Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Proceed order?

Export
Filter
  • Annual Reviews  (20,850)
Collection
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-01-12
    Description: The recent shift from psychopathology to resilience and from diagnosis to functioning requires the construction of transdiagnostic markers of adaptation. This review describes a model of resilience that is based on the neurobiology of affiliation and the initial condition of mammals that mature in the context of the mother's body and social behavior. The model proposes three tenets of resilience—plasticity, sociality, and meaning—and argues that coordinated social behavior stands at the core sustaining resilience. Two lines in the maturation of coordinated social behavior are charted, across animal evolution and throughout human development, culminating in the mature human reciprocity of empathy, mutuality, and perspective-taking. Cumulative evidence across ages and clinical conditions and based on our behavioral coding system demonstrates that social reciprocity, defined by plasticity at the individual, dyadic, and group levels, denotes resilience, whereas the two poles of disengagement/avoidance and intrusion/rigidity characterize specific psychopathologies, each with a distinct behavioral signature. Attention to developmentally sensitive markers and to the dimension of meaning in human sociality may open new, behavior-based pathways to resilience. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Volume 17 is May 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-01-12
    Description: Charles Darwin recognized that carnivorous plants thrive in nutrient-poor soil by capturing animals. Although the concept of botanical carnivory has been known for nearly 150 years, its molecular mechanisms and evolutionary origins have not been well understood until recently. In the last decade, technical advances have fueled the genome and transcriptome sequencings of active and passive hunters, leading to a better understanding of the traits associated with the carnivorous syndrome, from trap leaf development and prey digestion to nutrient absorption, exemplified by the Venus flytrap ( Dionaea muscipula), pitcher plant ( Cephalotus follicularis), and bladderwort ( Utricularia gibba). The repurposing of defense-related genes is an important trend in the evolution of plant carnivory. In this review, using the Venus flytrap as a representative of the carnivorous plants, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying their ability to attract, trap, and digest prey and discuss the origins of plant carnivory in relation to their genomic evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 72 is May 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1543-5008
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2123
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Codon usage bias, the preference for certain synonymous codons, is found in all genomes. Although synonymous mutations were previously thought to be silent, a large body of evidence has demonstrated that codon usage can play major roles in determining gene expression levels and protein structures. Codon usage influences translation elongation speed and regulates translation efficiency and accuracy. Adaptation of codon usage to tRNA expression determines the proteome landscape. In addition, codon usage biases result in nonuniform ribosome decoding rates on mRNAs, which in turn influence the cotranslational protein folding process that is critical for protein function in diverse biological processes. Conserved genome-wide correlations have also been found between codon usage and protein structures. Furthermore, codon usage is a major determinant of mRNA levels through translation-dependent effects on mRNA decay and translation-independent effects on transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. Here, we discuss the multifaceted roles and mechanisms of codon usage in different gene regulatory processes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: We review the emerging method of super-resolved cryogenic correlative light and electron microscopy (srCryoCLEM). Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy and cryogenic electron tomography (CET) are both powerful techniques for observing subcellular organization, but each approach has unique limitations. The combination of the two brings the single-molecule sensitivity and specificity of SR to the detailed cellular context and molecular scale resolution of CET. The resulting correlative data is more informative than the sum of its parts. The correlative images can be used to pinpoint the positions of fluorescently labeled proteins in the high-resolution context of CET with nanometer-scale precision and/or to identify proteins in electron-dense structures. The execution of srCryoCLEM is challenging and the approach is best described as a method that is still in its infancy with numerous technical challenges. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art srCryoCLEM experiments, discuss the most pressing challenges, and give a brief outlook on future applications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Volume 72 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Nearly all animal cells contain proteins evolved to trigger the destruction of the cell in which they reside. The activation of these proteins occurs via sequential programs, and much effort has been expended in delineating the molecular mechanisms underlying the resulting processes of programmed cell death (PCD). These efforts have led to the definition of apoptosis as a form of nonimmunogenic PCD that is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, and of pyroptosis and necroptosis as forms of PCD initiated by pathogen infection that are associated with inflammation and immune activation. While this paradigm has served the field well, numerous recent studies have highlighted cross-talk between these programs, challenging the idea that apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis are linear pathways with defined immunological outputs. Here, we discuss the emerging idea of cell death as a signaling network, considering connections between cell death pathways both as we observe them now and in their evolutionary origins. We also discuss the engagement and subversion of cell death pathways by pathogens, as well as the key immunological outcomes of these processes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 39 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0732-0582
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-3278
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic aminopolysaccharide. This review summarizes and discusses the structural modifications, including substitution, grafting copolymerization, cross-linking, and hydrolysis, utilized to improve the physicochemical properties and enhance the bioactivity and functionality of chitosan and related materials. This manuscript also reviews the current progress and potential of chitosan and its derivatives in body-weight management and antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory activities as well as their ability to interact with gut microbiota. In addition, the potential of chitosan and its derivatives as functional ingredients in food systems, such as film and coating materials, and delivery systems is discussed. This manuscript aims to provide up-to-date information to stimulate future discussion and research to promote the value-added utilization of chitosan in improving the safety, quality, nutritional value and health benefits, and sustainability of our food system while reducing the environmental hazards. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Volume 12 is March 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful, label-free technique that provides detailed maps of hundreds of molecules in complex samples with high sensitivity and subcellular spatial resolution. Accurate quantification in MSI relies on a detailed understanding of matrix effects associated with the ionization process along with evaluation of the extraction efficiency and mass-dependent ion losses occurring in the analysis step. We present a critical summary of approaches developed for quantitative MSI of metabolites, lipids, and proteins in biological tissues and discuss their current and future applications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Volume 72 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: In this review, we discuss the recent developments and applications of vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) microscopy. This hyperspectral imaging technique can resolve systems without inversion symmetry, such as surfaces, interfaces and noncentrosymmetric self-assembled materials, in the spatial, temporal, and spectral domains. We discuss two common VSFG microscopy geometries: wide-field and confocal point-scanning. We then introduce the principle of VSFG and the relationships between hyperspectral imaging with traditional spectroscopy, microscopy, and time-resolved measurements. We further highlight crucial applications of VSFG microscopy in self-assembled monolayers, cellulose in plants, collagen fibers, and lattice self-assembled biomimetic materials. In these systems, VSFG microscopy reveals relationships between physical properties that would otherwise be hidden without being spectrally, spatially, and temporally resolved. Lastly, we discuss the recent development of ultrafast transient VSFG microscopy, which can spatially measure the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of self-assembled materials. The review ends with an outlook on the technical challenges of and scientific potential for VSFG microscopy. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Volume 72 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Located at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] comprises only 1–2 mol% of total PM lipids. With its synthesis and turnover both spatially and temporally regulated, PI(4,5)P2 recruits and interacts with hundreds of cellular proteins to support a broad spectrum of cellular functions. Several factors contribute to the versatile and dynamic distribution of PI(4,5)P2 in membranes. Physiological multivalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ can bridge between PI(4,5)P2 headgroups, forming nanoscopic PI(4,5)P2–cation clusters. The distinct lipid environment surrounding PI(4,5)P2 affects the degree of PI(4,5)P2 clustering. In addition, diverse cellular proteins interacting with PI(4,5)P2 can further regulate PI(4,5)P2 lateral distribution and accessibility. This review summarizes the current understanding of PI(4,5)P2 behavior in both cells and model membranes, with emphasis on both multivalent cation– and protein-induced PI(4,5)P2 clustering. Understanding the nature of spatially separated pools of PI(4,5)P2 is fundamental to cell biology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) consist of complex mixtures of straight-chain alkanes and alkenes, and methyl-branched hydrocarbons. In addition to restricting water loss through the cuticle and preventing desiccation, they have secondarily evolved to serve a variety of functions in chemical communication and play critical roles as signals mediating the life histories of insects. In this review, we describe the physical properties of CHCs that allow for both waterproofing and signaling functions, summarize their roles as inter- and intraspecific chemical signals, and discuss the influences of diet and environment on CHC profiles. We also present advances in our understanding of hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Hydrocarbons are biosynthesized in oenocytes and transported to the cuticle by lipophorin proteins. Recent work on the synthesis of fatty acids and their ultimate reductive decarbonylation to hydrocarbons has taken advantage of powerful new tools of molecular biology, including genomics and RNA interference knockdown of specific genes, to provide new insights into the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: In the past 25 years, studies on interactions between chewing lice and their bird hosts have increased notably. This body of work reveals that sampling of live avian hosts, collection of the lice, and the aggregated distributions of louse infestations pose challenges for assessing louse populations. The number of lice on a bird varies among host taxa, often with host size and social system. Host preening behavior limits louse abundance, depending on bill shape. The small communities of lice (typically one–four species) that live on individual birds show species-specific patterns of abundance, with consistently common and rare species, and lower year-to-year population variability than other groups of insects. Most species of lice appear to breed continuously on their hosts, with seasonal patterns of abundance sometimes related to host reproduction and molting. Competition may have led to spatial partitioning of the host by louse species, but seldom contributes to current patterns of abundance.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Ticks exist on all continents and carry more zoonotic pathogens than any other type of vector. Ticks spend most of their lives in the external environment away from the host and are thus expected to be affected by changes in climate. Most empirical and theoretical studies demonstrate or predict range shifts or increases in ticks and tick-borne diseases, but there can be a lot of heterogeneity in such predictions. Tick-borne disease systems are complex, and determining whether changes are due to climate change or other drivers can be difficult. Modeling studies can help tease apart and understand the roles of different drivers of change. Predictive models can also be invaluable in projecting changes according to different climate change scenarios. However, validating these models remains challenging, and estimating uncertainty in predictions is essential. Another focus for future research should be assessing the resilience of ticks and tick-borne pathogens to climate change.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2021-01-11
    Description: With accelerating climate change, US coastal communities are experiencing increased flood risk intensity, resulting from accelerated sea level rise and stronger storms. These conditions place pressure on municipalities and local residents to consider a range of new disaster risk reduction programs, climate resilience initiatives, and in some cases transformative adaptation strategies (e.g., managed retreat and relocation from highly vulnerable, low-elevation locations). Researchers have increasingly understood that these climate risks and adaptation actions have significant impacts on the quality of life, well-being, and mental health of urban coastal residents. We explore these relationships and define conditions under which adaptation practices will affect communities and residents. Specifically, we assess climate and environmental stressors, community change, and well-being by utilizing the growing climate change literature and the parallel social science literature on risk and hazards, environmental psychology, and urban geography work, heretofore not widely integrated into work on climate adaptation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 42 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0163-7525
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2093
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: How cells muster a network of interlinking signaling pathways to faithfully convert diverse external cues to specific functional outcomes remains a central question in biology. Through their ability to convert dynamic biochemical activities to rapid and precise optical readouts, genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors have become instrumental in unraveling the molecular logic controlling the specificity of intracellular signaling. In this review, we discuss how the use of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors to visualize dynamic signaling events within their native cellular context is elucidating the different strategies employed by cells to organize signaling activities into discrete compartments, or signaling microdomains, to ensure functional specificity.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2021-01-04
    Description: Food digestion may be regarded as a physiological interface between food and health. During digestion, the food matrix is broken down and the component nutrients and bioactive compounds are absorbed through a synergy of mechanical, chemical, and biochemical processes. The food matrix modulates the extent and kinetics to which nutrients and bioactive compounds make themselves available for absorption, hence regulating their concentration profile in the blood and their utilization in peripheral tissues. In this review, we discuss the structural and compositional aspects of food that modulate macronutrient digestibility in each step of digestion. We also discuss in silico modeling approaches to describe the effect of the food matrix on macronutrient digestion. The detailed knowledge of how the food matrix is digested can provide a mechanistic basis to elucidate the complex effect of food on human health and design food with improved functionality. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Volume 12 is March 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2021-01-04
    Description: Approximately 75% of farmworkers in the United States are Latino migrants, and about 50% of hired farmworkers do not have authorization to work in the United States. Farmworkers face numerous chemical, physical, and biological threats to their health. The adverse effects of these hazards may be amplified among Latino migrant farmworkers, who are concurrently exposed to various psychosocial stressors. Factors such as documentation status, potential lack of authorization to work in the United States, and language and cultural barriers may also prevent Latino migrants from accessing federal aid, legal assistance, and health programs. These environmental, occupational, and social hazards may further exacerbate existing health disparities among US Latinos. This population is also likely to be disproportionately impacted by emerging threats, including climate change and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Latino migrant farmworkers are essential to agriculture in the United States, and actions are needed to protect this vulnerable population. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 42 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0163-7525
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2093
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2021-01-04
    Description: As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has continued to increase rapidly in recent years, dietary approaches to regulating glucose homeostasis have gained more attention. Starch is the major source of glucose in the human diet and can have diverse effects, depending on its rate and extent of digestion in the small intestine, on postprandial glycemic response, which over time is associated with blood glucose abnormalities, insulin sensitivity, and even appetitive response and food intake. The classification of starch bioavailability into rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch highlights the nutritional values of different starches. As starch is the main structure-building macroconstituent of foods, its bioavailability can be manipulated by selection of food matrices with varying degrees of susceptibility to amylolysis and food processing to retain or develop new matrices. In this review, the food factors that may modulate starch bioavailability, with a focus on food matrices, are assessed for a better understanding of their potential contribution to human health. Aspects affecting starch nutritional properties as well as production strategies for healthy foods are also reviewed, e.g., starch characteristics (different type, structure, and modification), food physical properties (food form, viscosity, and integrity), food matrix interactions (lipid, protein, nonstarch polysaccharide, phytochemicals, organic acid, and enzyme inhibitor), and food processing (milling, cooking, and storage). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Volume 12 is March 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2021-01-04
    Description: Michael M. Goodin, a distinguished plant virologist who was a Professor of Plant Pathology at the University of Kentucky, passed away on December 12, 2020, in Lexington, Kentucky, at the age of 53. Michael was born in Jamaica. He was an undergraduate at Brock University in Canada, where he received degrees in both Biology and Chemistry in 1989. He then moved to Pennsylvania State University, where he trained with C. P. Romaine and received MS and PhD degrees in Plant Pathology. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Andy Jackson at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1996 to 2002 and then joined the faculty in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Kentucky in 2002. His strong research record, outstanding work as an educator, and dedication to university, professional scientific, and community service led to his advancement to Professor in 2017. Michael was known throughout the virology community as a passionate scientist who believed in the power of research and education to change the world, as well as a kind, engaged, energetic, and highly interactive colleague. He will be profoundly missed.
    Print ISSN: 2327-056X
    Electronic ISSN: 2327-0578
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: New forms of protein are being developed at a rapid rate as older forms of protein, particularly meat and poultry, are coming under attack for nutritional, environmental, food safety, and animal welfare issues. To date, the FDA and USDA have split oversight of the new technologies that include genetic engineering and precision fermentation. Because these new products address the problems associated with traditional proteins, consumer demand appears to be overcoming fundamental fears associated with innovative foods. Currently, agencies are struggling with naming issues for the new proteins and, in some cases, possibly being forced to use costly and lengthy premarket approvals. Because of the complexity of new production methods, the speed of development, and the potential benefits, a new system of regulation may be necessary. It would consist of one of the existing agencies becoming a super regulator overseeing private companies that specialize and compete with each other and are regulated quickly and competently. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Volume 12 is March 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced morbidity and mortality for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Individual tailoring of antiretroviral regimens has the potential to further improve the long-term management of HIV through the mitigation of treatment failure and drug-induced toxicities. While the mechanisms underlying anti-HIV drug adverse outcomes are multifactorial, the application of drug-specific pharmacogenomic knowledge is required in order to move toward the personalization of HIV therapy. Thus, detailed understanding of the metabolism and transport of antiretrovirals and the influence of genetics on these pathways is important. To this end, this review provides an up-to-date overview of the metabolism of anti-HIV therapeutics and the impact of genetic variation in drug metabolism and transport on the treatment of HIV. Future perspectives on and current challenges in pursuing personalized HIV treatment are also discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Tuberculosis (TB) kills more people than any other infectious disease. Challenges for developing better treatments include the complex pathology due to within-host immune dynamics, interpatient variability in disease severity and drug pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD), and the growing emergence of resistance. Model-informed drug development using quantitative and translational pharmacology has become increasingly recognized as a method capable of drug prioritization and regimen optimization to efficiently progress compounds through TB drug development phases. In this review, we examine translational models and tools, including plasma PK scaling, site-of-disease lesion PK, host-immune and bacteria interplay, combination PK-PD models of multidrug regimens, resistance formation, and integration of data across nonclinical and clinical phases.We propose a workflow that integrates these tools with computational platforms to identify drug combinations that have the potential to accelerate sterilization, reduce relapse rates, and limit the emergence of resistance.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Oral vaccination enables pain-free and self-administrable vaccine delivery for rapid mass vaccination during pandemic outbreaks. Furthermore, it elicits systemic and mucosal immune responses. This protects against infection at mucosal surfaces, which may further enhance protection and minimize the spread of disease. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents a number of prospective mucosal inductive sites for vaccine targeting, including the oral cavity, stomach, and small intestine. However, currently available oral vaccines are effectively limited to live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines against enteric diseases. The GI tract poses a number of challenges,including degradative processes that digest biologics and mucosal barriers that limit their absorption. This review summarizes the approaches currently under development and future opportunities for oral vaccine delivery to established (intestinal) and relatively new (oral cavity, stomach) mucosal targets. Special consideration is given to recent advances in oral biologic delivery that offer promise as future platforms for the administration of oral vaccines.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Microbes in marine sediments represent a large portion of the biosphere, and resolving their ecology is crucial for understanding global ocean processes. Single-gene diversity surveys have revealed several uncultured lineages that are widespread in ocean sediments and whose ecological roles are unknown, and advancements in the computational analysis of increasingly large genomic data sets have made it possible to reconstruct individual genomes from complex microbial communities. Using these metagenomic approaches to characterize sediments is transforming our view of microbial communities on the ocean floor and the biodiversity of the planet. In recent years, marine sediments have been a prominent source of new lineages in the tree of life. The incorporation of these lineages into existing phylogenies has revealed that many belong to distinct phyla, including archaeal phyla that are advancing our understanding of the origins of cellular complexity and eukaryotes. Detailed comparisons of the metabolic potentials of these new lineages have made it clear that uncultured bacteria and archaea are capable of mediating key previously undescribed steps in carbon and nutrient cycling.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: The Risk Assessment Committee of the European Chemicals Agency issued an opinion on classifying titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a suspected human carcinogen upon inhalation. Recent animal studies indicate that TiO2 may be carcinogenic through the oral route. There is considerable uncertainty on the carcinogenicity of TiO2, which may be decreased if its mechanism of action becomes clearer. Here we consider adverse outcome pathways and present the available information on each of the key events (KEs). Inhalation exposure to TiO2 can induce lung tumors in rats via a mechanism that is also applicable to other poorly soluble, low-toxicity particles. To reduce uncertainties regarding human relevance, we recommend gathering information on earlier KEs such as oxidative stress in humans. For oral exposure, insufficient information is available to conclude whether TiO2 can induce intestinal tumors. An oral carcinogenicity study with well-characterized (food-grade) TiO2 is needed, including an assessment of toxicokinetics and early KEs.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced ubiquitously across the tree of life. Far from being synonymous with toxicity and harm, biological ROS production is increasingly recognized for its essential functions in signaling, growth, biological interactions, and physiochemical defense systems in a diversity of organisms, spanning microbes to mammals. Part of this shift in thinking can be attributed to the wide phylogenetic distribution of specialized mechanisms for ROS production, such as NADPH oxidases, which decouple intracellular and extracellular ROS pools by directly catalyzing the reduction of oxygen in the surrounding aqueous environment. Furthermore, biological ROS production contributes substantially to natural fluxes of ROS in the ocean, thereby influencing the fate of carbon, metals, oxygen, and climate-relevant gases. Here, we review the taxonomic diversity, mechanisms, and roles of extracellular ROS production in marine bacteria, phytoplankton, seaweeds, and corals, highlighting the ecological and biogeochemical influences of this fundamental and remarkably widespread process.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Monitoring Earth's energy imbalance requires monitoring changes in the heat content of the ocean. Recent observational estimates indicate that ocean heat uptake is accelerating in the twenty-first century. Examination of estimates of ocean heat uptake over the industrial era, the Common Era of the last 2,000 years, and the period since the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,000 years ago, permits a wide perspective on modern-day warming rates. In addition, this longer-term focus illustrates how the dynamics of the deep ocean and the cryosphere were active in the past and are still active today. The large climatic shifts that started with the melting of the great ice sheets have involved significant ocean heat uptake that was sustained over centuries and millennia, and modern-ocean heat content changes are small by comparison.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: The interaction of coral reefs, both chemically and physically, with the surrounding seawater is governed, at the smallest scales, by turbulence. Here, we review recent progress in understanding turbulence in the unique setting of coral reefs—how it influences flow and the exchange of mass and momentum both above and within the complex geometry of coral reef canopies. Flow above reefs diverges from canonical rough boundary layers due to their large and highly heterogeneous roughness and the influence of surface waves. Within coral canopies, turbulence is dominated by large coherent structures that transport momentum both into and away from the canopy, but it is also generated at smaller scales as flow is forced to move around branches or blades, creating wakes. Future work interpreting reef-related observations or numerical models should carefully consider the influence that spatial variation has on momentum and scalar flux.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, [Formula: see text]) m, and the turbulence, [Formula: see text]) m, and the fact that turbulence that leads to thermodynamically irreversible mixing in high-Reynolds-number geophysical flows varies by at least eight orders of magnitude in both space and time. In many cases, it is difficult to separate the dependencies because measurements are sparse, also in both space and time. Comprehensive shipboard turbulence profiling experiments supplemented by Doppler sonar current measurements provide detailed observations of the evolution of the vertical structure of upper-ocean turbulence on timescales of minutes to weeks. Recent technical developments now permit measurements of turbulence in the ocean, at least at a few locations, for extended periods. This review summarizes recent and classic results in the context of our expanding knowledge of the temporal variability of ocean mixing, beginning with a discussion of the timescales of the turbulence itself (seconds to minutes) and how turbulence-enhanced mixing varies over hours, days, tidal cycles, monsoons, seasons, and El Niño–Southern Oscillation timescales (years).
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Jellyfish have provided insight into important components of animal propulsion, such as suction thrust, passive energy recapture, vortex wall effects, and the rotational mechanics of turning. These traits are critically important to jellyfish because they must propel themselves despite severe limitations on force production imposed by rudimentary cnidarian muscular structures. Consequently, jellyfish swimming can occur only by careful orchestration of fluid interactions. Yet these mechanics may be more broadly instructive because they also characterize processes shared with other animal swimmers, whose structural and neurological complexity can obscure these interactions. In comparison with other animal models, the structural simplicity, comparative energetic efficiency, and ease of use in laboratory experimentation allow jellyfish to serve as favorable test subjects for exploration of the hydrodynamic bases of animal propulsion. These same attributes also make jellyfish valuable models for insight into biomimetic or bioinspired engineeringof swimming vehicles. Here, we review advances in understanding of propulsive mechanics derived from jellyfish models as a pathway toward the application of animal mechanics to vehicle designs.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: While the ocean has suffered many losses, there is increasing evidence that important progress is being made in marine conservation. Examples include striking recoveries of once-threatened species, increasing rates of protection of marine habitats, more sustainably managed fisheries and aquaculture, reductions in some forms of pollution, accelerating restoration of degraded habitats, and use of the ocean and its habitats to sequester carbon and provide clean energy. Many of these achievements have multiple benefits, including improved human well-being. Moreover, better understanding of how to implement conservation strategies effectively, new technologies and databases, increased integration of the natural and social sciences, and use of indigenous knowledge promise continued progress. Enormous challenges remain, and there is no single solution; successful efforts typically are neither quick nor cheap and require trust and collaboration. Nevertheless, a greater focus on solutions and successes will help them to become the norm rather than the exception.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Ecological research conducted over the past five decades has shown that increasing tree species richness at forest stands can improve tree resistance to insect pest damage. However, the commonality of this finding is still under debate. In this review, we provide a quantitative assessment (i.e., a meta-analysis) of tree diversity effects on insect herbivory and discuss plausible mechanisms underlying the observed patterns. We provide recommendations and working hypotheses that can serve to lay the groundwork for research to come. Based on more than 600 study cases, our quantitative review indicates that insect herbivory was, on average, lower in mixed forest stands than in pure stands, but these diversity effects were contingent on herbivore diet breadth and tree species composition. In particular, tree species diversity mainly reduced damage of specialist insect herbivores in mixed stands with phylogenetically distant tree species. Overall, our findings provide essential guidance for forest pest management.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: All organisms are exposed to changes in their environment throughout their life cycle. When confronted with these changes, they adjust their development and physiology to ensure that they can produce the functional structures necessary for survival and reproduction. While some traits are remarkably invariant, or robust, across environmental conditions, others show high degrees of variation, known as plasticity. Generally, developmental processes that establish cell identity are thought to be robust to environmental perturbation, while those relating to body and organ growth show greater degrees of plasticity. However, examples of plastic patterning and robust organ growth demonstrate that this is not a hard-and-fast rule.In this review, we explore how the developmental context and the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying trait formation determine the impacts of the environment on development in insects. Furthermore, we outline future issues that need to be resolved to understand how the structure of signaling networks defines whether a trait displays plasticity or robustness.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-01-01
    Description: The dissolution of CaCO3 minerals in the ocean is a fundamental part of the marine alkalinity and carbon cycles. While there have been decades of work aimed at deriving the relationship between dissolution rate and mineral saturation state (a so-called rate law), no real consensus has been reached. There are disagreements between laboratory- and field-based studies and differences in rates for inorganic and biogenic materials. Rates based on measurements on suspended particles do not always agree with rates inferred from measurements made near the sediment–water interface of the actual ocean. By contrast, the freshwater dissolution rate of calcite has been well described by bulk rate measurements from a number of different laboratories, fit by basic kinetic theory, and well studied by atomic force microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry to document the processes at the atomic scale. In this review, we try to better unify our understanding of carbonate dissolution in the ocean via a relatively new, highly sensitive method we have developed combined with a theoretical framework guided by the success of the freshwater studies. We show that empirical curve fits of seawater data as a function of saturation state do not agree, largely because the curvature is itself a function of the thermodynamics. Instead, we show that models that consider both surface energetic theory and the complicated speciation of seawater and calcite surfaces in seawater are able to explain most of the most recent data.This new framework can also explain features of the historical data that have not been previously explained. The existence of a kink in the relationship between rate and saturation state, reflecting a change in dissolution mechanism, may be playing an important role in accelerating CaCO3 dissolution in key sedimentary environments.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Sediment transfer from land to ocean begins in coastal settings and, for large rivers such as the Amazon, has dramatic impacts over thousands of kilometers covering diverse environmental conditions. In the relatively natural Amazon tidal river, combinations of fluvial and marine processes transition toward the ocean, affecting the transport and accumulation of sediment in floodplains and tributary mouths. The enormous discharge of Amazon fresh water causes estuarine processes to occur on the continental shelf, where much sediment accumulation creates a large clinoform structure and where additional sediment accumulates along its shoreward boundary in tidal flats and mangrove forests. Some remaining Amazon sediment is transported beyond the region near the river mouth, and fluvial forces on it diminish. Numerous perturbations to Amazon sediment transport and accumulation occur naturally, but human actions will likely dominate future change, and now is the time to document, understand, and mitigate their impacts.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-01-01
    Description: My career spanned the revolution in understanding of the large-scale fluid ocean, as modern electronics produced vast new capabilities. I started in the days of almost purely mechanical instruments operated by seagoing scientists, ones not so different from those used more than a century earlier. Elegant theories existed of hypothetical steady-state oceans. Today, we understand that the ocean is a highly turbulent fluid, interacting over global scales, and it is now studied by large teams using spacecraft and diverse sets of self-contained in situ instrumentation. Mine was an accidental career: I was lucky to be in the right place at the right time.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Spiders (Araneae) make up a remarkably diverse lineage of predators that have successfully colonized most terrestrial ecosystems. All spiders produce silk, and many species use it to build capture webs with an extraordinary diversity of forms. Spider diversity is distributed in a highly uneven fashion across lineages. This strong imbalance in species richness has led to several causal hypotheses, such as codiversification with insects, key innovations in silk structure and web architecture, and loss of foraging webs. Recent advances in spider phylogenetics have allowed testing of some of these hypotheses, but results are often contradictory, highlighting the need to consider additional drivers of spider diversification. The spatial and historical patterns of diversity and diversification remain contentious. Comparative analyses of spider diversification will advance only if we continue to make progress with studies of species diversity, distribution, and phenotypic traits, together with finer-scale phylogenies and genomic data.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Distant and predictable features in the environment make ideal compass cues to allow movement along a straight path. Ball-rolling dung beetles use a wide range of different signals in the day or night sky to steer themselves along a fixed bearing. These include the sun, the Milky Way, and the polarization pattern generated by the moon. Almost two decades of research into these remarkable creatures have shown that the dung beetle's compass is flexible and readily adapts to the cues available in its current surroundings. In the morning and afternoon, dung beetles use the sun to orient, but at midday, they prefer to use the wind, and at night or in a forest, they rely primarily on polarized skylight to maintain straight paths. We are just starting to understand the neuronal substrate underlying the dung beetle's compass and the mystery of why these beetles start each journey with a dance.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest, longest-lasting, and deepest oil accident to date in US waters. As oil and natural gas jetted from release points at 1,500-m depth in the northern Gulf of Mexico, entrainment of the surrounding ocean water into a buoyant plume, rich in soluble hydrocarbons and dispersed microdroplets of oil, created a deep (1,000-m) intrusion layer. Larger droplets of liquid oil rose to the surface, forming a slick of mostly insoluble, hydrocarbon-type compounds. A variety of physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms helped to transform, remove, and redisperse the oil and gas that was released. Biodegradation removed up to 60% of the oil in the intrusion layer but was less efficient in the surface slick, due to nutrient limitation. Photochemical processes altered up to 50% (by mass) of the floating oil. The surface oil expression changed daily due to wind and currents, whereas the intrusion layer flowed southwestward. A portion of the weathered surface oil stranded along shorelines. Oil from both surface and intrusion layers were deposited onto the seafloor via sinking marine oil snow. The biodegradation rates of stranded or sedimented oil were low, with resuspension and redistribution transiently increasing biodegradation. The subsequent research efforts increased our understanding of the fate of spilled oil immensely, with novel insights focusing on the importance of photooxidation, the microbial communities driving biodegradation, and the formation of marine oil snow that transports oil to the seafloor.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Implementation of marine conservation strategies, such as increasing the numbers, extent, and effectiveness of protected areas (PAs), can help achieve conservation and restoration of ocean health and associated goods and services. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of including aspects of ecological functioning in PA design, the physical characteristics of habitats and simple measures of species diversity inform most PA designations. Marine and terrestrial ecologists have recently been using biological traits to assess community dynamics, functioning, and vulnerability to anthropogenic impacts. Here, we explore potential trait-based marine applications to advance PA design. We recommend strategies to integrate biological traits into ( a) conservation objectives (e.g., by assessing and predicting impacts and vulnerability), ( b) PA spatial planning (e.g., mapping ecosystem functions and functional diversity hot spots), and ( c) time series monitoring protocols (e.g., using functional traits to detect recoveries). We conclude by emphasizing the need for pragmatic tools to improve the efficacy of spatial planning and monitoring efforts.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Trichogramma species make up one of the most commonly used groups of natural enemies for biological control programs worldwide. Given the major successes in using Trichogramma to control economically important lepidopterous pests on agricultural crops in China, the biology and ecology of these wasps have been intensively studied to identify traits that contribute to successful biological control. Since the 1960s, improved mass production of Trichogramma and better augmentative release methods to suppress agricultural pests have been achieved. We review the history of research and development; current knowledge on biodiversity and bio-ecology of the species used; and achievements in mass-rearing methods, release strategies, and current large-scale applications in China. In addition, we discuss potential issues and challenges for Trichogramma research and applications in the future .
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Ocean temperature variability is a fundamental component of the Earth's climate system, and extremes in this variability affect the health of marine ecosystems around the world. The study of marine heatwaves has emerged as a rapidly growing field of research, given notable extreme warm-water events that have occurred against a background trend of global ocean warming. This review summarizes the latest physical and statistical understanding of marine heatwaves based on how they are identified, defined, characterized, and monitored through remotely sensed and in situ data sets. We describe the physical mechanisms that cause marine heatwaves, along with their global distribution, variability, and trends. Finally, we discuss current issues in this developing research area, including considerations related to thechoice of climatological baseline periods in defining extremes and how to communicate findings in the context of societal needs.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Cancer is the leading cause of death in American children older than 1 year of age. Major developments in drugs such as thiopurines and optimization in clinical trial protocols for treating cancer in children have led to a remarkable improvement in survival, from approximately 30% in the 1960s to more than 80% today. Short-term and long-term adverse effects of chemotherapy still affect most survivors of childhood cancer. Pharmacogenetics plays a major role in predicting the safety of cancer chemotherapy and, in the future, its effectiveness. Treatment failure in childhood cancer—due to either serious adverse effects that limit therapy or the failure of conventional dosing to induce remission—warrants development of new strategies for treatment. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the pharmacogenomics of cancer drug treatment in children and of statistically and clinically relevant drug–gene associations and the mechanistic understandings that underscore their therapeutic value in the treatment of childhood cancer.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-01-01
    Description: Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has changed ocean biogeochemistry and threatened the health of organisms through a process known as ocean acidification (OA). Such large-scale changes affect ecosystem functions and can have impacts on societal uses, fisheries resources, and economies. In many large estuaries, anthropogenic CO2-induced acidification is enhanced by strong stratification, long water residence times, eutrophication, and a weak acid–base buffer capacity. In this article, we review how a variety of processes influence aquatic acid–base properties in estuarine waters, including coastal upwelling, river–ocean mixing, air–water gas exchange, biological production and subsequent aerobic and anaerobic respiration, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution, and benthic inputs. We emphasize the spatial and temporal dynamics of partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2), pH, and calcium carbonate mineral saturation states. Examples from three large estuaries—Chesapeake Bay, the Salish Sea, and Prince William Sound—are used to illustrate how natural and anthropogenic processes and climate change may manifest differently across estuaries, as well as the biological implications of OA on coastal calcifiers.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Urban and periurban ocean developments impact 1.5% of the global exclusive economic zones, and the demand for ocean space and resources is increasing. As we strive for a more sustainable future, it is imperative that we better design, manage, and conserve urban ocean spaces for both humans and nature. We identify three key objectives for more sustainable urban oceans: reduction of urban pressures, protection and restoration of ocean ecosystems, and support of critical ecosystem services. We describe an array of emerging evidence-based approaches, including greening grayinfrastructure, restoring habitats, and developing biotechnologies. We then explore new economic instruments and incentives for supporting these new approaches and evaluate their feasibility in delivering these objectives. Several of these tools have the potential to help bring nature back to the urban ocean while also addressing some of the critical needs of urban societies, such as climate adaptation, seafood production, clean water, and recreation, providing both human and environmental benefits in some of our most impacted ocean spaces.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Color vision is widespread among insects but varies among species, depending on the spectral sensitivities and interplay of the participating photoreceptors. The spectral sensitivity of a photoreceptor is principally determined by the absorption spectrum of the expressed visual pigment, but it can be modified by various optical and electrophysiological factors. For example, screening and filtering pigments, rhabdom waveguide properties, retinal structure, and neural processing all influence the perceived color signal. We review the diversity in compound eye structure, visual pigments, photoreceptor physiology, and visual ecology of insects. Based on an overview of the current information about the spectral sensitivities of insect photoreceptors, covering 221 species in 13 insect orders, we discuss the evolution of color vision and highlight present knowledge gaps and promising future research directions in the field.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Feeding on living or dead plant material is widespread in insects. Seminal work on termites and aphids has provided profound insights into the critical nutritional role that microbes play in plant-feeding insects. Some ants, beetles, and termites, among others, have evolved the ability to use microbes to gain indirect access to plant substrate through the farming of a fungus on which they feed. Recent genomic studies, including studies of insect hosts and fungal and bacterial symbionts, as well as metagenomics and proteomics, have provided important insights into plant biomass digestion across insect–fungal mutualisms. Not only do advances in understanding of the divergent and complementary functions of complex symbionts reveal the mechanism of how these herbivorous insects catabolize plant biomass, but these symbionts also represent a promising reservoir for novel carbohydrate-active enzyme discovery, which is of considerable biotechnological interest.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: This review was solicited as an autobiography. The “problems” in my title have two meanings. First, they were professional difficulties caused by my decision to study oviposition preferences of butterflies that were not susceptible to traditional preference-testing designs. Until I provided video, my claim that the butterflies duplicate natural post-alighting host-assessment behavior when placed on hosts by hand was not credible, and the preference-testing technique that I had developed elicited skepticism, anger, and derision. The second meaning of “problems” is scientific. Insect preference comes with complex dimensionality that interacts with host acceptability. Part Two of this review describes how my group's work in this area has revealed unexpected axes of variation in plant–insect interactions—axes capable of frustrating attempts to derive unequivocal conclusions from apparently sensible experimental designs. The possibility that these complexities are lurking should be kept in mind as preference and performance experiments are devised.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Many insects locate resources such as a mate, a host, or food by flying upwind along the odor plumes that these resources emit to their source. A windborne plume has a turbulent structure comprised of odor filaments interspersed with clean air. As it propagates downwind, the plume becomes more dispersed and dilute, but filaments with concentrations above the threshold required to elicit a behavioral response from receiving organisms can persist for long distances. Flying insects orient along plumes by steering upwind, triggered by the optomotor reaction. Sequential measurements of differences in odor concentration are unreliable indicators of distance to or direction of the odor source. Plume intermittency and the plume's fine-scale structure can play a role in setting an insect's upwind course. The prowess of insects in navigating to odor sources has spawned bioinspired virtual models and even odor-seeking robots, although some of these approaches use mechanisms that are unnecessarily complex and probably exceed an insect's processing capabilities.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: During the past 20 years, more than 1,600 species of well-preserved fossil insects, including members of over 270 families within 24 orders, have been described from the Middle Jurassic Yanliao Entomofauna and Early Cretaceous Jehol Entomofauna in Northeastern China. Diversified fossil insects not only document the origin, systematics, and early evolution of many lineages, but also reveal these lineages’ behaviors and interactions with coexisting plants, vertebrates, and other insects in their ecosystems. Fossil evidence has been documented, for example, regarding insects’ feeding and pollination mutualism with gymnosperms; ectoparasitic feeding on blood of vertebrates; camouflage, mimicry of gymnosperm plants, and eyespot warning; sound stridulation for attracting potential mates; and sexual display, mating, egg-laying, and parental care. In this article, we review the diverse taxonomy of mid-Mesozoic insects of Northeastern China and elucidate their behaviors and interactions within their ecosystems, which have impacted their early evolution and development into extant insects.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Global change includes a substantial increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme high temperatures (EHTs), which influence insects at almost all levels. The number of studies showing the ecological importance of EHTs has risen in recent years, but the knowledge is rather dispersed in the contemporary literature. In this article, we review the biological and ecological effects of EHTs actually experienced in the field, i.e., when coupled to fluctuating thermal regimes. First, we characterize EHTs in the field. Then, we summarize the impacts of EHTs on insects at various levels and the processes allowing insects to buffer EHTs. Finally, we argue that the mechanisms leading to positive or negative impacts of EHTs on insects can only be resolved from integrative approaches considering natural thermal regimes. Thermal extremes, perhaps more than the gradual increase in mean temperature, drive insect responses to climate change, with crucial impacts on pest management and biodiversity conservation.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Insects are major contributors to our understanding of the interaction between transposable elements (TEs) and their hosts, owing to seminal discoveries, as well as to the growing number of sequenced insect genomes and population genomics and functional studies. Insect TE landscapes are highly variable both within and across insect orders, although phylogenetic relatedness appears to correlate with similarity in insect TE content. This correlation is unlikely to be solely due to inheritance of TEs from shared ancestors and may partly reflect preferential horizontal transfer of TEs between closely related species. The influence of insect traits on TE landscapes, however, remains unclear. Recent findings indicate that, in addition to being involved in insect adaptations and aging, TEs are seemingly at the cornerstone of insect antiviral immunity. Thus, TEs are emerging as essential insect symbionts that may have deleterious or beneficial consequences on their hosts, depending on context.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Over the past decade, laboratory courses have made a fundamental shift to inquiry-based modules and authentic research experiences. In many cases, these research experiences emphasize addressing novel research questions. Insects are ideal for inquiry-based undergraduate laboratory courses because research on insects is not limited by regulatory, economic, and logistical constraints to the same degree as research on vertebrates. While novel research questions could be pursued with model insect species (e.g., Drosophila, Tribolium), the opportunities presented by non-model insects are much greater, as less is known about non-model species. We review the literature on the use of non-model insect species in laboratory education to provide a resource for faculty interested in developing new authentic inquiry-based laboratory modules using insects. Broader use of insects in undergraduate laboratory education will support the pedagogical goals of increased inquiry and resesarch experiences while at the same time fostering increased interest and research in entomology.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Although nectar is consumed, primarily as a supplemental food, by a broad range of insects spanning at least five orders, it is processed and stored by only a small number of species, most of which are bees and wasps in the superfamily Apoidea. Within this group, Apis mellifera has evolved remarkable adaptations facilitating nectar processing and storage; in doing so, this species utilizes the end product, honey, for diverse functions with few if any equivalents in other phytophagous insects. Honey and its phytochemical constituents, some of which likely derive from propolis, have functional significance in protecting honey bees against microbial pathogens, toxins, and cold stress, as well as in regulating development and adult longevity. The distinctive properties of A. mellifera honey appear to have arisen in multiple ways, including genome modification; partnerships with microbial symbionts; and evolution of specialized behaviors, including foraging for substances other than nectar. That honey making by A. mellifera involves incorporation of exogenous material other than nectar, as well as endogenous products such as antimicrobial peptides and royal jelly, suggests that regarding honey as little more than a source of carbohydrates for bees is a concept in need of revision.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Of the approximately 1,200 plant virus species that have been described to date, nearly one-third are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, and all are transmitted by insect vectors. However, most studies of vector transmission of plant viruses have focused on RNA viruses. All known plant ssDNA viruses belong to two economically important families, Geminiviridae and Nanoviridae, and in recent years, there have been increased efforts to understand whether they have evolved similar relationships with their respective insect vectors. This review describes the current understanding of ssDNA virus–vector interactions, including how these viruses cross insect vector cellular barriers, the responses of vectors to virus circulation, the possible existence of viral replication within insect vectors, and the three-way virus–vector–plant interactions. Despite recent breakthroughs in our understanding of these viruses, many aspects of plant ssDNA virus transmission remain elusive. More effort is needed to identify insect proteins that mediate the transmission of plant ssDNA viruses and to understand the complex virus–insect–plant three-way interactions in the field during natural infection.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Calcium (Ca2+) release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels are a major route for Ca2+ entry in eukaryotic cells. These channels are store operated, opening when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is depleted of Ca2+, and are composed of the ER Ca2+ sensor protein STIM and the pore-forming plasma membrane subunit Orai. Recent years have heralded major strides in our understanding of the structure, gating, and function of the channels. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutants combined with RNAi knockdown strategies have revealed important roles for the channel in numerous human diseases, making the channel a clinically relevant target. Drugs targeting the channels generally lack specificity or exhibit poor efficacy in animal models. However, the landscape is changing, and CRAC channel blockers are now entering clinical trials. Here, we describe the key molecular and biological features of CRAC channels, consider various diseases associated with aberrant channel activity, and discuss targeting of the channels from a therapeutic perspective.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: The spontaneous activity of the sinoatrial node initiates the heartbeat. Sino-atrial node dysfunction (SND) and sick sinoatrial (sick sinus) syndrome are caused by the heart's inability to generate a normal sinoatrial node action potential. In clinical practice, SND is generally considered an age-related pathology, secondary to degenerative fibrosis of the heart pacemaker tissue. However, other forms of SND exist, including idiopathic primary SND, which is genetic, and forms that are secondary to cardiovascular or systemic disease. The incidence of SND in the general population is expected to increase over the next half century, boosting the need to implant electronic pacemakers. During the last two decades, our knowledge of sino-atrial node physiology and of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SND has advanced considerably. This review summarizes the current knowledge about SND mechanisms and discusses the possibility of introducing new pharmacologic therapies for treating SND.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetic biomarkers continues to grow as new genetic variants associated with drug outcomes are discovered and validated. The number of drug labels that contain pharmacogenetic information also continues to expand. Published, peer-reviewed clinical practice guidelines have also been developed to support the implementation of pharmacogenetic tests. Incorporating pharmacogenetic information into health care benefits patients as well as clinicians by improving drug safety and reducing empiricism in drug selection. Barriers to the implementation of pharmacogenetic testing remain. This review explores current pharmacogenetic implementation initiatives with a focus on the challenges of pharmacogenetic implementation and potential opportunities to overcome these challenges.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Whereas protein kinases have been successfully targeted for a variety of diseases, protein phosphatases remain an underutilized therapeutic target, in part because of incomplete characterization of their effects on signaling networks. The pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) is a relatively new player in the cell signaling field, and new roles in controlling the balance among cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis are being increasingly identified. Originally characterized for its tumor-suppressive function in deactivating the prosurvival kinase Akt, PHLPP may have an opposing role in promoting survival, as recent evidence suggests. Additionally, identification of the transcription factor STAT1 as a substrate unveils a role for PHLPP as a critical mediator of transcriptional programs in cancer and the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the current knowledge of PHLPP as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene and highlights emerging functions in regulating gene expression and the immune system. Understanding the context-dependent functions of PHLPP is essential for appropriate therapeutic intervention.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance, defined as the balance between excitation and inhibition of synaptic activity in a neuronal network, accounts in part for the normal functioning of the brain, controlling, for example, normal spike rate. In many pathological conditions, this fine balance is perturbed, leading to excessive or diminished excitation relative to inhibition, termed E/I imbalance, reflected in network dysfunction. E/I imbalance has emerged as a contributor to neurological disorders that occur particularly at the extremes of life, including autism spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease, pointing to the vulnerability of neuronal networks at these critical life stages. Hence, it is important to develop approaches to rebalance neural networks. In this review, we describe emerging therapies that can normalize the E/I ratio or the underlying abnormality that contributes to the imbalance in electrical activity, thus improving neurological function in these maladies.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: In 1842, Darwin identified three types of reefs: fringing reefs, which are directly attached to volcanic islands; barrier reefs, which are separated from volcanic islands by lagoons; and ring reefs, which enclose only a lagoon and are defined as atolls. Moreover, he linked these reef types through an evolutionary model in which an atoll is the logical end point of a subsiding volcanic edifice, as he was unaware of Quaternary glaciations. As an alternative, starting in the 1930s, several authors proposed the antecedent karst model; in this model, atolls formed as a direct interaction between subsidence and karst dissolution that occurred preferentially in the bank interiors rather than on their margins through exposure during glacial lowstands of sea level. Atolls then developed during deglacial reflooding of the glacial karstic morphologies by preferential stacked coral-reef growth along their margins. Here, a comprehensive new model is proposed, based on the antecedent karst model and well-established sea-level fluctuations during the last 5 million years, by demonstrating that most modern atolls from the Maldives Archipelago and from the tropical Pacific and southwest Indian Oceans are rooted on top of late Pliocene flat-topped banks. The volcanic basement, therefore, has had no influence on the late Quaternary development of these flat-topped banks into modern atolls. During the multiple glacial sea-level lowstands that intensified throughout the Quaternary, the tops of these banks were karstified; then, during each of the five mid-to-late Brunhes deglaciations, coral reoccupied their raised margins and grew vertically, keeping up with sea-level rise and creating the modern atolls.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Insects play important roles as predators, prey, pollinators, recyclers, hosts, parasitoids, and sources of economically important products. They can also destroy crops; wound animals; and serve as vectors for plant, animal, and human diseases. Gene drive—a process by which genes, gene complexes, or chromosomes encoding specific traits are made to spread through wild populations, even if these traits result in a fitness cost to carriers—provides new opportunities for altering populations to benefit humanity and the environment in ways that are species specific and sustainable. Gene drive can be used to alter the genetic composition of an existing population, referred to as population modification or replacement, or to bring about population suppression or elimination. We describe technologies under consideration, progress that has been made, and remaining technological hurdles, particularly with respect to evolutionary stability and our ability to control the spread and ultimate fate of genes introduced into populations.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Coordinated molecular responses are key to effective initiation and resolution of both acute and chronic inflammation. Vascular inflammation plays an important role in initiating and perpetuating atherosclerotic disease, specifically at the site of plaque and subsequent fibrous cap rupture. Both men and women succumb to this disease process, and although management strategies have focused on revascularization and pharmacological therapies in the acute situation to reverse vessel closure and prevent thrombogenesis, data now suggest that regulation of host inflammation may improve both morbidity and mortality, thus supporting the notion that prevention is better than cure. There is a clear sex difference in the incidence of vascular disease, and data confirm biological differences in inflammatory initiation and resolution between men and women. This article reviews contemporary opinions describing the sex difference in the initiation and resolution of inflammatory responses, with a view to explore potential targets for pharmacological intervention.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: The genetic basis for most inherited neurodegenerative diseases has been identified, yet there are limited disease-modifying therapies for these patients. A new class of drugs—antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs)—show promise as a therapeutic platform for treating neurological diseases. ASOs are designed to bind to the RNAs either by promoting degradation of the targeted RNA or by elevating expression by RNA splicing. Intrathecal injection into the cerebral spinal fluid results in broad distribution of antisense drugs and long-term effects. Approval of nusinersen in 2016 demonstrated that effective treatments for neurodegenerative diseases can be identified and that treatments not only slow disease progression but also improve some symptoms. Antisense drugs are currently in development for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Angelman syndrome, and several drugs are in late-stage research for additional neurological diseases. This review highlights the advances in antisense technology as potential treatments for neurological diseases.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Anthracyclines are the cornerstone of many chemotherapy regimens for a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, their use is limited by a cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Despite more than five decades of research, the biological mechanisms underlying anthracycline cardiotoxicity are not completely understood. In this review, we discuss the incidence, risk factors, types, and pathophysiology of anthracycline cardiotoxicity, as well as methods to prevent and treat this condition. We also summarize and discuss advances made in the last decade in the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Oxidative injury due to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, lung and liver diseases, and many cancers. Antioxidant therapies have generally been ineffective at treating these diseases, potentially due to ineffective doses but also due to interference with critical host defense and signaling processes. Therefore, alternative strategies to prevent oxidative injury are needed. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species induce lipid peroxidation, generating reactive lipid dicarbonyls. These lipid oxidation products may be the most salient mediators of oxidative injury, as they cause cellular and organ dysfunction by adducting to proteins, lipids, and DNA. Small-molecule compounds have been developed in the past decade to selectively and effectively scavenge these reactive lipid dicarbonyls. This review outlines evidence supporting the role of lipid dicarbonyls in disease pathogenesis, as well as preclinical data supporting the efficacy of novel dicarbonyl scavengers in treating or preventing disease.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Chronic pain treatment remains a sore challenge, and in our aging society, the number of patients reporting inadequate pain relief continues to grow. Current treatment options all have their drawbacks, including limited efficacy and the propensity of abuse and addiction; the latter is exemplified by the ongoing opioid crisis. Extensive research in the last few decades has focused on mechanisms underlying chronic pain states, thereby producing attractive opportunities for novel, effective and safe pharmaceutical interventions. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family represent innovative targets to tackle pain sensation at the root. Three TRP channels, TRPV1, TRPM3, and TRPA1, are of particular interest, as they were identified as sensors of chemical- and heat-induced pain in nociceptor neurons. This review summarizes the knowledge regarding TRP channel–based pain therapies, including the bumpy road of the clinical development of TRPV1 antagonists, the current status of TRPA1 antagonists, and the future potential of targeting TRPM3.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of attrition during the early and late stages of drug development and after a drug is marketed. DILI is generally classified as either intrinsic or idiosyncratic. Intrinsic DILI is dose dependent and predictable (e.g., acetaminophen toxicity). However, predicting the occurrence of idiosyncratic DILI, which has a very low incidence and is associated with severe liver damage, is difficult because of its complex nature and the poor understanding of its mechanism. Considering drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, we established experimental animal models of DILI for 14 clinical drugs that cause idiosyncratic DILI in humans, which is characterized by the formation of reactive metabolites and the involvement of both innate and adaptive immunity. On the basis of the biomarker data obtained from the animal models, we developed a cell-based assay system that predicts the potential risks of drugs for inducing DILI. These findings increase our understanding of the mechanisms of DILI and may help predict and prevent idiosyncratic DILI due to certain drugs.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Inspired by the medicinal properties of the plant Cannabis sativa and its principal component (−)- trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), researchers have developed a variety of compounds to modulate the endocannabinoid system in the human brain. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which are the enzymes responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, respectively, may exert therapeutic effects without inducing the adverse side effects associated with direct cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation by THC. Here we review the FAAH and MAGL inhibitors that have reached clinical trials, discuss potential caveats, and provide an outlook on where the field is headed.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Over the past two decades, deadly coronaviruses, with the most recent being the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) 2019 pandemic, have majorly challenged public health. The path for virus invasion into humans and other hosts is mediated by host–pathogen interactions, specifically virus–receptor binding. An in-depth understanding of the virus–receptor binding mechanism is a prerequisite for the discovery of vaccines, antibodies, and small-molecule inhibitors that can interrupt this interaction and prevent or cure infection. In this review, we discuss the viral entry mechanism, the known structural aspects of virus–receptor interactions (SARS-CoV-2 S/humanACE2, SARS-CoV S/humanACE2, and MERS-CoV S/humanDPP4), the key protein domains and amino acid residues involved in binding, and the small-molecule inhibitors and other drugs that have (as of June 2020) exhibited therapeutic potential. Specifically, we review the potential clinical utility of two transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-targeting protease inhibitors, nafamostat mesylate and camostat mesylate, as well as two novel potent fusion inhibitors and the repurposed Ebola drug, remdesivir, which is specific to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: T cells have a central role in immune system balance. When activated, they may lead to autoimmune diseases. When too anergic, they contribute to infection spread and cancer proliferation. Immune checkpoint proteins regulate T cell function, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1). These nodes of self-tolerance may be exploited pharmacologically to downregulate (CTLA-4 agonists) and activate [CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antagonists, also called immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)] the immune system.CTLA-4 agonists are used to treat rheumatologic immune disorders and graft rejection. CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 antagonists are approved for multiple cancer types and are being investigated for chronic viral infections. Notably, ICIs may be associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can be highly morbid or fatal. CTLA-4 agonism has been a promising method to reverse such life-threatening irAEs. Herein, we review the clinical pharmacology of these immune checkpoint agents with a focus on their interplay in human diseases.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Cells respond to environmental cues by mobilizing signal transduction cascades that engage protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Correct organization of these enzymes in space and time enables the efficient and precise transmission of chemical signals. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A is compartmentalized through its association with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs are a family of multivalent scaffolds that constrain signaling enzymes and effectors at subcellular locations to drive essential physiological events. More recently, it has been recognized that defective signaling in certain endocrine disorders and cancers proceeds through pathological AKAP complexes. Consequently, pharmacologically targeting these macromolecular complexes unlocks new therapeutic opportunities for a growing number of clinical indications. This review highlights recent findings on AKAP signaling in disease, particularly in certain cancers, and offers an overview of peptides and small molecules that locally regulate AKAP-binding partners.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Although numerous environmental exposures have been suggested as triggers for preclinical autoimmunity, only a few have been confidently linked to autoimmune diseases. For disease-associated exposures, the lung is a common site where chronic exposure results in cellular toxicity, tissue damage, inflammation, and fibrosis. These features are exacerbated by exposures to particulate material, which hampers clearance and degradation, thus facilitating persistent inflammation. Coincident with exposure and resulting pathological processes is the posttranslational modification of self-antigens, which, in concert with the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures containing abundant B cells, is thought to promote the generation of autoantibodies that in some instances demonstrate major histocompatibility complex restriction. Under appropriate gene-environment interactions, these responses can have diagnostic specificity. Greater insight into the molecular and cellular requirements governing this process, especially those that distinguish preclinical autoimmunity from clinical autoimmunedisease, may facilitate determination of the significance of environmental exposures in human autoimmune disease.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) form a superfamily of plasma membrane receptors that couple to four major families of heterotrimeric G proteins, Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12. GPCRs represent excellent targets for drug therapy. Since the individual GPCRs are expressed by many different cell types, the in vivo metabolic roles of a specific GPCR expressed by a distinct cell type are not well understood. The development of designer GPCRs known as DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by a designer drug) that selectively couple to distinct classes of heterotrimeric G proteins has greatly facilitated studies in this area. This review focuses on the use of DREADD technology to explore the physiological and pathophysiological roles of distinct GPCR/G protein cascades in several metabolically important cell types. The novel insights gained from these studies should stimulate the development of GPCR-based treatments for major metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Millions of tons of oil are spilled in aquatic environments every decade, and this oil has the potential to greatly impact fish populations. Here, we review available information on the physiological effects of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish. Oil toxicity affects multiple biological systems, including cardiac function, cholesterol biosynthesis, peripheral and central nervous system function, the stress response, and osmoregulatory and acid–base balance processes. We propose that cholesterol depletion may be a significant contributor to impacts on cardiac, neuronal, and synaptic function as well as reduced cortisol production and release. Furthermore, it is possible that intracellular calcium homeostasis—a part of cardiotoxic and neuronal function that is affected by oil exposure—may be related to cholesterol depletion. A detailed understanding of oil impacts and affected physiological processes is emerging, but knowledge of their combined effects on fish in natural habitats is largely lacking. We identify key areas deserving attention in future research.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2021-01-03
    Description: Climate change affects ecological processes and interactions, including parasitism. Because parasites are natural components of ecological systems, as well as agents of outbreak and disease-induced mortality, it is important to summarize current knowledge of the sensitivity of parasites to climate and identify how to better predict their responses to it. This need is particularly great in marine systems, where the responses of parasites to climate variables are less well studied than those in other biomes. As examples of climate's influence on parasitism increase, they enable generalizations of expected responses as well as insight into useful study approaches, such as thermal performance curves that compare the vital rates of hosts and parasites when exposed to several temperatures across a gradient. For parasites not killed by rising temperatures, some simple physiological rules, including the tendency of temperature to increase the metabolism of ectotherms and increase oxygen stress on hosts, suggest that parasites’ intensity and pathologies might increase. In addition to temperature, climate-induced changes in dissolved oxygen, ocean acidity, salinity, and host and parasite distributions also affect parasitism and disease, but these factors are much less studied. Finally, because parasites are constituents of ecological communities, we must consider indirect and secondary effects stemming from climate-induced changes in host–parasite interactions, which may not be evident if these interactions are studied in isolation.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1405
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0611
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Annual Reviews
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76