As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has continued to increase rapidly in recent years, dietary approaches to regulating glucose homeostasis have gained more attention. Starch is the major source of glucose in the human diet and can have diverse effects, depending on its rate and extent of digestion in the small intestine, on postprandial glycemic response, which over time is associated with blood glucose abnormalities, insulin sensitivity, and even appetitive response and food intake. The classification of starch bioavailability into rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch highlights the nutritional values of different starches. As starch is the main structure-building macroconstituent of foods, its bioavailability can be manipulated by selection of food matrices with varying degrees of susceptibility to amylolysis and food processing to retain or develop new matrices. In this review, the food factors that may modulate starch bioavailability, with a focus on food matrices, are assessed for a better understanding of their potential contribution to human health. Aspects affecting starch nutritional properties as well as production strategies for healthy foods are also reviewed, e.g., starch characteristics (different type, structure, and modification), food physical properties (food form, viscosity, and integrity), food matrix interactions (lipid, protein, nonstarch polysaccharide, phytochemicals, organic acid, and enzyme inhibitor), and food processing (milling, cooking, and storage). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Volume 12 is March 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology