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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (3,401)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 34 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The question of whether a common mechanism underlies the facilitation of voluntary and reflexive reactions by a warning stimulus was investigated in two experiments. In both studies, the foreperiod preceding an intense noise burst was manipulated within and between blocks of trials. Previous reaction time experiments have shown that individuals respond fastest at the shortest foreperiod for between-block manipulations and fastest at the longest foreperiod when foreperiod duration is varied unpredictably from trial to trial. In the present research, this pattern was found for voluntary hand-grip responses, but acoustic startle blinks were facilitated at long foreperiods for both within- and between-block manipulations. Invariance of the trisynaptic postauricular reflex across foreperiod conditions was evidence against any general activation of low-level motor pathways by warning stimuli. Analyses of nonreflexive lid movements subsequent to startle blink suggested that inhibition of spontaneous blinking during the foreperiod may have contributed to the unexpected divergence between voluntary reactions and eyeblink reflexes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8–10 years) and adolescents (ages 15–17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater β-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: A frequency domain generalization of the classical quadratic discriminant function was applied to the problem of classifying alpha-band multichannel electroencephalogram recordings in three task conditions. The data consisted of 41-channel recordings obtained in eyes closed, verbal, and spatial task conditions. Classifier performance was measured by deriving a decision rule from a training sample of 42 recordings and then applying the obtained rule to a test sample of 46 recordings The proportion of correct classification was 93 in the training sample and 85 in the test sample. The classifier performed better when based on the complete cross-spectral matrix than when restricted to power spectrum variables Classification based on a subset of 16 leads reduced the overall proportion of correct classification to 79 in the training sample and to 70 in the test sample.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 34 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The stimulus evaluation view on P3 latency holds that P3 latency mainly reflects stimulus-processing time, in contrast to response-processing lime. A review of the experimental evidence, however, leads to the conclusion that P3 is not a sensitive tool for separating between stimulus and response-related processes. Rather, it appears that P3 latency is a sensitive index of any response-time changes when response times in the fast condition are brief, with its sensitivity decreasing when response times in the fast condition get longer. This regularity was confirmed by a detailed analysis of the published evidence from Steinberg's task and was not attributable to speed-accuracy trade-off or to different methods of parameterization. The structures generating the scalp P3b are involved both in stimulus processing and in response selection. Response selection may exert its effect on P3 in one of two ways: either directly, fully delaying P3 latency, or affecting a second P3 component (P-CR) only, thus having an attenuated effect on P3 latency.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 34 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The effect of adrenergic blockade on vascular responses in the forehead was assessed during stressful mental arithmetic, singing, and moderate exercise in 21 frequent blushers and 21 infrequent blushers. Adrenergic antagonists were introduced into a small site on the forehead by iontophoresis, and vascular responses were monitored bilaterally with laser Doppler flowmetry. Beta blockade prevented increases in blood flow in infrequent blushers during mental arithmetic and partially inhibited vasodilatation during singing, indicating minor participation of β-adrenoccptors in blushing. Alpha blockade did not affect blushing but augmented vasodilatation during exercise. Despite higher ratings of self-consciousness in frequent than in infrequent blushers, vascular responses were similar in both groups. Thus, blushing propensity does not appear to be related to the density of α or β-adrenoceptors in facial vessels and may have a psychological basis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Comparison questions in physiological detection of deception were studied with 60 “guilty’ and 60 “innocent’ participants in a mock crime experiment. Different types of comparison questions were used in four conditions: relevant–irrelevant (R-I) participants answered only relevant and neutral questions; trivial directed lie participants were instructed to lie to three of the six neutral questions; personal directed lie participants were instructed to lie to personally relevant questions; and probable lie participants received traditional probable lie comparison questions. Respiration, cardiovascular, vasomotor, and electrodermal activity were recorded. Manipulation of the comparison questions produced different patterns of physiological responses for innocent but not for guilty participants. The R-I test produced an unacceptable rate of false positive decisions.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 9 (1972), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: This study investigated stereotype temporal conditioning of pupillary dilation and constriction in infants. Stereotype conditioning of dilation was obtained, though it was less uniform over subjects than simple temporal conditioning of the same responses. Relevant speculative concepts concerning the physiological basis of discriminating time and ordinal position are presented.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 34 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: In this study, we examined heart rate and skin conductance levels of 18 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 18 normal children as they performed a repetitive motor task during reward and extinction conditions. Fowles (1980, Psychophysiology, 17, 87–104; 1988, Psychophysiology, 25, 373–391) suggested that psychophysiological responsivity reflects activity in two of Gray's (1982, The neuropsychology of anxiety, Oxford University Press; 1987, The psychology of fear and stress, Cambridge University Press) motivational systems; heart rate reactivity during reward reflects activity in the behavioral activation system, and skin conductance reactivity during extinction reflects activity in the behavioral inhibition system. As predicted, control children showed increased heart rate when reward was present and increased skin conductance when reward was removed. Compared with controls, ADHD children failed to show increased skin conductance levels during extinction, suggesting a weak behavioral inhibition system. ADHD children also displayed faster heart rate habituation to reward.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 34 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: In this paper, we describe a new method for measuring the oral plethysmogram, and we assess its sensitivity and specificity under differing psychological stimulation. Finger and palate pulse amplitudes and blood pressure were monitored while individuals (N= 13) performed several tasks: mental arithmetic, nausea imagery, fear imagery, and anger imagery. Pulse pressure, having a major effect on pulse amplitude, was partialed out in analyses. Palate pulse amplitude increased significantly in response to the degree to which the individual felt irritated, judged, nauseated, or angry. In contrast, finger pulse amplitude changed significantly only in the arithmetic task and, unlike the palate, showed a decreased amplitude with increased irritation and being judged. Results indicate that the oral plethysmogram can serve as a reliable measure of oral mucosal vasomotor reactivity and that it has a different pattern of response specificity than does the finger.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Psychophysiological measures—breathing amplitude (BA), breathing cycle time (BCT), eyeblink rate (EBR), eyeblink latency (EBL), finger pulse volume (FPV), heart rate (HR), palmar galvanic skin response (GSRp), volar-forearm galvanic skin response (GSRv), and voice latency (VL)—were evaluated for effectiveness in detecting deception with 63 college students. A relevant-irrelevant stimulus presentation format was used with three treatment conditions: personal words, neutral words, and items involving money. All physiological variables were found significant indicators of deception, p 〈 .01 or p 〈 .05 through objective techniques. A combined effect index of six variables provided an advantage over any index taken separately. No significant treatment or sex differences were found between stimulus conditions except for the GSRv measure.
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