich übriggebliebene Gameten der ersten Kategorie), indem sie dabei eine sehr starke Reaktion zu ihnen zeigen.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Mit Reinzuchten von Scccharomyces cerevisiae wurde das Wirken von CuSO4 auf die Atmung sowie die aerobe und anaerobe Gärung untersucht. Im Gegensatz zu den Versuchen von Meier u. Schuler (1961) wurde kein Phosphatpuffer als Suspensionsmittel gewählt, da Kalium und Phosphat die Atmung von Bäckerhefe beeinflußten und beträchtliche Mengen Kupfer unwirksam machten. Die unter abgeänderten Versuchsbedingungen erzielten Werte ergänzen also die Ergebnisse der obengenannten Autoren. So unterdrückt Kupfersulfat—unter Anaerobiose den Hefen zugesetzt—schon in geringsten Mengen die Gärung vollständig. Die Atmung und die aerobe Gärung werden nicht zu allen Einwirkungszeiten vom Kupfer vergiftet. Oftmals kam es kurz nach Metallkontakt zu einem aktivierenden Wirken des Kupfers.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Cell walls of the blue green algae Anacystis nidulans and Chlorogloea fritschii have been isolated by fractionated centrifugation after homogenization in a Mickel-disintegrator by shaking with glass beads. The purity of cell walls was controlled in the electron microscope. The freeze-dried cell wall-material was hydrolyzed 14 h in 4 n HCl for chromatography of amino acids and amino sugars, or 3 h in n/1 HCl for sugar-chromatography. Neutral sugars and uronic acids are not detected. But the mucopolymer components N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, glutamic acid, diaminopimelic acid, and alanine in a molar ratio of 1.34:1.47:1.52:1.0:2.4, and eight unspecific amino acids in molar ratios from 0.1–0.4, and further galactosamine (molar ratio 1.2) are present. Isolated cell walls are lysed by lysozyme. But whole cells are transformed in spheroplasts only by completing the lysozyme-medium with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. These facts suggest that walls of Chlorogloea and Anacystis are equipped with a rigid layer of mucopolymer like bacteria. The mucopolymer is responsible for rigidity and shape of cell walls. Besides mucopolymer proteins, lipids, and other unidentified substances compose the cell wall of these species of cyanophyta.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Zellwände der einzelligen Cyanophyceen Anacystis nidulans und Chlorogloea fritschii wurden nach Homogenisation durch fraktionierte Zentrifugation isoliert und ihre Reinheit elektronenmikroskopisch kontrolliert. Durch chemische Untersuchung der isolierten Wände konnte eine Beteiligung von Cellulose und Pectin ausgeschlossen werden. Dagegen enthalten die Zellwände die Mucopolymerbausteine N-Acetylglucosamin, N-Acetylmuraminsäure, Glutaminsäure, Diaminopimelinsäure und Alanin, bei Anacystis in den Molverhältnissen 1,34:1,07:1,52:1,0:2,4. Dieser Befund und die Tatsache, daß die isolierten Zellwände von Anacystis durch Lysozym aufgelöst werden können, spricht für das Vorhandensein einer Stützschicht in der Zellwand, die die gleiche Zusammensetzung hat wie bei gramnegativen Bakterien. Außerdem wurde Galaktosamin nachgewiesen, das bei Anacystis etwa in gleicher molarer Konzentration vorkommt wie N-Acetylglucosamin. Der Nachweis von zehn Aminosäuren läßt vermuten, daß Proteine in die Zellwand eingebaut sind. Die Lipidsubstanzen der Zellwand wurden durch Extraktion und Chromatographie nachgewiesen aber nicht näher analysiert.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Experiments are described in which the frequency of respirationdeficient mutants in yeast populations with asynchronous and synchronized budding were tested. Acridinorange was used as mutagen. The results presented show that synchronizations used here not only fail in synchronizing some physiological processes involved in RD-mutation but tend to desynchronize the induction of RD-mutants.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden Mutationsversuche mit Acridinorange an asynchron sprossenden und zuvor auf zweierlei Weise teilungssychronisierten Hefepopulationen beschrieben. Sie haben zu dem Ergebnis geführt, daß durch die Synchronisierung der Zellteilung gewisse physiologische Prozesse, die bei der Mutation eine Rolle spielen, nicht nur nicht gleichgeschaltet, sondern zum Teil sogar desynchronisiert werden können.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary In Serratia marc. CV/rc3 and E. coli Harvard the frequency of spontaneous auxotrophic mutants of many different types is high enough (0,3 and 1%) in a culture for isolating many mutants by simple replica plating without selective enrichment. By platings from series of parallel cultures in complete medium the distribution of the frequencies of the different spontaneous mutation types (spontaneous “spectrum of auxotrophs”) was obtained. They are different in both organisms (Table). When cells of Serratia grown on minimal medium were incubated for $$1{\raise0.5ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 1$}\kern-0.1em/\kern-0.15em\lower0.25ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 2$}}$$ -2 generations in complete medium and then heated for $$7{\raise0.7ex\hbox{$1$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 2}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$2$}}$$ min at 52°C to a survival of 10-5 about 0,45% auxotrophic mutations are induced. The type spectrum was significantly different from the spontaneous one due to a relatively lower frequency of the types “met, cys”, “leu”, “poly”, and “val+ile” and a higher frequency of “arg” “hyx”, “thia” and perhaps “ad, hyx” (Table). When E. coli H. was treated in the same way, but at 58°C, to a survival of 10-5 no auxotrophic mutations were induced at all. It is concluded from the findings that heat agitation is very probably not the main cause of spontaneous mutations in E. coli H., and further that in Serratia either the same is true for several mutation types or that thermic agitation produces mutations not by a single mechanism (e.g. splitting of guanine from DNA) but by at least 3 reaction types with different Q 10.-From Serratia 3 new types of “jump-mutations” are isolated mutating forth and back spontaneously from one auxotrophic state to an other one (met⇄his; ad⇄β-ala; arg⇄met). In E. coli none was found.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei Serratia marc. CV/rc3 und bei E. coli Harvard ist die Häufigkeit spontaner Auxotrophiemutanten vieler verschiedener Typen hoch genug in einer Kultur (0,3 bzw. 1%), so daß große Zahlen von Mutanten ohne selektive Anreicherung durch bloßes Stempeln gewonnen werden können. Durch Ausplattungen aus Serien von Parallelkulturen in Komplettmedium wurde so die Häufigkeitsverteilung der verschiedenen Spontanmutantentypen (spontanes Spektrum der Auxotrophen) erhalten. Diese Spektren sind verschieden in beiden Organismen. Wenn auf Minimalagar gewachsene Zellen von Serratia zunächst für $$1{\raise0.5ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 1$}\kern-0.1em/\kern-0.15em\lower0.25ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 2$}}$$ -2 Generationen in Komplettmedium bebrütet und dann für $$7{\raise0.7ex\hbox{$1$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 2}}\right.\kern-\nulldelimiterspace}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$2$}}$$ min auf 52°C erwärmt wurden (Überlebensrate 10-5), so wurden 0,45% Auxotrophiemutationen induziert. Dies Typenspektrum war signifikant unterschieden vom spontanen, wofür die geringere Häufigkeit der Typen “met, cys”, “leu”, “poly” und “val+ile” sowie die größere von “arg”, “hyx”, “thia” und wahrscheinlich auch “ad, hyx” verantwortlich war. Wenn E. coli H. ebenso behandelt wurde, jedoch bei 58°C, wurden bei der Überlebensrate 10-5 gar keine Auxotrophiemutationen induziert. Es wird aus den Befunden geschlossen, daß Wärmebewegungen wahrscheinlich nicht die Hauptursache der Spontanmutabilität von E. coli H. ist und daß bei Serratia entweder dasselbe für wenigstens einige Mutationstypen gilt oder daß Wärmebewegung nicht durch einen einzigen Mechanismus (z. B. Guaninabspaltung aus DNS) Mutationen erzeugt, sondern durch mindestens drei mit verschiedenen Wärmekoeffizienten Q 10.-Bei Serratia wurden drei neue Typen “Sprungmutationen” isoliert, die spontan zwischen zwei verschiedenen Auxotrophien hin- und hermutieren (met⇄his; ad⇄β-ala; arg⇄met). Bei E. coli H. wurden keine gefunden.
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  • 32
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 299-305 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A stable respiration deficient (RD) mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cultured in two different nutrient media (Raut-Hebb-and glucose-peptone-yeast extract-medium respectively) was investigated. Under conditions of restricted proliferation at 23° C for 18–30 d in a part of the cells a reversal of the RD-state to the normal respiratory-sufficient state was achieved. A shortening of the reversal time to 11–13 d resulted when the temperature in the second medium was raised to 40° C. No differences were detectable between the normalized RD-cells and wild type cells. The factors leading to this phenomenon are still under investigation.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Reversion des Atmungsdefektes einer RD-Mutante von Saccharomyces cerevisiae zur voll atmungsfähigen Normalform wurde untersucht. Durch Kulturinzwei verschiedenen Vollmedien (Raut-Hebb-und Glucose-Pepton-Hefeextrakt-Medium) bei 23° C gelang es unter Einschränkung der Zellvermehrung innerhalb von 18–30 Tagen bei einigen RD-Zellen die volle Atmungsfähigkeit wieder herzustellen. Eine Erhöhung der Kulturtemperatur auf 40° C verkürzte in Medium 2 die Zeit bis zum Auftreten der ersten Normalzellen auf 11–13 Tage. Zwischen den normalisierten RD-Zellen und denen des unbehandelten Normalstammes konnten keine Unterschiede festgestellt werden. Die Faktoren, die zur Normalisierung führten, werden im einzelnen noch untersucht.
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  • 33
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 306-318 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Laccase of the wild strain of Podospora anserina was purified by subsequent treatment with protamine sulfate, precipitation with ammonium sulfate and column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and hydroxylapatite. The purity was confirmed by sedimentation and electrophoresis (molecular weight about 361 000, isoeletric point at pH 5.1). The blue-coloured pure laccase has its absorption-maxima at 280 and 605 mμ. The substrate specifity of the enzyme corresponds to results which have been earlier obtained with unpurified preparations (Esser 1963 b). Laccase is very temperature sensitive. It loses its activity after both freezing and heat treatment (half-life time at 60°C about 6 min). The Michaelis-constants as determined with Dopa, potassium ferrocyanide and catechol are in the range of 2 to 5·10-3 Mol/l. The appropriate value for ascorbic acid is about 10-2 less. The laccase contains about 12% carbohydrate and about 7,5% nitrogen. According to its copper content of 0.123% the laccase carries seven atoms of copper per molecule.
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  • 34
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 319-324 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The isolation of thermophilic fungi from peat is reported and their taxonomy is discussed. Mucor pusillus was frequently found in peat. Humicola was recorded for the first time as occurring in peat. The thermophilic strains were classified as H. insolens, H. stellatus, and H. lanuginosus respectively. Paecilomyces commonly occur in peat. Up to now only thermotolerant Pacecilomyces were reported. Our thermophilic strains resemble Paecilomyces in appearance, but after detailed examination may belong to the related genera Talaromyces or also Thermoascus. Because of its wide temperature range Aspergillus fumigatus was very frequently isolated under thermophilic conditions.
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  • 35
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    Archives of microbiology 48 (1964), S. 325-331 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The examination of a total of 98 yeast cultures collected from the buds, the open flowers and the host animals of 8 different species of plants and from the related soils of the vessels in a greenhouse, has demonstrated the presence of 13 different yeasts, including 3 sporogenous and 10 asporogenous species. The more frequent species were: Torulopsis bacillaris (Kr. et Krumbh.) Lodder (frequency 37.5%) and Candida reukaufii (Grüss) Diddens et Lodder (37.5%), on the open flowers. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (Jörg.) Harrison (37.5%), and Rhodotorula glutinis (Fres.) Harrison var. rubescens (Saito) Lodder (25%), on the bud flowers. Torulopsis bacillaris (Kr. et Krumbh.) Lodder (50%) on the animals. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Hansen (37.5%) and Pichia fermentans Lodder (37.5%), in the soils of the related vessels. The yeast like form Aureobasidium pullulans (De Bary) Arnaud, has 50% of frequency on the bud flowers and 12.5% on the open flowers.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The arsenic content has been analysed in millimeter sections of hairs shaved from Napoleon's scalp May 6th, 1821, the day after his death. It appeared that Napoleon was exposed to arsenic on at least 40 occasions between the summer of 1820 and April 1821. So were hairs cut in each of the years 1818, 1817 and 1816 analyzed in centimeter sections. The 1818 hairs disclosed that Napoleon was exposed to arsenic during some three months sometime between January, 1817, and March, 1818. The 1816 hairs showed particularly high concentrations of arsenic which must have been deposited before Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Inhalationstoxicität und das Verhalten von Methylisocyanat an der Haut werden tierexperimentell untersucht. Methylisocyanat verursacht noch in starken Verdünnungen bei Einatmung Lungenödem. Diese Verbindung besitzt in hohem Grade haut- und schleimhautschädigende Wirkungen. Über eine praktische Handhabung dieser Verbindung in Labor und Fabrik wird diskutiert. Eine Analysenmethode zur Bestimmung von Methylisocyanat in der Luft wird angegeben.
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  • 38
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 3 (1964), S. 455-461 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A study of enzymatic equipment of enterochromaffine cells (e.c.) in jenual biopsies obtained with a Crosby capsule in normal humans and patients with nontropical sprue was undertaken. The following enzymes were demonstrated: alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase (cell membrane), acid phosphatase (corpuscular), non-specific esterase (diffuse and corpuscular, predominantly eserine resistant, in corpuscular localization E 600 resistant), DPN- and TPN-diaphorases and dehydrogenases of lactic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, glucoso-6-phosphoric acid, succinic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid and α-glycerophosphoric acid. Enzyme activities were not equal in all cells suggesting some type of secretory cycle. In most patients with untreated nontropical sprue or with the disease in relapse e.c. were more numerous and hypertrophic with elevated activities of non-specific esterase and acid phosphatase. Implications of these results are briefly discussed.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. The conditions are described under which the fluorescence due to reduced pyridine nucleotides can be studied separately at nuclear and cytoplasmic sites of glass-grown ascites cells, by the use of a flow chamber in the microfluorimeter ofChance andLegallais. 2. The addition of glucose to ascites cells leads to a reduction of pyridine nucleotides within the nucleus, thus providing evidence for the participation of nuclear pyridine nucleotides in cellular metabolism. 3. Although generally nuclear and cytoplasmic pyridine nucleotides parallel each other in their response to different metabolic conditions, there are few instances (e.g., Amytal) where they do not show such parallelism. This is discussed with regard to the problem of reoxidation of nuclear reduced pyridine nucleotides.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fractionation experiments on fresh beef spleen homogenates have been performed with the aim to separate the LNA-splitting group of enzymes from the regular aminopeptidases and cathepsin C. The results indicate that the LNA-splitting enzymes are distinct from the LA-splitting aminopeptidases, and further that the group of LNA-splitting enzymes is heterogeneous with respect to the effect of added cysteine + EDTA.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Spektrophotometrische Untersuchungen verschiedener käuflicher deutscher Sudanschwarz B-Sorten zeigen gleiche Absorptionskurven mit zwei charakteristischen Maxima bei 415 und 595 nm. Die einzelnen Sudanschwarz B-Fabrikate stellen mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit gleiche oder zumindest sehr ähnliche Farbstoffgemische dar und sind somit untereinander vergleichbar. 2. In Anlehnung anBermes undMcDonald wird ein säulenchromatographisches Verfahren angegeben, um Fraktionen des käuflichen Sudanschwarz B für präparative Zwecke zu gewinnen. Auch können verschiedene Komponenten des Sudanschwarz B aufgrund verschiedener Löslichkeit isoliert werden. 3. Das Sudanschwarz B von Merck hat nicht nur ein gleiches Absorptions-spektrum, sondern auch säulenchromatographisch im Prinzip die gleiche Farbstoffskala wie Sudanschwarz B-Sorten amerikanischer Hersteller. Für präparative Untersuchungen lassen sich säulenchromatographisch eine orangefarbene und eine blaue, aufgrund verschiedener Löslichkeit besonders eine rote bzw, gelb-rote Fraktion isolieren. 4. Die einzelnen Fraktionen des Sudanschwarz B haben verschiedene Absorptionskurven mit charakteristischen Maxima, ihre Solvatochromie, einschließlich des Sudanschwarz B von Merck, ist sehr gering. Die blaue chromatographische Fraktion zeigt eine gute Übereinstimmung mit dem Spektrophotogramm des käuflichen Sudanschwarz B und stellt auch dessen Hauptfraktion dar. 5. Die isolierten Sudanschwarz B-Fraktionen zeigen im histologischen Schnitt bei üblicher Fettfärbung (Sudan-Standard-Methode) eine diffuse Anfärbung aller Strukturen mit verschiedener Nuancierung in ihrer Erscheinungsfarbe; es werden insbesondere Proteine und saure, weniger neutrale Mucopolysaccharide angefärbt. 6. Die fehlende Lipidspezifität der Sudanschwarz B-Fraktionen, vornehmlich der farbintensiven blauen Fraktion, ist mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit für die erhebliche Färbebreite und damit für die Fettunspezifität der Spezialfettfärbemethoden mit dem käuflichen Sudanschwarz B verantwortlich zu machen.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary T. vaginalis contains a high activity for DPN and TPN diaphorases, most of which are localized in cytoplasmic granules which may be mitochondria, and which sometimes show a perinuclear concentration. Occasionally a weak to strong cytoplasmic reaction and some activity in other organelles has been observed, and possible reasons for such reactions have been offered. DPN diaphorase preparations revealed the possibility of cyclic metabolic activity involving nucleo-cytoplasmic relationships, in which the nucleolus appears to play an important role. Aconitase and fumarase could be located only in some cytoplasmic granules of some individuals. The former also appeared along the nuclear membrane and the parabasal body. β-Glucuronidase showed a weak cytoplasmic reaction and a more intense reaction in the small cytoplasmic granules and in or around the nuclear membrane. Transglycosylase was present in very negligible amounts. Supported by FR-00165 from N.T.H.
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  • 43
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 3 (1964), S. 500-508 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wurde gezeigt, daß sich männliche und weibliche Rattennieren durch die Verteilung und die Intensität ihrer alkalischen Phosphataseaktivität unterscheiden. Nach Kastration und nachfolgender östradiolbehandlung nimmt die Niere männlicher Ratten eine für weibliche Tiere typische Verteilung an.
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  • 44
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    Notes: Conclusion Based on the simplified model of the cell nucleus it has been shown that ω (V) is Gaussian. It follows also from this model the independence ofX andV. A number of further reasons for independence ofX andV is shown too.
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  • 45
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We modified the histochemical method of cholinesterases at electron microscope level of Barrnett and studied the fine structural localization of these enzymes in the striatum, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Important results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The perfusion fixation of the brain with barbital acetate buffered formolsucrose-calcium followed by cutting into thin sections by the automicrochopper proved important to obtain the constant and uniform results in the histochemical demonstration of AChE at electron microscope level. However, inhibition studies of eserine and DFP upon thiolacetic hydrolysis appeared rather insufficient to exactly differentiate AChE from ChE. 2. AChE in the perikaryon of the nerve cells in the observed regions was demonstrated not only on the endoplasmic reticulum but also within the large vacuoles related to the Golgi apparatus. This finding was especially marked in the locus coeruleus. 3. The synaptic area especially in the striatum (marked cholinergic) showed 2 types of axo-dendritic synapses. The one exhibited the rather clear axoplasm with a few granular deposits and the apposed synaptic membranes, on which a moderate amount of granular deposits was demonstrated. The other type had rather dense axon terminals with contacting dendritic branches, both of which showed moderate numbers of reaction deposits. 4. In the hypothalamus, regarded as non-cholinergic or adrenergic, some axon terminals revealed small number of black deposits due to AChE in addition to the synaptic vesicles and catecholamine-containing granules.
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  • 46
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 4 (1964), S. 120-122 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The reaction of saturated and unsaturated oils and fatty acids was examined in vitro with the Baker's acid hematein test. It has been found that oils whose molecules contain fatty acid components of two or more double bonds give a positive reaction with the acid hematein technique. The intensity of the reaction runs parallel with the number of double bonds.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-119X
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    Notes: Zusammenfassung Vfn. empfiehlt die Einführung des Punktzählverfahrens als quantitative Methode in die Histochemie und zeigt Möglichkeiten für dessen Anwendung auf. Das Verfahren eignet sich sehr gut für solche histochemischen. Untersuchungen, bei denen mit Relativwerten gearbeitet werden kann, sowie zu vergleichenden Untersuchungen. Die an das Objekt zu stellenden und die von der Methode her bestimmten Voraussetzungen für die Anwendung des Punktzählverfahrens werden besprochen. An Hand eines Beispiels werden Anregungen zur variationsstatistischen Auswertung des gewonnenen Zahlenmaterials vermittelt.
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  • 48
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    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A correlative chemical and histochemical study on the leucyl-β-naphthyl-amide-splitting activity is presented. In the first part comparison is made between homogenates and smears of strain L cells and ELD ascites tumor cells. It was concluded that only the available enzyme activity could be visualized by histochemical means. The growing tumor cells appeared to have more activity available than the strain L cells. The intensity of the histochemical LNAse reaction bore no correlation to the total enzymatic activity extractable. Most of the available activity seemed to reside in lysosome-like structures. Cell damage by repeated freezing and thawing increased the amount of activity available to substrate interaction. In the second part a comparison is made between chemical and histochemical results in four types of progressively growing transplanted or induced mouse tumors. Chemical data showed the occurrence of a mixed pattern of LNA-splitting enzymes, among which the previously described metal-dependent group constituted the main component in the tumor cells. In all cases and types of tumors a positive histochemical LNAse reaction was noticed both in growing tumor cells as well as in different parts of the stromal compartment. The intracellular reaction in tumor cells seemed confined mainly to lysosomal-like bodies. A positive stromal reaction seemed associated with the destructive (cytolytic and collagenolytic) activity at the tumor periphery. The stromal LNAse reaction was probably due to enzymes partly different from the intracellular ones. Additional enzymatic terms, including a chymotrypsin-like and/or a carboxypeptidase activity, may originate from various host cells. These contributions may be greatly increased by accumulation of inflammatory host cells as previously noted by Hess and Mottet.
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  • 49
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    Notes: Zusammenfassung Mit einer 5×10−3molaren stabilen Emulsion von α-Naphthylacetat läßt sich die unspezifische Esterase in jeder Nervenzelle des Meerschweinchengehirns nachweisen. Sie ist mit Ausnahme weniger Kerngebiete vorwiegend im Perikaryon lokalisiert, die Zellfortsätze sind wesentlich geringer aktiv. Das differente Verhalten gegen verschiedene Inhibitoren und die völlig unterschiedlichen Verteilungsmuster beweisen, daß sich mit den angewandten histochemischen Methoden die unspezifische Esterase und die Acetylcholinesterase ohne wesentliche Überlagerung nebeneinander nachweisen lassen. Die Verteilungsunterschiede werden beschrieben. Der größte Teil der Esterase wird durch E 600 gehemmt und gehört deshalb zum Typ B. Nach vergleichender Untersuchung einer Reihe histochemisch nachweisbarer Enzyme wird ein Modell der Enzymverteilung im Zentralnervensystem zur Diskussion gestellt. In vielen dendritenreichen telencephalen Kerngebieten gibt es deutliche Aktivitätsunterschiede zwischen dem Perikaryon und den Zellfortsätzen. Während der größte Teil der am Energiestoffwechsel beteiligten Enzyme in der Masse der Zellfortsätze lokalisiert ist, sind die beiden Hydrolasen unspezifische Esterase und saure Phosphatase im Perikaryon konzentriert.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Schlußfolgerungen und Zusammenfassung Aus unseren Versuchen ergibt sich, daß die Dünnschichtchromatographie nach Stahlnicht nur mit Lösungen, sondern auch mit Gewebs- bzw. Zellkomponenten durchführbar ist. Die Stickstoff-Phosphor-Analysen der Phospholipoidfraktionen aus Mitochondrien, welche direkt nach der Ultrazentrifugierung auf die DC-Platte aufgetragen werden, stimmen mit denen von Mitochondrion — extrakt völlig überein (Curri, Rossi und Sartorelli1963). Dieses Ergebnis zeigt, daß während der Laufzeit in der Kammer die Lipoidstoffe aus den Mitochondrien völlig extrahiert werden. Dieses Verfahren ist auch mit kleinen Gewebsschnitten durchführbar: Es besteht die Möglichkeit einer „Histochromato-Graphie“. Die Anwendungsbreite der Methode auf histochemische Probleme, besonders im Gebiet der Fette und Lipoide, ist beträchtlich. Sie erlaubt auch feinere, qualitative und quantitative Analysen bestimmter Gewebsareale, was besonders, für Untersuchungen am ZNS bedeutsam ist.
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  • 51
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The reaction of alkaline kidney phosphatase in female rats is examined under varied conditions. 1. Testosterone in physiological dose does not essentially alter the intensity and the distribution of alkaline phosphatase. 2. On the other hand the intensity of enzyme activity is significantly diminished by ovarectomy. 3. This aftereffect of ovarectomy cannot be strengthened by supplying testosterone in addition. 4. Variations of intensity of acid phosphatase under the same conditions could not be observed. 5. The findings were discussed in connection with the results mentioned previously.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das Verhalten der alkalischen Nierenphosphatase wurde in histochemischen Reaktionen bei weiblichen Ratten unter verschiedenen experimentellen Bedingungen untersucht. 1. Testosterongaben in physiologischer Dosis verändern die Intensität und Verteilung der alkalischen Phosphatase nicht wesentlich. 2. Ovarektomie vermindert hingegen die Intensität der Fermentaktivität erheblich. 3. Dieser Effekt nach Ovarektomie kann durch zusätzliche Testosterongaben nicht mehr verstärkt werden. 4. Intensitätsveränderungen der sauren Phosphatase konnten unter den gleichen Bedingungen nicht festgestellt werden. 5. Die Ergebnisse wurden im Zusammenhang mit früher erhobenen Befunden diskutiert.
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  • 52
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  • 53
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    Notes: Summary The amount of absorbance in a number of Feulgen-stained chicken erythrocytes and bull spermatozoa was measured by two independent methods, namely photographic colorimetry and scanning cytophotometry. With both methods the amount of DNA was found to be highly constant in these objects. Both methods revealed a highly significant variation between nuclei of about 5 per cent. At this level however no correlation could be demonstrated, between the individual values obtained with the two methods. The DNA content of rat leukocytes measured by photographic colorimetry showed no appreciable deviation from those of liver and kidney cells. No change in the amount of DNA in mouse liver cells in cortisone-treated animals could be demonstrated. The results are in good agreement with a high constancy of the DNA content of cell nuclei.
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  • 54
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    Notes: Abstract Paraffin sections of tissues fixed in absolute alcohol or Carnoy's fluid were mordanted in a 1% aqueous solution of phosphomolybdic acid, stained in saturated solutions of Sudan black B, acetylated Sudan black, various solvent and basic dyes in 70% ethyl alcohol for 5 min at room temperature, dehydrated in alcohol and covered in Permount. Sudan black B and other dyes with basic groups stained basement membranes, reticulum and collagen fibers intensely. Acetylated Sudan black, Sudan IV and oil red 0 did not color any tissue structures. Control sections, without pretreatment, did not bind Sudan black B. These findings indicate interaction between basic groups of the dye and free acid groups of phosphomolybdic acid.
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  • 55
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    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The histochemically detectable monoamine oxidase activity in certain organs of young and old rats is compared. Regardless of age, the activity is strong in the liver, faint in the skeletal muscle, and absent in the kidney. In the myocardium, however, the quantity of monoamine oxidase increases strongly with age. Its activity is manifest in the form of granular and diffuse formazan precipitates; both disappear after a preliminary treatment of the animals with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This finding indicates that the diffuse as well as the previously identified granular precipitates represent monoamine oxidase.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-119X
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Phosphate liberating enzymes are demonstrated by a simultaneous heavy metal method whereby lead complexes are used. The advantages of using lead complexes are described: In the alkaline range one reaction stage can be left out in contrast to the Gomori method. In the neutral and acid range no disturbances occur through unspezific deposits despite relatively high concentrations of lead and organic phosphates. Instructions for the histochemical demonstration of six enzymes which liberate anorganic phosphate are given as examples and illustrated.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Phosphatfreisetzende Enzyme werden histochemisch nach einer Simultan-methode dargestellt, bei welcher Bleikomplexe verwendet werden. Die Vorteile der Verwendung von Bleikomplexen werden aufgeführt: Im alkalischen Bereich kann gegenüber den Gomori-Methoden ein Reaktionsschritt eingespart werden, im neutralen und sauren Bereich treten trotz relativ hoher Blei -und Organophosphatkonzentrationen keine Störungen durch unspezifische Niederschläge auf. Vorschriften zur histochemischen Darstellung von sechs phosphatfreisetzenden Enzymen werden als Beispiele aufgeführt und mit Abbildungen belegt.
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  • 57
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    Notes: Summary Alcian Blues are a family of polyvalent basic dyes, with at least two, and up to four isothiouronium groups per copper phthalocyanine ring. The isothiouronium group is a little more basic than ammonia but not so basic as caustic soda. Alcian Blues react with polyanions such as heparin, DNA and hyaluronate in aqueous solution, to give insoluble precipitates, in which the two reactants are bound electrostatically, in a “salt link”. The combination of model compounds containing isothiouronium groups with a range of biological polyanions showed that there was no unusual specificity in this combination.
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  • 58
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  • 59
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 60
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    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden zwei Methoden zum histochemischen Nachweis von Schwefelsäureestern mitgeteilt, die beide auf der Verwendung von Trypaflavin beruhen. Einmal wird der Farbstoff als einfaches Fluorochrom verwendet, die Schwefelsäureester sind dabei durch ihre orange-gelbe Fluoreszenzmetachromasie erkennbar (Methode I). Das andere Verfahren bietet die Möglichkeit, das bereits angelagerte Fluorochrom mit p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyd zu einem rot gefärbtem Komplex umzusetzen (Methode II). Färbungsvorgang, Spezifität und Haltbarkeit wurden näher untersucht. Anwendung zum Nachweis von Cerebrosidsch wefelsäureester-Ablagerungen, Mastzellengranula und, nach vorausgegangener Sulfatierung, zur elektiven Pilzdarstellung.
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  • 61
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  • 62
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cold microtome (cryostat) sections of cellular fractions prepared from a rat kidney homogenate were used for the histochemical demonstration of alkaline and acid phosphatases and of succinic dehydrogenase activities; then they were studied by light microscope. Some untreated sections and some of the acid phosphatase preparations were also examined by the electron microscope. The results are in agreement with the previous studies. The suggested method make it possible morphological and histochemical studies of an organ and of its fractions both by light and by electron microscope.
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  • 63
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Changes in liver enzymes of Weanling CDF1 mice inoculated with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV3) were studied by histochemical techniques for the demonstration of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and esterase. Marked changes were observed in the distribution of these enzymes 22 to 70 hours after infection. These included a generalized increase in peribiliary alkaline phosphatase together with a localized increase in acid phosphatase and a decrease in esterase associated with parenchymal damage and subsequent necrosis. Thus the effect of a virus infection upon a given tissue can be revealed and characterized by histochemical techniques.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The inconstant results and the aspecific reaction patterns obtained after use of the lead phosphate method for the demonstration of acid phosphatase cannot be attributed to destruction of the enzyme by acetone fixation and embedding in paraffin. The marked shrinking effect of pure acetone is partially avoided by fixation in 80% acetone at 0–4° C. The appearance of spotty gaps employing the lead phosphate method in non-deparaffinized sections is the result of the presence of by-products in the paraffin and not of an enzyme-inactivating action of the albumen-containing adhesive. Constant results in the localization of acid as well as of alkaline phosphatase can be obtained by pretreatment of non-deparaffinized sections with 80% acetone. Paraffin mixtures containing stearin and stearic acid are not suitable for this improved incubation technique. The conditions for the obtaining of reliable data as to the presence of non-specific acid phosphate activity are more favourable in non-deparaffinized sections of material fixed in cold acetone than in formaldehyde-fixed frozen sections. The effect of quantitative variations of the components of the substrate mixture on the result of the reaction is discussed. It has been clearly shown that the relative proportion of the concentrations of glycerophosphate ions and lead ions is of importance for optimal results. The distribution of non-specific acid phosphatase, histochemically demonstrable with the improved technique in a number of organs and tissues of the rabbit, rat and mouse is described.
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  • 65
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 3 (1964), S. 538-551 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Histochemical observations were made of oxidative and reducing enzymes in relation to several metabolic pathways in the developing tooth. The localization and activity of dehydrogenases and oxidases could be divided roughly into two types. Type one refers to enzymatic activities of lactic, succinic, malic and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and aconitase and cytochrome oxidase, which were low in undifferentiated dental epithelium and increased in proportion to cell differentiation. Comparatively high enzymatic activities were reflected in high cell function. Type two did not increase in the enzymatic activity during differentiation. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, TPN isocitric, 6-phosphogluconate, glutamic, α-glycerophosphate and β-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase belong to this type.
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  • 66
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  • 67
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    Notes: Summary 1. The changes in fluorescence due to reduced pyridine nucleotides were studied by microfluorimetry in the mitochondrial and extramitochondrial regions in glass-grown ascites cells during glycolysis, and in the presence of various substrates, using the flow chamber technique, which allows addition at will of drug and substrate. 2. At anaerobiosis in a drug and substrate free medium, maximum fluorescence was localized in the mitochondria. Aerobiosis resulted in a considerable decrease of fluorescence. 3. Upon addition of glucose aerobic cells showed a diffuse fluorescence extending to the extramitochondrial space. In cells pretreated with 20 mM sodium succinate the response to glucose was considerably more pronounced, and the cells exhibited a uniform and very strong blue fluorescence. However when treatment with succinate followed administration of glucose, the fluorescence was more comparable to that obtained with glucose alone. The succinate effect was not blocked by malonate and could not be simulated by fumarate. There was a slight decrease of the succinate effect with dicumarol, but this was not very reproducible. 4. Alternative interpretations for the succinate effect (in cells subsequently treated with glucose) are a physicochemical one which affects intracellular structure and permeability to glucose or a metabolic one which involves transfer of ATP from the mitochondria to the extramitochondrial space, where it stimulates glycolysis via the hexokinase reaction. The absence of response to inhibitors may be due to a paradoxical stimulation of glycolysis by damaging agents which can upset intracellular control mechanisms.
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  • 68
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    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The fine structural localization of ATPase activity and the conditions under which it can be demonstrated in myofibrils isolated from indirect flight muscles of the blowfly Phormia regina were studied, using either Pb++ or Ca++ as precipitating reagents. With both techniques, the deposition of reaction product indicating the hydrolysis of ATP was found in two separate parts of the sarcomere: in the A band and in the Z disc. The A band very often appeared to consist of a central region (frequently divided by the H zone) densely covered with precipitate, while narrow zones bordering the A/I junction contained significantly less particles. Sometimes the precipitated cristallites were found to be arranged in longitudinal rows which corresponded to the position of the thick filaments. Under no conditions was ATPase activity detected in the H zone. The Z disc is established as a specific place of ATP splitting in the sarcomere although it was not possible to demonstrate both myofibrillar ATPase activities independently from each other.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung An isolierten Myofibrillen aus den indirekten Flugmuskeln der Schmeißfliege Phormia regina wurde die Lokalisation der ATPase-Aktivität in der Feinstruktur sowie die Bedingungen, unter denen ihr Nachweis gelingt, untersucht. Die Fällung des freigesetzten Phosphats geschah dabei entweder direkt mit Pb++ oder aber zunächst mit Ca++ bei nachfolgender Umfällung in Bleiphosphat. Mit beiden Methoden konnte demonstriert werden, daß die Ablagerung des Reaktionsprodukts (und damit die Spaltung von ATP) in zwei verschiedenen Abschnitten der Sarcomere erfolgt: im A-Band und in der Z-Scheibe. Innerhalb des A-Bandes finden sich in der Regel Abschnitte mit unterschiedlicher Niederschlagsdichte. Während die — häufig von der H-Zone zerteilte — Zentralregion mit Präzipitat dicht bedeckt ist, enthalten die Endabschnitte an der Grenze zum I-Band deutlich weniger Partikel. Die Bleiphosphatkristallite sind nicht selten in longitudinalen Reihen angeordnet, die der Position der Primärfilamente entsprechen. In der H-Zone wurden niemals Anzeichen für eine Spaltung von ATP gefunden. Die ATPase-Aktivität der Z-Scheibe läßt sich regelmäßig und unter den verschiedensten Bedingungen demonstrieren. Sie muß deswegen als ein spezifisches Kennzeichen dieser Sarcomerenregion angesehen werden. Es gelang allerdings nicht, die Hydrolyse von ATP in der Z-Scheibe unabhängig von der im A-Band nachzuweisen und umgekehrt.
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  • 69
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 4 (1964), S. 209-212 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary By combing the indirect method of aldolase activity of Warburg and Christian, which consisted in the measurement of reduction of DPN in the presence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and arsenate, with nitro-BT reduction and we could obtain the much better method of demonstrating aldolase than that of Allen and Bourne. The optimal incubating mixture was composed of 1) 10 ml 0.02 M sodium fructose-1,6-diphosphate, 2) 5 mg DPN, 3) 10 mg nitro-BT, 4) 10 ml of 0.05 M arsenate-HCl buffer (pH 7.6). Fresh frozen section, which were fixed briefly in 80% cold ethanol, gave a better staining results. The distribution of aldolase of some organs of rat and the validity and limitation of the method were described.
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  • 70
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 4 (1964), S. 213-221 
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Sex differences of the alkaline phosphatase activity and of the unspezific esterase activity in the kidney of the mouse were demonstrated histochemically The differences are due both to the intensity and to the distribution of both enzymes. The simultaneously investigated acid phosphatase showed no significant sex differences. The alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities of the intestine were the same in both sexes.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Geschlechtsunterschiede der alkalischen Phosphatase und unspezifischen Esterase in der Niere der Maus wurden histochemisch dargestellt. Die Unterschiede betreffen sowohl die Intensität als auch die Verteilung der beiden Enzyme. Die gleichzeitig untersuchte saure Phosphataseaktivität wies keine erkennbaren Geschlechtsunterschiede auf. Auch die alkalische Dünndarmphosphatase und -esterase verhielt sich bei beiden Geschlechtern gleich. Auf analoge Verhältnisse bei anderen Wirbeltierarten wurde hingewiesen.
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  • 71
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    Histochemistry and cell biology 4 (1964), S. 197-208 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary As a prerequisite for the histochemical study of sequence iron-“hematoxylin” stains the iron alum-acidified hematein procedure was developed which does not require differentiation. Histochemical blocking and extraction procedures demonstrated that carboxyl and hydroxyl groups are essential for the binding of cationic iron. The iron alum-Prussian blue reaction colored collagen, reticulum fibers and basement membranes more intensely than muscle fibers. Treatment of tissue sections mordanted in iron alum with the acidified hematein solvent resulted in practically complete removal of iron from all tissue structures. It must therefore be concluded that the selective staining of muscle fibers, terminal bars and related structures with sequence iron-hematein stains is not due to high affinity of iron for these tissue components. Observations by R. and M. Heidenhain on sequence hematoxylin-potassium dichromate and hematoxylin-alum stains and data from modern textile chemistry indicate that the staining patterns obtained with metal-hematein sequence stains are determined by the affinity of the hematein moiety for certain tissue structures.
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  • 72
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    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Es wird die Verteilung des den Pentosephosphat-Cyclus einleitenden Fermentes Glukose-6-phosphat-Dehydrogenase in den verschiedenen Strukturen gesunder Organe beschrieben und nach Organsystemen gegliedert in Tabellenform wiedergegeben. 2. Die stärkste Enzymaktivität ist im Epithelgewebe, in den Drüsen mit innerer Sekretion und in Gliazellen des Nervensystems festzustellen. 3. Die Bedeutung des Pentosephosphat-Cyclus für die Bereitstellung von Ribose und TPNH-abhängiger Synthesen wird am Beispiel des enzymaktiven Epithelgewebes und der ebenfalls fermentaktiven Drüsen mit innerer Sekretion besprochen.
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  • 73
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    Notes: Zusammenfassung Anhand umfangreicher Untersuchungen wird gezeigt, in welchem Maße die Ergebnisse des histochemischen Nachweises der Phosphatasen von der Methode abhängig sind. Es wird weiterhin auf die unterschiedliche Wirkung von SH-Gruppen-Hemmstoffen auf die Phosphatasen in vivo und in vitro eingegangen. Abschließend wird als Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen eine Methode empfohlen, die es erlaubt, die ATP-ase, AMP-ase und GP-ase histochemisch optimal darzustellen und gleichzeitig auch die Wirkung verschiedenartiger Substanzen auf die Phosphatasen am Schnitt zu prüfen.
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  • 74
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