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  • Annual Reviews  (20,854)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Cereal brans and grain endosperm cell walls are key dietary sources of different types of arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan is the main group of hemicellulosic polysaccharides that are present in the cell walls of monocot grass crops and hence in cereal grains. The arabinoxylan polysaccharides consist of a backbone of β-(1→4)-linked xylopyranosyl residues, which carry arabinofuranosyl moieties, hence the term arabinoxylan. Moreover, the xylopyranosyl residues can be acetylated or substituted by 4- O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid. The arabinofuranosyls may be esterified with a feruloyl group. Feruloylated arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides exert beneficial bioactivities via prebiotic, immunomodulatory, and/or antioxidant effects. New knowledge on microbial enzymes that catalyze specific structural modifications of arabinoxylans can help us understand how these complex fibers are converted in the gut and provide a foundation for the production of feruloylated arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides from brans or other cereal grain processing sidestreams as functional food ingredients. There is a gap between the structural knowledge, bioactivity data, and enzymology insight. Our goal with this review is to present an overview of the structures and bioactivities of feruloylated arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides and review the enzyme reactions that catalyze specific changes in differentially substituted arabinoxylans.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Proteins obtained from alternative sources such as plants, microorganisms, and insects have attracted considerable interest in the formulation of new food products that have a lower environmental footprint and offer means to feed a growing world population. In contrast to many established proteins, and protein fractions for which a substantial amount of knowledge has accumulated over the years, much less information is available on these emerging proteins. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on alternative proteins and their sources, highlighting gaps that currently pose obstacles to their more widespread application in the food industry. The compositional, structural, and functional properties of alternative proteins from various sources, including plants, algae, fungi, and insects, are critically reviewed. In particular, we focus on the factors associated with the creation of protein-rich functional ingredients from alternative sources. The various protein fractions in these sources are described as well as their behavior under different environmental conditions (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and temperature). The extraction approaches available to produce functional protein ingredients from these alternative sources are introduced as well as challenges associated with designing large-scale commercial processes. The key technofunctional properties of alternative proteins, such as solubility, interfacial activity, emulsification, foaming, and gelation properties, are introduced. In particular, we focus on the formation of isotropic and anisotropic structures suitablefor creating meat and dairy product analogs using various structuring techniques. Finally, selected studies on consumer acceptance and sustainability of alternative protein products are considered.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Description: B cell subsets differ in development, tissue distribution, and mechanisms of activation. In response to infections, however, all can differentiate into extrafollicular plasmablasts that rapidly provide highly protective antibodies, indicating that these plasmablasts are the main humoral immune response effectors. Yet, the effectiveness of this response type depends on the presence of antigen-specific precursors in the circulating mature B cell pool, a pool that is generated initially through the stochastic processes of B cell receptor assembly. Importantly, germinal centers then mold the repertoire of this B cell pool to be increasingly responsive to pathogens by generating a broad array of antimicrobial memory B cells that act as highly effective precursors of extrafollicular plasmablasts. Such B cell repertoire molding occurs in two ways: continuously via the chronic germinal centers of mucosal lymphoid tissues, driven by the presence of the microbiome, and via de novo generated germinal centers following acute infections. For effectively evaluating humoral immunity as a correlate of immune protection, it might be critical to measure memory B cell pools in addition to antibody titers.
    Print ISSN: 0732-0582
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-3278
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: The last three decades in psychological research have been marked by interdisciplinary science. Addiction represents a prime example of a disorder marked by a complex interaction among psychosocial and biological factors. This review highlights critical findings in the basic neuroscience of addiction and translates them into clinical language that can inform clinical psychologists in their research, teaching, and practice. From mechanisms of reward processing, learning and memory, allostasis, incentive-sensitization, withdrawal, tolerance, goal-directed decision making, habit learning, genetics, inflammation, and the microbiome, the common theme of this review is to illustrate the clinical utility of basic neuroscience research and to identify opportunities for clinical science. The thoughtful integration of basic and clinical science provides a powerful tool to fulfill the scientific mission of improving health care. Clinical psychologists have a crucial role to play in the translational science of addiction.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-01-20
    Description: Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane vesicles provide a unique experimental system for studying active transport. Vesicles are prepared by lysis of osmotically sensitized cells (i.e., protoplasts or spheroplasts) and comprise osmotically intact, unit-membrane-bound sacs that are approximately 0.5–1.0 μm in diameter and devoid of internal structure. Their metabolic activities are restricted to those provided by the enzymes of the membrane itself, and each vesicle is functional. The energy source for accumulation of a particular substrate can be determined by studying which compounds or experimental conditions drive solute accumulation, and metabolic conversion of the transported substrate or the energy source is minimal. These properties of the vesicle system constitute a considerable advantage over intact cells, as the system provides clear definition of the reactions involved in the transport process. This discussion is not intended as a general review but is concerned with respiration-dependent active transport in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli. Emphasis is placed on experimental observations demonstrating that respiratory energy is converted primarily into work in the form of a solute concentration gradient that is driven by a proton electrochemical gradient, as postulated by the chemiosmotic theory of Peter Mitchell. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere, typically with diameters on the order of nanometers to microns. These particles impact air quality and the radiative balance of the planet. Dry deposition is a key process for the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere and plays an important role in controlling the lifetime of atmospheric aerosols. Dry deposition is driven by turbulence and shows a strong dependence on particle size. This review summarizes the mechanisms behind aerosol dry deposition, including measurement approaches, field observations, and modeling studies. We identify several gaps in the literature, including deposition over the cryosphere (i.e., snow and ice surfaces) and the ocean; in addition, we highlight new techniques to measure black carbon fluxes. While recent advances in aerosol instrumentation have enhanced our understanding of aerosol sources and chemistry, dry deposition and other loss processes remain poorly investigated.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Food safety continues to threaten public health. Machine learning holds potential in leveraging large, emerging data sets to improve the safety of the food supply and mitigate the impact of food safety incidents. Foodborne pathogen genomes and novel data streams, including text, transactional, and trade data, have seen emerging applications enabled by a machine learning approach, such as prediction of antibiotic resistance, source attribution of pathogens, and foodborne outbreak detection and risk assessment. In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to machine learning in the context of food safety and an overview of recent developments and applications. With many of these applications still in their nascence, general and domain-specific pitfalls and challenges associated with machine learning have begun to be recognized and addressed, which are critical to prospective use and future deployment of large data sets and their associated machine learning models for food safety applications.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: Meta-analytic, population cohort, prospective, and clinical studies provide systematic evidence that child sexual abuse accounts for unique variation in several deleterious outcomes. There is strong evidence for psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and mixed evidence for personality disorders. Evaluation of sex-specific outcomes shows strong evidence for teenage childbearing, sexual revictimization, and sexual dysfunction and mixed evidence for heightened sexual behaviors and sexual offending. This review further demonstrates not only that survivors suffer the noxious impact of traumatic sexualization but that additional transdiagnostic mechanisms, including the biological embedding of stress, emotion dysregulation, avoidance, and insecure attachment, converge to compound risk for deleterious outcomes. A road map to enhance the rigor of future research is outlined, and specific recommendations for evidence-based policy making to boost prevention efforts and increase access to treatment are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: As energy demands increase, electrocatalysis serves as a vital tool in energy conversion. Elucidating electrocatalytic mechanisms using in situ spectroscopic characterization techniques can provide experimental guidance for preparing high-efficiency electrocatalysts. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can provide rich spectral information for ultratrace surface species and is extremely well suited to studying their activity. To improve the material and morphological universalities, researchers have employed different kinds of nanostructures that have played important roles in the development of SERS technologies. Different strategies, such as so-called borrowing enhancement from shell-isolated modes and shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS)-satellite structures, have been proposed to obtain highly effective Raman enhancement, and these methods make it possible to apply SERS to various electrocatalytic systems. Here, we discuss the development of SERS technology, focusing on its applications in different electrocatalytic reactions (such as oxygen reduction reactions) and at different nanostructure surfaces, and give a brief outlook on its development.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Codon usage bias, the preference for certain synonymous codons, is found in all genomes. Although synonymous mutations were previously thought to be silent, a large body of evidence has demonstrated that codon usage can play major roles in determining gene expression levels and protein structures. Codon usage influences translation elongation speed and regulates translation efficiency and accuracy. Adaptation of codon usage to tRNA expression determines the proteome landscape. In addition, codon usage biases result in nonuniform ribosome decoding rates on mRNAs, which in turn influence the cotranslational protein folding process that is critical for protein function in diverse biological processes. Conserved genome-wide correlations have also been found between codon usage and protein structures. Furthermore, codon usage is a major determinant of mRNA levels through translation-dependent effects on mRNA decay and translation-independent effects on transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. Here, we discuss the multifaceted roles and mechanisms of codon usage in different gene regulatory processes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: In this review, we discuss the recent developments and applications of vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) microscopy. This hyperspectral imaging technique can resolve systems without inversion symmetry, such as surfaces, interfaces and noncentrosymmetric self-assembled materials, in the spatial, temporal, and spectral domains. We discuss two common VSFG microscopy geometries: wide-field and confocal point-scanning. We then introduce the principle of VSFG and the relationships between hyperspectral imaging with traditional spectroscopy, microscopy, and time-resolved measurements. We further highlight crucial applications of VSFG microscopy in self-assembled monolayers, cellulose in plants, collagen fibers, and lattice self-assembled biomimetic materials. In these systems, VSFG microscopy reveals relationships between physical properties that would otherwise be hidden without being spectrally, spatially, and temporally resolved. Lastly, we discuss the recent development of ultrafast transient VSFG microscopy, which can spatially measure the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of self-assembled materials. The review ends with an outlook on the technical challenges of and scientific potential for VSFG microscopy.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: Located at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] comprises only 1–2 mol% of total PM lipids. With its synthesis and turnover both spatially and temporally regulated, PI(4,5)P2 recruits and interacts with hundreds of cellular proteins to support a broad spectrum of cellular functions. Several factors contribute to the versatile and dynamic distribution of PI(4,5)P2 in membranes. Physiological multivalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ can bridge between PI(4,5)P2 headgroups, forming nanoscopic PI(4,5)P2–cation clusters. The distinct lipid environment surrounding PI(4,5)P2 affects the degree of PI(4,5)P2 clustering. In addition, diverse cellular proteins interacting with PI(4,5)P2 can further regulate PI(4,5)P2 lateral distribution and accessibility. This review summarizes the current understanding of PI(4,5)P2 behavior in both cells and model membranes, with emphasis on both multivalent cation– and protein-induced PI(4,5)P2 clustering. Understanding the nature of spatially separated pools of PI(4,5)P2 is fundamental to cell biology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful, label-free technique that provides detailed maps of hundreds of molecules in complex samples with high sensitivity and subcellular spatial resolution. Accurate quantification in MSI relies on a detailed understanding of matrix effects associated with the ionization process along with evaluation of the extraction efficiency and mass-dependent ion losses occurring in the analysis step. We present a critical summary of approaches developed for quantitative MSI of metabolites, lipids, and proteins in biological tissues and discuss their current and future applications.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Ticks exist on all continents and carry more zoonotic pathogens than any other type of vector. Ticks spend most of their lives in the external environment away from the host and are thus expected to be affected by changes in climate. Most empirical and theoretical studies demonstrate or predict range shifts or increases in ticks and tick-borne diseases, but there can be a lot of heterogeneity in such predictions. Tick-borne disease systems are complex, and determining whether changes are due to climate change or other drivers can be difficult. Modeling studies can help tease apart and understand the roles of different drivers of change. Predictive models can also be invaluable in projecting changes according to different climate change scenarios. However, validating these models remains challenging, and estimating uncertainty in predictions is essential. Another focus for future research should be assessing the resilience of ticks and tick-borne pathogens to climate change.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4487
    Topics: Biology
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2021-01-11
    Description: Cotton is not only the world's most important natural fiber crop, but it is also an ideal system in which to study genome evolution, polyploidization, and cell elongation. With the assembly of five different cotton genomes, a cotton-specific whole-genome duplication with an allopolyploidization process that combined the A- and D-genomes became evident. All existing A-genomes seemed to originate from the A0-genome as a common ancestor, and several transposable element bursts contributed to A-genome size expansion and speciation. The ethylene production pathway is shown to regulate fiber elongation. A tip-biased diffuse growth mode and several regulatory mechanisms, including plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifications, are involved in fiber development. Finally, we describe the involvement of the gossypol biosynthetic pathway in the manipulation of herbivorous insects, the role of GoPGF in gland formation, and host-induced gene silencing for pest and disease control. These new genes, modules, and pathways will accelerate the genetic improvement of cotton. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 72 is May 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1543-5008
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2123
    Topics: Biology
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: How cells muster a network of interlinking signaling pathways to faithfully convert diverse external cues to specific functional outcomes remains a central question in biology. Through their ability to convert dynamic biochemical activities to rapid and precise optical readouts, genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors have become instrumental in unraveling the molecular logic controlling the specificity of intracellular signaling. In this review, we discuss how the use of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors to visualize dynamic signaling events within their native cellular context is elucidating the different strategies employed by cells to organize signaling activities into discrete compartments, or signaling microdomains, to ensure functional specificity.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: My path to research in neuropharmacology has been a coalescing of my training as a molecular biologist and my intense interest in an esoteric group of animals, the fish-hunting cone snails. Attempting to bridge these two disparate worlds has led me to an idiosyncratic career as a pharmacologist.
    Print ISSN: 0362-1642
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4304
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Rising health concerns and increasing obesity levels in human society have led some consumers to cut back on animal protein consumption and switch to plant-based proteins as an alternative. Soy protein is a versatile protein supplement and contains well-balanced amino acids, making it comparable to animal protein. With sufficient processing and modification, the quality of soy protein can be improved above that of animal-derived proteins, if desired. The modern food industry is undergoing a dynamic change, with advanced processing technologies that can produce a multitude of foods and ingredients with functional properties from soy proteins, providing consumers with a wide variety of foods. This review highlights recent progress in soy protein processing technologies. Using the current literature, the processing-induced structural changes in soy protein are also explored. Furthermore, the molecular structure of soy protein, particularly the crystal structures of β-conglycinin and glycinin, is comprehensively revisited.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: Level of Personality Functioning (LPF) represents the entry criterion (Criterion A) of the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). It is defined as a dimensional general severity criterion common to all personality disorders and conceptually independent of personality types or traits, and it represents maladaptive self (identity and self-direction) and interpersonal (empathy and intimacy) functioning. We review the history, measurement, and significance of LPF. We show that the inclusion of LPF in the AMPD is well justified if it is defined as a general adaptive failure of a subjective intrapsychic system needed to fulfill adult life tasks. If so defined, LPF distinguishes itself from maladaptive traits (Criterion B of the AMPD) and captures the contribution humans make as agentic authors to the interpretation and management of the self. While Criterion B maladaptive traits provide important descriptive nuance to manifestations of personality pathology, maladaptive LPF is conditional to the diagnosis of personality disorder.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: In this article, the application of nanocelluloses, especially cellulose nanofibrils and cellulose nanocrystals, as functional ingredients in foods is reviewed. These ingredients offer a sustainable and economic source of natural plant-based nanoparticles. Nanocelluloses are particularly suitable for altering the physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional properties of foods because of their ability to create novel structures. For instance, they can adsorb to air–water or oil–water interfaces and stabilize foams or emulsions, self-assemble in aqueous solutions to form gel networks, and act as fillers or fat replacers. The functionality of nanocelluloses can be extended by chemical functionalization of their surfaces or by using them in combination with other natural food ingredients, such as biosurfactants or biopolymers. As a result, it is possible to create stimuli-responsive, tailorable, and/or active functional biomaterials suitable for a range of foodapplications. In this article, we describe the chemistry, structure, and physicochemical properties of cellulose as well as their relevance for the application of nanocelluloses as functional ingredients in foods. Special emphasis is given to their use as particle stabilizers in Pickering emulsions, but we also discuss their potential application for creating innovative biomaterials with novel functional attributes, such as edible films and packaging. Finally, some of the challenges associated with using nanocelluloses in foods are critically evaluated, including their potential safety and consumer acceptance.
    Print ISSN: 1941-1413
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-1421
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: Understanding the excited-state dynamics of nanomaterials is essential to their applications in photoenergy storage and conversion. This review summarizes recent progress in the excited-state dynamics of atomically precise gold (Au) nanoclusters (NCs). We first discuss the electronic structure and typical relaxation pathways of Au NCs from subpicoseconds to microseconds. Unlike plasmonic Au nanoparticles, in which collective electron excitation dominates, Au NCs show single-electron transitions and molecule-like exciton dynamics. The size-, shape-, structure-, and composition-dependent dynamics in Au NCs are further discussed in detail. For small-sized Au NCs, strong quantum confinement effects give rise to relaxation dynamics that is significantly dependent on atomic packing, shape, and heteroatom doping. For relatively larger-sized Au NCs, strong size dependence can be observed in exciton and electron dynamics. We also discuss the origin of coherent oscillations and their roles in excited-state relaxation. Finally, we provide our perspective on future directions in this area.
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2021-02-16
    Description: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) serve as markers of ancient viral infections and provide invaluable insight into host and viral evolution. ERVs have been exapted to assist in performing basic biological functions, including placentation, immune modulation, and oncogenesis. A subset of ERVs share high nucleotide similarity to circulating horizontally transmitted exogenous retrovirus (XRV) progenitors. In these cases, ERV–XRV interactions have been documented and include ( a) recombination to result in ERV–XRV chimeras, ( b) ERV induction of immune self-tolerance to XRV antigens, ( c) ERV antigen interference with XRV receptor binding, and ( d) interactions resulting in both enhancement and restriction of XRV infections. Whereas the mechanisms governing recombination and immune self-tolerance have been partially determined, enhancement and restriction of XRV infection are virus specific and only partially understood. This review summarizes interactions between six unique ERV–XRV pairs, highlighting important ERV biological functions and potential evolutionary histories in vertebrate hosts.
    Print ISSN: 2165-8102
    Electronic ISSN: 2165-8110
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: Childhood conduct disorders, a serious mental health concern, put children at risk for significant mental health problems throughout development. Elevations on callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate a subgroup of youth with conduct disorders who have unique causal processes underlying their problem behavior and are at a particularly high risk for serious impairment relative to others with these disorders. As a result, these traits have recently been integrated into major diagnostic classification systems for conduct disorders. Given that CU traits are partly defined by deficits in empathy, we review research on empathy development in typically developing children and use this research to ( a) advance theories on the specific emotional deficits that may be associated with CU traits, ( b) explain the severe pattern of aggressive behavior displayed by children with elevated CU traits, and ( c) suggest possible ways to enhance prevention and treatment for children with conduct disorders and elevated CU traits.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: This is the story of a career in theoretical chemistry during a time of dramatic changes in the field due to phenomenal growth in the availability of computational power. It is likewise the story of the highly gifted graduate students and postdoctoral fellows that I was fortunate to mentor throughout my career. It includes reminiscences of the great mentors that I had and of the exciting collaborations with both experimentalists and theorists on which I built much of my research. This is an account of the developments of exciting scientific disciplines in which I was involved: vibrational spectroscopy, molecular reaction mechanisms and dynamics, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry, and the prediction of new, exotic molecules, in particular noble gas molecules. From my very first project to my current work, my career in science has brought me the excitement and fascination of research. What a wonderful pursuit!
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    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-01-24
    Description: Over the last four decades, the cancer biology field has concentrated on cellular and microenvironmental drivers of metastasis. Despite this focus, mortality rates upon diagnosis of metastatic disease remain essentially unchanged. Would a small change in perspective help? Knowing what constitutes an inhospitable, rather than hospitable, microenvironment could provide the inspiration necessary to develop better therapies and preventative strategies. In this review, we canvas the literature for hints about what characteristics four common antimetastatic niches—skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid, and yellow bone marrow—have in common. We posit that thorough molecular and mechanistic characterization of antimetastatic tissues may inspire reimagined therapies that inhibit metastatic development and/or progression in an enduring manner.
    Print ISSN: 1553-4006
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-4014
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: Lateral organization in the plane of the plasma membrane is an important driver of biological processes. The past dozen years have seen increasing experimental support for the notion that lipid organization plays an important role in modulating this heterogeneity. Various biophysical mechanisms rooted in the concept of liquid–liquid phase separation have been proposed to explain diverse experimental observations of heterogeneity in model and cell membranes with distinct but overlapping applicability. In this review, we focus on the evidence for and the consequences of the hypothesis that the plasma membrane is poised near an equilibrium miscibility critical point. Critical phenomena explain certain features of the heterogeneity observed in cells and model systems but also go beyond heterogeneity to predict other interesting phenomena, including responses to perturbations in membrane composition.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Viral metagenomics has expanded our knowledge of the ecology of uncultured viruses, within both environmental (e.g., terrestrial and aquatic) and host-associated (e.g., plants and animals, including humans) contexts. Here, we emphasize the implementation of an ecological framework in viral metagenomic studies to address questions in virology rarely considered ecological, which can change our perception of viruses and how they interact with their surroundings. An ecological framework explicitly considers diverse variants of viruses in populations that make up communities of interacting viruses, with ecosystem-level effects. It provides a structure for the study of the diversity, distributions, dynamics, and interactions of viruses with one another, hosts, and the ecosystem, including interactions with abiotic factors. An ecological framework in viral metagenomics stands poised to broadly expand our knowledge in basic and applied virology. We highlight specific fundamental research needs to capitalize on its potential and advance the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology, Volume 8 is September 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 2327-056X
    Electronic ISSN: 2327-0578
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: The strong interplay between the various parameters at play in a bottle and in a glass of champagne or sparkling wine has been the subject of study for about two decades. After a brief overview of the history of champagne and sparkling wines, this article presents the key steps involved in the traditional method leading to the production of premium modern-day sparkling wines, with a specific focus on quantification of the dissolved CO2 found in the sealed bottles. Moreover, a review of the literature on the various chemical and instrumental approaches used in the analysis of dissolved and gaseous CO2, effervescence, foam, and volatile organic compounds is reported. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-05-14
    Description: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has had a significant impact on society, both because of the serious health effects of COVID-19 and because of public health measures implemented to slow its spread. Many of these difficulties are fundamentally information needs; attempts to address these needs have caused an information overload for both researchers and the public. Natural language processing (NLP)—the branch of artificial intelligence that interprets human language—can be applied to address many of the information needs made urgent by the COVID-19 pandemic. This review surveys approximately 150 NLP studies and more than 50 systems and datasets addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. We detail work on four core NLP tasks: information retrieval, named entity recognition, literature-based discovery, and question answering. We also describe work that directly addresses aspects of the pandemic through four additional tasks: topic modeling, sentiment and emotion analysis, caseload forecasting, and misinformation detection. We conclude by discussing observable trends and remaining challenges. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 4 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2574-3414
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Print ISSN: 0732-0582
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-3278
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2021-05-03
    Description: This contribution reviews a selection of the most recent studies on the use of bipolar electrochemistry in the framework of analytical chemistry. Despite the fact that the concept is not new, with several important studies dating back to the middle of the last century, completely novel and very original approaches have emerged over the last decade. This current revival illustrates that scientists still (re)discover some exciting virtues of this approach, which are useful in many different areas, especially for tackling analytical challenges in an unconventional way. In several cases, this “wireless” electrochemistry strategy enables carrying out measurements that are simply not possible with classic electrochemical approaches. This review will hopefully stimulate new ideas and trigger scientists to integrate some aspects of bipolar electrochemistry in their work in order to drive the topic into yet unexplored and eventually completely unexpected directions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2021-05-03
    Description: In recent years, the unique and tunable properties of microfluidically spun microfibers have led to tremendous advancements for the field of biomedical engineering, which have been applied to areas such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, and drug delivery, as well as cell encapsulation and cell seeding. In this article, we analyze the most recent advances in microfluidics and microfluidically spun microfibers, with an emphasis on biomedical applications. We explore in detail these new and innovative experiments, how microfibers are made, the experimental purpose of making microfibers, and the future work that can be done as a result of these new types of microfibers. We also focus on the applications of various materials used to fabricate microfibers, as well as their many promises and limitations. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-05-05
    Description: Accurate control of gene expression in the right cell at the right moment is of fundamental importance to animal development and homeostasis. At the heart of gene regulation lie the enhancers, a class of gene regulatory elements that ensures precise spatiotemporal activation of gene transcription. Mammalian genomes are littered with enhancers, which are frequently organized in cooperative clusters such as locus control regions and superenhancers. Here, we discuss our current knowledge of enhancer biology, including an overview of the discovery of the various enhancer subsets and the mechanistic models used to explain their gene regulatory function. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 22 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1527-8204
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-293X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-04-20
    Description: The ease with which the pH is routinely determined for aqueous solutions masks the fact that the cationic product of Arrhenius acid dissolution, the hydrated proton, or H+(aq), is a remarkably complex species. Here, we review how results obtained over the past 30 years in the study of H+⋅(H2O) n cluster ions isolated in the gas phase shed light on the chemical nature of H+(aq). This effort has also revealed molecular-level aspects of the Grotthuss relay mechanism for positive-charge translocation in water. Recently developed methods involving cryogenic cooling in radiofrequency ion traps and the application of two-color, infrared–infrared (IR–IR) double-resonance spectroscopy have established a clear picture of how local hydrogen-bond topology drives the diverse spectral signatures of the excess proton. This information now enables a new generation of cluster studies designed to unravel the microscopic mechanics underlying the ultrafast relaxation dynamics displayed by H+(aq).
    Print ISSN: 0066-426X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-1593
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Description: Tissue-resident macrophages are present in most tissues with developmental, self-renewal, or functional attributes that do not easily fit into a textbook picture of a plastic and multifunctional macrophage originating from hematopoietic stem cells; nor does it fit a pro- versus anti-inflammatory paradigm. This review presents and discusses current knowledge on the developmental biology of macrophages from an evolutionary perspective focused on the function of macrophages, which may aid in study of developmental, inflammatory, tumoral, and degenerative diseases. We also propose a framework to investigate the functions of macrophages in vivo and discuss how inherited germline and somatic mutations may contribute to the roles of macrophages in diseases.
    Print ISSN: 0732-0582
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-3278
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: Diploidy has profound implications for population genetics and susceptibility to genetic diseases. Although two copies are present for most genes in the human genome, they are not necessarily both active or active at the same level in a given individual. Genomic imprinting, resulting in exclusive or biased expression in favor of the allele of paternal or maternal origin, is now believed to affect hundreds of human genes. A far greater number of genes display unequal expression of gene copies due to cis-acting genetic variants that perturb gene expression. The availability of data generated by RNA sequencing applied to large numbers of individuals and tissue types has generated unprecedented opportunities to assess the contribution of genetic variation to allelic imbalance in gene expression. Here we review the insights gained through the analysis of these data about the extent of the genetic contribution to allelic expression imbalance, the tools and statistical models for gene expression imbalance, and what the results obtained reveal about the contribution of genetic variants that alter gene expression to complex human diseases and phenotypes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 4 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2574-3414
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: The recent discovery and subsequent development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated (Cas) platform as a precise genome editing tool have transformed biomedicine. As these CRISPR-based tools have matured, multiple stages of the gene editing process and the bioengineering of human cells and tissues have advanced. Here, we highlight recent intersections in the development of biomaterials and genome editing technologies. These intersections include the delivery of macromolecules, where biomaterial platforms have been harnessed to enable nonviral delivery of genome engineering tools to cells and tissues in vivo. Further, engineering native-like biomaterial platforms for cell culture facilitates complex modeling of human development and disease when combined with genome engineering tools. Deeper integration of biomaterial platforms in these fields could play a significant role in enabling new breakthroughs in the application of gene editing for the treatment of human disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 23 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1523-9829
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4274
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play crucial roles in regulating protein function and thereby control many cellular processes and biological phenotypes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several recent studies illustrate how plant fungal and bacterial pathogens use these PTMs to facilitate development, stress response, and host infection. In this review, we discuss PTMs that have key roles in the biological and infection processes of plant-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The emerging roles of PTMs during pathogen–plant interactions are highlighted. We also summarize traditional tools and emerging proteomics approaches for PTM research. These discoveries open new avenues for investigating the fundamental infection mechanisms of plant pathogens and the discovery of novel strategies for plant disease control. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology, Volume 59 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4286
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2107
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2021-04-29
    Description: The mouse, as a model organism to study the brain, gives us unprecedented experimental access to the mammalian cerebral cortex. By determining the cortex's cellular composition, revealing the interaction between its different components, and systematically perturbing these components, we are obtaining mechanistic insight into some of the most basic properties of cortical function. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of how circuits of cortical neurons implement computations, as revealed by the study of mouse primary visual cortex. Further, we discuss how studying the mouse has broadened our understanding of the range of computations performed by visual cortex. Finally, we address how future approaches will fulfill the promise of the mouse in elucidating fundamental operations of cortex. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience, Volume 44 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0147-006X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4126
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2021-04-15
    Description: Magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, tunable surface chemistry, and actuation using applied magnetic fields. Magnetic nanoparticles respond to time-varying magnetic fields via physical particle rotation or internal dipole reorientation, which can result in signal generation or conversion of magnetic energy to heat. This dynamic magnetization response enables their use as tracers in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), an emerging biomedical imaging modality in which signal is quantitative of tracer mass and there is no tissue background signal or signal attenuation. Conversion of magnetic energy to heat motivates use in nanoscale thermal cancer therapy, magnetic actuation of drug release, and rapid rewarming of cryopreserved organs. This review introduces basic concepts of magnetic nanoparticle response to time-varying magnetic fields and presents recent advances in the field, with an emphasis on MPI and conversion of magnetic energy to heat. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Volume 12 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1947-5438
    Electronic ISSN: 1947-5446
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2021-04-16
    Description: Microengineering advances have enabled the development of perfusable, endothelialized models of the microvasculature that recapitulate the unique biological and biophysical conditions of the microcirculation in vivo. Indeed, at that size scale (
    Print ISSN: 1523-9829
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4274
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-04-06
    Description: SNARE proteins and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins constitute the core molecular engine that drives nearly all intracellular membrane fusion and exocytosis. While SNAREs are known to couple their folding and assembly to membrane fusion, the physiological pathways of SNARE assembly and the mechanistic roles of SM proteins have long been enigmatic. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the SNARE–SM fusion machinery with an emphasis on biochemical and biophysical studies of proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle fusion. We begin by discussing the energetics, pathways, and kinetics of SNARE folding and assembly in vitro. Then, we describe diverse interactions between SM and SNARE proteins and their potential impact on SNARE assembly in vivo. Recent work provides strong support for the idea that SM proteins function as chaperones, their essential role being to enable fast, accurate SNARE assembly. Finally, we review the evidence that SM proteins collaborate with other SNARE chaperones, especially Munc13-1, and briefly discuss some roles of SNARE and SM protein deficiencies in human disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-04-06
    Description: Oxytocin regulates parturition, lactation, parental nurturing, and many other social behaviors in both sexes. The circuit mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates social behavior are receiving increasing attention. Here, we review recent studies on oxytocin modulation of neural circuit function and social behavior, largely enabled by new methods of monitoring and manipulating oxytocin or oxytocin receptor neurons in vivo. These studies indicate that oxytocin can enhance the salience of social stimuli and increase signal-to-noise ratios by modulating spiking and synaptic plasticity in the context of circuits and networks. We highlight oxytocin effects on social behavior in nontraditional organisms such as prairie voles and discuss opportunities to enhance the utility of these organisms for studying circuit-level modulation of social behaviors. We then discuss recent insights into oxytocin neuron activity during social interactions. We conclude by discussing some of the major questions and opportunities in the field ahead. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience, Volume 44 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0147-006X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4126
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-04-06
    Description: Sulfonates include diverse natural products and anthropogenic chemicals and are widespread in the environment. Many bacteria can degrade sulfonates and obtain sulfur, carbon, and energy for growth, playing important roles in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Cleavage of the inert sulfonate C–S bond involves a variety of enzymes, cofactors, and oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent catalytic mechanisms. Sulfonate degradation by strictly anaerobic bacteria was recently found to involve C–S bond cleavage through O2-sensitive free radical chemistry, catalyzed by glycyl radical enzymes (GREs). The associated discoveries of new enzymes and metabolic pathways for sulfonate metabolism in diverse anaerobic bacteria have enriched our understanding of sulfonate chemistry in the anaerobic biosphere. An anaerobic environment of particular interest is the human gut microbiome, where sulfonate degradation by sulfate- and sulfite-reducing bacteria (SSRB) produces H2S, a process linked to certain chronic diseases and conditions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous retrotransposons that occupy approximately 13% of the human genome. They are transcribed by RNA polymerase III and can be retrotranscribed and inserted back into the genome with the help of other autonomous retroelements. Because they are preferentially located close to or within gene-rich regions, they can regulate gene expression by various mechanisms that act at both the DNA and the RNA levels. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the involvement of SINEs in different types of gene regulation and discuss the potential regulatory functions of SINEs that are in close proximity to genes, Pol III–transcribed SINE RNAs, and embedded SINE sequences within Pol II–transcribed genes in the human genome. These discoveries illustrate how the human genome has exapted some SINEs into functional regulatory elements. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 22 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1527-8204
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-293X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: The human microbiome contributes metabolic functions, protects against pathogens, educates the immune system, and through these basic functions, directly or indirectly, affects most of our physiologic functions. Here, we consider the human microbiome and its relationship to several major noncommunicable human conditions, including orodigestive tract cancers, neurologic diseases, diabetes, and obesity. We also highlight the scope of contextual macroenvironmental factors (toxicological and chemical environment, built environment, and socioeconomic environment) and individual microenvironmental factors (smoking, alcohol, and diet) that may push the microbiota toward less healthy or more healthy conditions, influencing the development of these diseases. Last, we highlight current uncertainties and challenges in the study of environmental influences on the human microbiome and implications for understanding noncommunicable disease, suggesting a research agenda to strengthen the scientific evidence base.
    Print ISSN: 0163-7525
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2093
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: Over the past 20 years, the use of telemedicine has increased exponentially. Its fundamental aim is to improve access to care. In this review, we assess the extent to which telemedicine has fulfilled this promise across medical domains. Additionally, we assess whether telemedicine has improved related health outcomes. Finally, we determine who has benefited from this novel form of health care delivery. A review of the literature indicates that ( a) telemedicine has improved access to care for a wide range of clinical conditions ranging from stroke to pregnancy; ( b) telemedicine in select circumstances has demonstrated improved health outcomes; and ( c) telemedicine has addressed geographical, but less so social, barriers to care. For telemedicine to fulfill its promise, additional evidence needs to be gathered on health outcomes and cost savings, the digital divide needs to be bridged, and policy changes that support telemedicine reimbursement need to be enacted.
    Print ISSN: 0163-7525
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2093
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: An often-stated public health comment is that “vaccination is a victim of its own success.” While the scientific and medical consensus on the benefits of vaccination is clear and unambiguous, an increasing number of people are perceiving vaccines as unsafe and unnecessary. The World Health Organization identified “the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite availability of vaccines” as one of the 10 threats to global health in 2019. The negative influence of anti-vaccination movements is often named as a cause of increasing vaccine resistance in the public. In this review, we give an overview of the current literature on the topic, beginning by agreeing on terminology and concepts before looking at potential causes, consequences, and impacts of resistance to vaccination.
    Print ISSN: 0163-7525
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2093
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-04-21
    Description: Adaptive behavior in a complex, dynamic, and multisensory world poses some of the most fundamental computational challenges for the brain, notably inference, decision-making, learning, binding, and attention. We first discuss how the brain integrates sensory signals from the same source to support perceptual inference and decision-making by weighting them according to their momentary sensory uncertainties. We then show how observers solve the binding or causal inference problem—deciding whether signals come from common causes and should hence be integrated or else be treated independently. Next, we describe the multifarious interplay between multisensory processing and attention. We argue that attentional mechanisms are crucial to compute approximate solutions to the binding problem in naturalistic environments when complex time-varying signals arise from myriad causes. Finally, we review how the brain dynamically adapts multisensory processing to a changing world across multiple timescales. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience, Volume 44 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0147-006X
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4126
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Description: Danger signals trigger immune responses upon perception by a complex surveillance system. Such signals can originate from the infectious nonself or the damaged self, the latter termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Here, we apply Matzinger's danger model to plant innate immunity to discuss the adaptive advantages of DAMPs and their integration into pre-existing signaling pathways. Constitutive DAMPs (cDAMPs), e.g., extracellular ATP, histones, and self-DNA, fulfill primary, conserved functions and adopt a signaling role only when cellular damage causes their fragmentation or localization to aberrant compartments. By contrast, immunomodulatory peptides exclusively function as signals and, upon damage, are activated as inducible DAMPs (iDAMPs). Dynamic coevolutionary processes between the signals and their emerging receptors and shared co-receptors have likely linked danger recognition to preexisting, conserved downstream pathways. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology, Volume 59 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4286
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2107
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Description: Measurement of biological systems containing biomolecules and bioparticles is a key task in the fields of analytical chemistry, biology, and medicine. Driven by the complex nature of biological systems and unprecedented amounts of measurement data, artificial intelligence (AI) in measurement science has rapidly advanced from the use of silicon-based machine learning (ML) for data mining to the development of molecular computing with improved sensitivity and accuracy. This review presents an overview of fundamental ML methodologies and discusses their applications in disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and imaging analysis. We next provide the working principles of molecular computing using logic gates and arithmetical devices, which can be employed for in situ detection, computation, and signal transduction for biological systems. This review concludes by summarizing the strengths and limitations of AI-involved biological measurement in fundamental and applied research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Description: RNA is essential for cellular function: From sensing intra- and extracellular signals to controlling gene expression, RNA mediates a diverse and expansive list of molecular processes. A long-standing goal of synthetic biology has been to develop RNA engineering principles that can be used to harness and reprogram these RNA-mediated processes to engineer biological systems solving pressing global challenges. Recent advances in the field of RNA engineering are bringing this to fruition, enabling the creation of RNA-based tools to combat some of the most urgent public health crises. Specifically, new diagnostics using engineered RNAs are able to detect both pathogens and chemicals while generating an easily detectable fluorescent signal as an indicator. New classes of vaccines and therapeutics are also using engineered RNAs to target a wide range of genetic and pathogenic diseases. Here, we discuss the recent breakthroughs in RNA engineering enabling these innovations and examine how advances in RNA design promise to accelerate the impact of engineered RNA systems. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Volume 12 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1947-5438
    Electronic ISSN: 1947-5446
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-04-26
    Description: There is a growing interest in understanding tissue organization, homeostasis, and inflammation. However, despite an abundance of data, the organizing principles of tissue biology remain poorly defined. Here, we present a perspective on tissue organization based on the relationships between cell types and the functions that they perform. We provide a formal definition of tissue homeostasis as a collection of circuits that regulate specific variables within the tissue environment, and we describe how the functional organization of tissues allows for the maintenance of both tissue and systemic homeostasis. This leads to a natural definition of inflammation as a response to deviations from homeostasis that cannot be reversed by homeostatic mechanisms alone. We describe how inflammatory signals act on the same cellular functions involved in normal tissue organization and homeostasis in order to coordinate emergency responses to perturbations and ultimately return the system to a homeostatic state. Finally, we consider the hierarchy of homeostatic and inflammatory circuits and the implications for the development of inflammatory diseases.
    Print ISSN: 0732-0582
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-3278
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: Nowadays, information processing is based on semiconductor (e.g., silicon) devices. Unfortunately, the performance of such devices has natural limitations owing to the physics of semiconductors. Therefore, the problem of finding new strategies for storing and processing an ever-increasing amount of diverse data is very urgent. To solve this problem, scientists have found inspiration in nature, because living organisms have developed uniquely productive and efficient mechanisms for processing and storing information. We address several biological aspects of information and artificial models mimicking corresponding bioprocesses. For instance, we review the formation of synchronization patterns and the emergence of order out of chaos in model chemical systems. We also consider molecular logic and ion fluxes as information carriers. Finally, we consider recent progress in infochemistry, a new direction at the interface of chemistry, biology, and computer science, considering unconventional methods of information processing. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Volume 12 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1947-5438
    Electronic ISSN: 1947-5446
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: The repeated adaptation of oceanic threespine sticklebacks to fresh water has made it a premier organism to study parallel evolution. These small fish have multiple distinct ecotypes that display a wide range of diverse phenotypic traits. Ecotypes are easily crossed in the laboratory, and families are large and develop quickly enough for quantitative trait locus analyses, positioning the threespine stickleback as a versatile model organism to address a wide range of biological questions. Extensive genomic resources, including linkage maps, a high-quality reference genome, and developmental genetics tools have led to insights into the genomic basis of adaptation and the identification of genomic changes controlling traits in vertebrates. Recently, threespine sticklebacks have been used as a model system to identify the genomic basis of highly complex traits, such as behavior and host–microbiome and host–parasite interactions. We review the latest findings and new avenues of research that have led the threespine stickleback to be considered a supermodel of evolutionary genomics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 22 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1527-8204
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    Topics: Biology
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: Great strides have been made in defining the details of the plant defense response involving biotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens. The groundwork for the current model was laid by H.H. Flor and others who defined the gene-for-gene hypothesis, which is now known to involve effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) is also a highly effective response to most pathogens because of the recognition of common pathogen molecules by pattern recognition receptors. In this article, we consider the three pathogens that make up the foliar disease complex of wheat, Zymoseptoria tritici, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, and Parastagonospora nodorum, to review the means by which necrotrophic pathogens circumvent, or outright hijack, the ETI and PTI pathways to cause disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology, Volume 59 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4286
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2107
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-04-14
    Description: The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial pathogens has necessitated the development of new therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of compounds with potentially attractive therapeutic properties, including the ability to target specific groups of bacteria. In nature, AMPs exhibit remarkable structural and functional diversity, which may be further enhanced through genetic engineering, high-throughput screening, and chemical modification strategies. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying AMP selectivity and highlight recent computational and experimental efforts to design selectively targeting AMPs. While there has been an extensive effort to find broadly active and highly potent AMPs, it remains challenging to design targeting peptides to discriminate between different bacteria on the basis of physicochemical properties. We also review approaches for measuring AMP activity, point out the challenges faced in assaying for selectivity, and discuss the potential for increasing AMP diversity through chemical modifications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 23 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1523-9829
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4274
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2021-04-14
    Description: There is considerable interest in the development of hybrid organic–inorganic materials because of the potential for harvesting the unique capabilities that each system has to offer. Proteins are an especially attractive organic component owing to the high amount of chemical information encoded in their amino acid sequence, their amenability to molecular and computational (re)design, and the many structures and functions they specify. Genetic installation of solid-binding peptides (SBPs) within protein frameworks affords control over the position and orientation of adhesive and morphogenetic segments, and a path toward predictive synthesis and assembly of functional materials and devices, all while harnessing the built-in properties of the host scaffold. Here, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms through which SBPs bind to technologically relevant interfaces, with an emphasis on the variables that influence the process, and highlight the last decade of progress in the use of solid-binding proteins for hybrid and hierarchical materials synthesis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Volume 12 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1947-5438
    Electronic ISSN: 1947-5446
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Annual Reviews
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-05-13
    Description: Food safety is one of the main challenges of the agri-food industry that is expected to be addressed in the current environment of tremendous technological progress, where consumers’ lifestyles and preferences are in a constant state of flux. Food chain transparency and trust are drivers for food integrity control and for improvements in efficiency and economic growth. Similarly, the circular economy has great potential to reduce wastage and improve the efficiency of operations in multi-stakeholder ecosystems. Throughout the food chain cycle, all food commodities are exposed to multiple hazards, resulting in a high likelihood of contamination. Such biological or chemical hazards may be naturally present at any stage of food production, whether accidentally introduced or fraudulently imposed, risking consumers’ health and their faith in the food industry. Nowadays, a massive amount of data is generated, not only from the next generation of food safety monitoring systems and along the entire food chain (primary production included) but also from the internet of things, media, and other devices. These data should be used for the benefit of society, and the scientific field of data science should be a vital player in helping to make this possible. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 4 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2574-3414
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2021-05-13
    Description: Shotgun metatranscriptomics (MTX) is an increasingly practical way to survey microbial community gene function and regulation at scale. This review begins by summarizing the motivations for community transcriptomics and the history of the field. We then explore the principles, best practices, and challenges of contemporary MTX workflows: beginning with laboratory methods for isolation and sequencing of community RNA, followed by informatics methods for quantifying RNA features, and finally statistical methods for detecting differential expression in a community context. In the second half of the review, we survey important biological findings from the MTX literature, drawing examples from the human microbiome, other (nonhuman) host-associated microbiomes, and the environment. Across these examples, MTX methods prove invaluable for probing microbe–microbe and host–microbe interactions, the dynamics of energy harvest and chemical cycling, and responses to environmental stresses. We conclude with a review of open challenges in the MTX field, including making assays and analyses more robust, accessible, and adaptable to new technologies; deciphering roles for millions of uncharacterized microbial transcripts; and solving applied problems such as biomarker discovery and development of microbial therapeutics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 4 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2574-3414
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-05-11
    Description: Liquid biopsy markers, which can be secured from a simple blood draw or other biological samples, are used to manage a variety of diseases and even monitor for bacterial or viral infections. Although there are several different types of liquid biopsy markers, the subcellular ones, including cell-free DNA, microRNA, extracellular vesicles, and viral particles, are evolving in terms of their utility. A challenge with liquid biopsy markers is that they must be enriched from the biological sample prior to analysis because they are a vast minority in a mixed population, and potential interferences may be present in the sample matrix that can inhibit profiling the molecular cargo from the subcellular marker. In this article, we discuss existing and developing analytical enrichment platforms used to isolate subcellular liquid biopsy markers, and discuss their figures of merit such as recovery, throughput, and purity. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2021-05-11
    Description: Liver disease is an important clinical problem, impacting 600 million people worldwide. It is the 11th-leading cause of death in the world. Despite constant improvement in treatment and diagnostics, the aging population and accumulated risk factors led to increased morbidity due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. Liver transplantation, first established in the 1960s, is the second-most-common solid organ transplantation and is the gold standard for the treatment of liver failure. However, less than 10% of the global need for liver transplantation is met at the current rates of transplantation due to the paucity of available organs. Cell- and tissue-based therapies present an alternative to organ transplantation. This review surveys the approaches and tools that have been developed, discusses the distinctive challenges that exist for cell- and tissue-based therapies, and examines the future directions of regenerative therapies for the treatment of liver disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 23 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1523-9829
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4274
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2021-05-11
    Description: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently emerged as a novel approach in the development of electrochemical sensors. This approach to fabrication has provided a tremendous opportunity to make complex geometries of electrodes at high precision. The most widely used approach for fabrication is fused deposition modeling; however, other approaches facilitate making smaller geometries or expanding the range of materials that can be printed. The generation of complete analytical devices, such as electrochemical flow cells, provides an example of the array of analytical tools that can be developed. This review highlights the fabrication, design, preparation, and applications of 3D printed electrochemical sensors. Such developments have begun to highlight the vast potential that 3D printed electrochemical sensors can have compared to other strategies in sensor development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2021-05-11
    Description: Cell atlases are essential companions to the genome as they elucidate how genes are used in a cell type–specific manner or how the usage of genes changes over the lifetime of an organism. This review explores recent advances in whole-organism single-cell atlases, which enable understanding of cell heterogeneity and tissue and cell fate, both in health and disease. Here we provide an overview of recent efforts to build cell atlases across species and discuss the challenges that the field is currently facing. Moreover, we propose the concept of having a knowledgebase that can scale with the number of experiments and computational approaches and a new feedback loop for development and benchmarking of computational methods that includes contributions from the users. These two aspects are key for community efforts in single-cell biology that will help produce a comprehensive annotated map of cell types and states with unparalleled resolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 4 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2574-3414
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2021-05-06
    Description: The phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging has become a common method to analyze complicated fluorescence signals from biological samples. The appeal of the phasor representation of complex fluorescence decays in biological systems is that a visual representation of the decay of entire cells or tissues can be used to easily interpret fundamental biological states related to metabolism and oxidative stress. Phenotyping based on autofluorescence provides new avenues for disease characterization and diagnostics. The phasor approach is a transformation of complex fluorescence decays that does not use fits to model decays and therefore has the same information content as the original data. The phasor plot is unique for a given system, is highly reproducible, and provides a robust method to evaluate the existence of molecular interactions such as Förster resonance energy transfer or the response of ion indicators. Recent advances permitquantification of multiple components from phasor plots in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, which is not presently possible using data fitting methods, especially in biological systems.
    Print ISSN: 1936-122X
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1238
    Topics: Biology , Physics
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2021-05-06
    Description: Dyneins make up a family of AAA+ motors that move toward the minus end of microtubules. Cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for transporting intracellular cargos in interphase cells and mediating spindle assembly and chromosome positioning during cell division. Other dynein isoforms transport cargos in cilia and power ciliary beating. Dyneins were the least studied of the cytoskeletal motors due to challenges in the reconstitution of active dynein complexes in vitro and the scarcity of high-resolution methods for in-depth structural and biophysical characterization of these motors. These challenges have been recently addressed, and there have been major advances in our understanding of the activation, mechanism, and regulation of dyneins. This review synthesizes the results of structural and biophysical studies for each class of dynein motors. We highlight several outstanding questions about the regulation of bidirectional transport along microtubules and the mechanisms that sustain self-coordinated oscillations within motile cilia.
    Print ISSN: 1936-122X
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1238
    Topics: Biology , Physics
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2021-05-06
    Description: The use of machine learning (ML) in healthcare raises numerous ethical concerns, especially as models can amplify existing health inequities. Here, we outline ethical considerations for equitable ML in the advancement of healthcare. Specifically, we frame ethics of ML in healthcare through the lens of social justice. We describe ongoing efforts and outline challenges in a proposed pipeline of ethical ML in health, ranging from problem selection to postdeployment considerations. We close by summarizing recommendations to address these challenges. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 4 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2574-3414
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: Depression is a common and debilitating condition that adversely affects functioning and the capacity to work and establish economic stability. Women are disproportionately burdened by depression, and low-income pregnant and parenting women have particularly high rates of depression and often lack access to treatment. As depression can be treated, it is a modifiable risk factor for poor economic outcomes for women, and thus for children and families. Recent national and state health care policy changes offer the opportunity for community-based psychological and economic interventions that can reduce the number of pregnant and parenting women with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Moreover, there is strong evidence that in addition to benefiting women's well-being, such reforms bolster children's emotional and social development and learning and help families rise out of poverty. This review summarizes the mental health and economic literature regarding how maternal depression perpetuates intergenerational poverty and discusses recommendations regarding policies to treat maternal depression in large-scale social services systems.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: The impact of tobacco smoking treatment is determined by its reach into the smoking population and the effectiveness of its interventions. This review evaluates the reach and effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions for smoking. Historically, the reach of smoking treatment has been low, and therefore its impact has been limited, but new reach strategies such as digital interventions and health care system changes offer great promise. Pharmacotherapy tends to be more effective than psychosocial intervention when used clinically, and newer pharmacotherapy strategies hold great promise of further enhancing effectiveness. However, new approaches are needed to advance psychosocial interventions; progress has stagnated because research and dissemination efforts have focused too narrowly on skill training despite evidence that its core content may be inconsequential and the fact that its mechanisms are either unknown or inconsistent with supporting theory. Identifying effective psychosocial content and its mechanisms of action could greatly enhance the effectiveness of counseling, digital, and web interventions.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: This article demonstrates the substantial similarities globally among preventive, evidence-based interventions (EBIs) designed to address HIV by providing four examples: an HIV family-focused intervention, the Community Popular Opinion Leader intervention, a South African maternal/child health program, and an EBI for sex workers in India. Each identified the key problems in the target population, utilized well-established social cognitive theories, created processes for engaging the target population, set standards for staff accountability, and included routine data collection to facilitate iterative program improvements over time. Building EBIs based on these common, robust features is an alternative design strategy to replication with fidelity. These components provide a road map for researchers, especially those using new technologies, and for local providers seeking to deliver EBIs that match their clients’ and communities’ needs. Technology platforms and community organizations may serve as resources for designers of the next generation of EBIs, offering an alternative to repeatedly validating the same interventions and replicating them with fidelity.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-05-07
    Description: Research findings strongly suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy for the eating disorders (CBT-ED) is more effective than other treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for binge eating disorder (BED), although interpersonal psychotherapy appears to be equally effective for BED. Evidence for the effectiveness of CBT-ED for the persistent (adult) form of anorexia nervosa (AN) is insufficient at present and is essentially absent for AN in adolescents except for some evidence from uncontrolled trials. This article begins with an overview of the early studies in the development of CBT-ED that showed a similar effectiveness of other symptom-focused psychotherapies—a finding that was neglected at the time. Later developments are then considered, including comparisons of CBT-ED with other psychotherapies, efforts to develop Internet-based training and treatment, and electronic applications for treatment. Finally, implications of the findings for future short- and long-term research and for clinical practice are considered.
    Print ISSN: 1548-5943
    Electronic ISSN: 1548-5951
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2021-04-07
    Description: Catalysis science is founded on understanding the structure, number, and reactivity of active sites. Kinetic models that consider active sites to be static and noninteracting entities are routinely successful in describing the behavior of heterogeneous catalysts. Yet, active site ensembles often restructure in response to their external environment and even during steady-state catalytic turnover, sometimes requiring non-mean-field kinetic treatments to describe distance-dependent interactions among sites. Such behavior is being recognized more frequently in modern catalysis research, with the advent of experimental methods to quantify turnover rates with increasing precision, an expanding arsenal of operando characterization tools, and computational descriptions of atomic structure and motion at chemical potentials and timescales increasingly relevant to reaction conditions. This review focuses on dynamic changes to metal active site ensembles on zeolite supports, which are silica-based crystalline materials substituted with Al that generate binding sites for isolated and low-nuclearity metal site ensembles. Metal sites can become solvated and mobilized during reaction, facilitating interactions among sites that change their nuclearity and function. Such intersite communication can be regulated by the zeolite support, resulting in non-single-site and potentially non-mean-field kinetic behavior arising from mechanisms of catalytic action that combine elements of those canonically associated with homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. We discuss recent literature examples that document dynamic active site behavior in metal-zeolites and outline methodologies to identify and interpret such behavior. We conclude with our outlook on future research directions to develop this evolving branch of catalysis science and harness it for practical applications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Volume 12 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1947-5438
    Electronic ISSN: 1947-5446
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2021-04-07
    Description: Ninety-two years have passed since the discovery of the Raman effect, and there are currently more than 25 different types of Raman-based techniques. The past two decades have witnessed the blossoming of Raman spectroscopy as a powerful physicochemical technique with broad applications within the life sciences. In this review, we critique the use of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for quantitative metabolomics. We overview recent developments of Raman spectroscopy for identification and quantification of disease biomarkers in liquid biopsy, with a focus on the recent advances within surface-enhanced Raman scattering–based methods. Ultimately, we discuss the applications of imaging modalities based on Raman scattering as label-free methods to study the abundance and distribution of biomolecules in cells and tissues, including mammalian, algal, and bacterial cells. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Volume 14 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1936-1327
    Electronic ISSN: 1936-1335
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) are the most lethal type of DNA damage, making DSB repair critical for cell survival. However, some DSB repair pathways are mutagenic and promote genome rearrangements, leading to genome destabilization. One such pathway is break-induced replication (BIR), which repairs primarily one-ended DSBs, similar to those formed by collapsed replication forks or telomere erosion. BIR is initiated by the invasion of a broken DNA end into a homologous template, synthesizes new DNA within the context of a migrating bubble, and is associated with conservative inheritance of new genetic material. This mode of synthesis is responsible for a high level of genetic instability associated with BIR. Eukaryotic BIR was initially investigated in yeast, but now it is also actively studied in mammalian systems. Additionally, a significant breakthrough has been made regarding the role of microhomology-mediated BIR in the formation of complex genomic rearrangements that underly various human pathologies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4154
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4509
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: Genomic information is poised to play an increasing role in clinical care, extending beyond highly penetrant genetic conditions to less penetrant genotypes and common disorders. But with this shift, the question of clinical utility becomes a major challenge. A collaborative effort is necessary to determine the information needed to evaluate different uses of genomic information and then acquire that information. Another challenge must also be addressed if that process is to provide equitable benefits: the lack of diversity of genomic data. Current genomic knowledge comes primarily from populations of European descent, which poses the risk that most of the human population will be shortchanged when health benefits of genomics emerge. These two challenges have defined my career as a geneticist and have taught me that solutions must start with dialogue across disciplinary and social divides. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 22 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1527-8204
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-293X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Print ISSN: 0163-7525
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-2093
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2021-03-31
    Description: Circadian rhythms describe physiological systems that repeat themselves with a cycle of approximately 24 h. Our understanding of the cellular and molecular origins of these oscillations has improved dramatically, allowing us to appreciate the significant role these oscillations play in maintaining physiological homeostasis. Circadian rhythms allow living organisms to predict and efficiently respond to a dynamically changing environment, set by repetitive day/night cycles. Since circadian rhythms underlie almost every aspect of human physiology, it is unsurprising that they also influence the response of a living organism to disease, stress, and therapeutics. Therefore, not only do the mechanisms that maintain health and disrupt homeostasis depend on our internal circadian clock, but also the way drugs are perceived and function depends on these physiological rhythms. We present a holistic view of the therapeutic process, discussing components such as disease state, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, as well as adverse reactions that are critically affected by circadian rhythms. We outline challenges and opportunities in moving toward personalized medicine approaches that explore and capitalize on circadian rhythms for the benefit of the patient. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 23 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
    Print ISSN: 1523-9829
    Electronic ISSN: 1545-4274
    Topics: Medicine ,