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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV.Methods:  We examined the characteristics of this group of children using the Great Smoky Mountains Study of children in the community aged 9–16. This study provided child and parent reports of symptoms and psychosocial impairment assessed with standardised diagnostic interviews.Results:  Children who received an ICD-10 diagnosis but not a DSM-IV diagnosis showed broadly similar levels of psychiatric comorbidity, delinquent activity and psychosocial impairment to those who met DSM-IV criteria in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.Conclusions:  These results indicate that DSM-IV excludes from diagnosis children who receive an ICD-10 diagnosis of CD (ODD sub-type), and who are substantially disturbed. Methods of redressing this situation are considered.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Objective:  We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8–13-year-old and 14–17-year-old twin girls.Methods:  Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview on 408 MZ and 198 DZ female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioural Development (VTSABD).Results:  Model-fitting revealed distinct etiological patterns underlying the association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, overanxious disorder (OAD), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) during the course of development: 1) a common genetic factor influencing liability to all symptoms – of early and later OAD, depression, SAD, and eating symptoms; 2) a distinct genetic factor specifically indexing liability to early eating disorders symptoms; 3) a shared environmental factor specifically influencing early depression and early eating disorders symptoms; and 4) a common environmental factor affecting liability to symptoms of later eating disorders and both early and later separation anxiety.Conclusions:  These results suggest a pervasive genetic effect that influences liability to symptoms of over-anxiety, separation anxiety, depression, and eating disorder throughout development, a shared environmental influence on later adolescent eating problems and persistent separation anxiety, genetic influences specific to early eating disorders symptoms, and a shared environmental factor influencing symptoms of early eating and depression.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Some previous studies have linked Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with a bias in spatial awareness away from the left. As genetic research suggests that ADHD may be better viewed as an extreme on a continuum rather than a distinct entity, here we examined this issue in boys from the normal population.Method:  From an initial sample of 1811, two groups of boys characterised by very high (n = 58) or very low (n = 68) levels of ADHD-type behaviours were formed. The groups completed the spatially sensitive Line Bisection test and more general measures of (non-spatial) attention and intellectual function.Results:  Boys whose bisections were consistent with relative inattention to the left indeed had higher ratings of ADHD-type behaviours and performed significantly more poorly on tests of sustained attention and executive function than boys whose bisections were in the normal range. In contrast, boys who showed extreme bisections in the opposite direction were not unusual either in ratings or test performance.Conclusions:  The results support an association between poor attention and a relative rightward bias in visual awareness that may stem from right hemisphere inefficiency.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Phonological awareness is known to be an excellent predictor of later reading acquisition. It remains unclear, however, whether phoneme manipulation alone best explains this association or whether an additional direct contribution of onset-rime awareness is predictive. This issue is explored here.Method:  A longitudinal study is reported predicting national test and teacher-assessed performance of 351 children aged 7 from phonological awareness measures, pupil baseline attainment and background measures at age 5.Results:  Explicit phoneme manipulation skills at age 5 correlated most strongly with literacy skills at age 5. Phoneme manipulation at age 5 predicted all four reading measures taken at age 7 after pupil background, baseline data and onset-rime awareness were controlled in regression analyses. Onset-rime manipulation did not predict reading at 7 in parallel analyses. After controlling for initial reading at age 5, phoneme manipulation still predicted reading comprehension, and teacher-assessed reading and writing at age 7.Conclusions:  Results support the existence of a route from phoneme manipulation, but not an additional direct route from explicit onset-rime manipulation at 5, to reading at 7. Practically, findings show that professionals can augment baseline and pupil background data with phoneme manipulation screening in the early identification of learning needs.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  The delayed oculomotor response (DOR) task requires response inhibition followed by movement of gaze towards a known spatial location without a current stimulus. Abnormalities in response inhibition and in the spatial accuracy of the eye movement are found in individuals with schizophrenia and in many of their relatives, supporting the use of these saccadic abnormalities as endophenotypes in genetic studies. It is unknown whether school-age children, either with psychosis or as relatives of a schizophrenic proband, can be included.Method:  One hundred eighty-seven children, ages 5.8–16.0 years – 45 children with childhood-onset schizophrenia, 64 children with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia, and 84 typically developing children – completed DOR tasks with 1 and 3 second delays.Results:  Children with childhood-onset schizophrenia demonstrated impaired response inhibition and impaired spatial accuracy compared to both relatives and typicals; however, relatives and typicals did not differ from each other.Conclusions:  Children with childhood-onset schizophrenia have saccadic abnormalities similar to those found in adults with schizophrenia, supporting the continuity of executive function deficits in childhood-onset with adolescent and adult-onset schizophrenia. However, saccadic tasks are not sensitive to genetic risk in non-psychotic children and 6–15-year-old children should not be included in genetic studies utilizing this endophenotype.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  There is growing literature suggesting that some children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can show a significant bias in attention away from left space. Here we examine mechanisms that may underpin these effects in both clinical and non-clinical child populations. Unilateral spatial inattention (unilateral neglect) is a commonly reported consequence of stroke in adults. Although for most patients the problem is relatively transient, persistent forms of neglect are almost exclusively associated with right hemisphere lesions. It has been suggested that this chronicity may result from co-existing disruption to right hemisphere dominant systems that mediate alertness. Here we present two studies examining the relationship between sustained attention and left spatial awareness in childhood.Method:  In the first, normal children without the ADHD diagnosis were administered a non-spatial test of sustained attention/alertness. Children who performed poorly at this task, relative to their more attentive peers, showed a modest but reliable delay in awareness of left-sided visual information. Furthermore, attention towards the left declined for both groups as a function of time-on-task, suggesting a significant within-subject modulatory effect of alertness on spatial awareness. The second study examines this relationship in children referred to clinical services for attention problems. Irrespective of their final diagnosis, children were divided into two groups according to their performance in sustained attention/alertness tasks.Results:  The results suggest that, regardless of the children's clinical diagnosis, diminished sustained attention/alertness levels formed the strongest predictor of relatively delayed awareness of information presented within left visual space. Two children within this group exhibited signs of hitherto undetected spatial neglect as severe as that observed in some brain-injured adults.Conclusions:  Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. Keywords: Sustained attention, visuo-spatial attention, normal 6–7-year-old children.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Despite the huge youth population, there is a lack of psychiatric diagnostic instruments with reported psychometric properties in Chinese. This study reports the development of the Chinese version of DISC-IV and examines its test–retest reliability.Method:  Seventy-eight parents and 79 youths (mean age 13.1 years) attending child psychiatric clinics were interviewed twice using the Chinese DISC-IV (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV) about 22 days apart.Results:  The kappa coefficients were good to excellent for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (both youth (Y) and parent (P) versions), major depressive disorder (MDD) (P), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (P); fair for anxiety disorder (P), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (P, Y), MDD (Y); but poor for anxiety disorder (Y) and ADHD (Y). Parent informants had better test–retest reliability than youth informants.Conclusions:  The Chinese DISC-IV had comparable test–retest reliability with the original English version.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  This introductory guide presents the main two analytical approaches used by molecular geneticists: linkage and association.Methods:  Traditional linkage and association methods are described, along with more recent advances in methodologies such as those using a variance components approach.Results:  New methods are being developed all the time but the core principles of linkage and association remain the same. The basis of linkage is the transmission of a marker along with a disease within families, whereas association is based on the comparison of marker frequencies in case and control groups.Conclusions:  It is becoming increasingly clear that effect sizes of individual markers on diseases and traits are likely to be very small. As such, much greater power is needed, and correspondingly greater sample sizes. Although non-replication is still a problem, molecular genetic studies in some areas such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are starting to show greater convergence. Epidemiologists and other researchers with large well-characterized samples will be well placed to use these methods. Inter-disciplinary studies can then ask far more interesting questions such as those relating to developmental, multivariate and gene–environment interaction hypotheses.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Research has shown that the cochlear implant may improve deaf children's speech and communication skills. However, little is known about its effect on children's ability to socialize with hearing peers.Methods:  Using a standardized psychological measure completed by parents and a longitudinal design, this study examined the development of communication, socialization, and daily living skills of children who used hearing aids or cochlear implants for an average of 11 and 6 years, respectively.Results:  Results show that children with cochlear implants, who were more delayed than children with hearing aids at the outset, made significant progress over time. Children with both devices achieved age-appropriate development after years of hearing aid or cochlear implant use.Conclusions:  The pattern of results suggests that cochlear implants may be effective in improving deaf children's communication and social skills.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems.Method:  One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument, children's skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined, and their emotional responses (reported and observed anger, sadness, and fear) were assessed.Results:  A higher level of SCLR was a robust risk factor for various child outcomes, mediated boys’ internalizing difficulties in the marital conflict–child functioning link, and functioned as a vulnerability factor for girls’ externalizing, internalizing, and cognitive problems. Increased anger (for boys) and sadness (for girls) exacerbated adjustment difficulties related to marital conflict.Conclusions:  Findings illustrate the aggregation of risk in relation to child and family characteristics.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  There is a growing interest in the study of the genetic origins of comorbidity, a direct consequence of the recent findings of genetic loci that are seemingly linked to more than one disorder. There are several potential causes for these shared regions of linkage, but one possibility is that these loci may harbor genes with manifold effects. The established genetic correlation between reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that their comorbidity is due at least in part to genes that have an impact on several phenotypes, a phenomenon known as pleiotropy.Methods:  We employ a bivariate linkage test for selected samples that could help identify these pleiotropic loci. This linkage method was employed to carry out the first bivariate genome-wide analysis for RD and ADHD, in a selected sample of 182 sibling pairs.Results:  We found evidence for a novel locus at chromosome 14q32 (multipoint LOD = 2.5; singlepoint LOD = 3.9) with a pleiotropic effect on RD and ADHD. Another locus at 13q32, which had been implicated in previous univariate scans of RD and ADHD, seems to have a pleiotropic effect on both disorders. 20q11 is also suggested as a pleiotropic locus. Other loci previously implicated in RD or ADHD did not exhibit bivariate linkage.Conclusions:  Some loci are suggested as having pleiotropic effects on RD and ADHD, while others might have unique effects. These results highlight the utility of this bivariate linkage method to study pleiotropy.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: A systematic review was undertaken of scientifically rigorous studies of family-based services in children's health and mental health. From a pool of over 4000 articles since 1980 in health and mental health that examined either specific family-based interventions for families of children or the processes of involvement, 41 studies were identified that met the methodological criteria for inclusion. These 41 studies encompassed 3 distinct categories: families as recipients of interventions (e.g., family education, support, engagement, empowerment); (b) families as co-therapists; and (c) studies of the processes of involvement (e.g., therapeutic alliance, engagement, empowerment, expectancies, and choice). Too few experimental studies exist to conclude decisively that family-based services improve youth clinical outcomes. However, those studies that have been rigorously examined demonstrate unequivocal improvements in other types of outcomes, such as retention in services, knowledge about mental health issues, self-efficacy, and improved family interactions – all outcomes that are essential ingredients of quality care. Four implications are drawn from this review. (1) Effective family education and support interventions from studies of adults with mental illnesses and from studies of families of high-risk infants exist and can be imported into the field of children's mental health. (2) The range of outcomes that are typically assessed in clinical treatment studies is too narrow to afford an adequate view of the impact of family-based interventions. A broader view of outcomes is needed. (3) The absence of a robust literature on process variables other than therapeutic alliance limits conclusions about how and why interventions are effective. Attention to the processes by which families become involved in services will require a more robust and nuanced range of studies that attend simultaneously to processes of change and to outcome improvement. (4) Linkage of effective family-based interventions to delivery of evidence-based services is likely to amplify the impact of those services and improve outcomes for youth and families.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The literature on the prevalence and stability of preschool problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity suggests a number of links to early literacy skills and broader school achievement. Developmental considerations in the assessment of preschool ADHD are reviewed in this paper, along with evidence for the stability of symptoms over time and the relationship between early symptoms of ADHD and elementary school achievement. Emphasis is placed on describing the nature of the connection between preschool ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, as few studies to date have focused specifically on that relationship. Several explanations for the relationship between preschool ADHD symptoms and achievement are analyzed, including an explanation that focuses on the relationship between inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and the acquisition of emergent literacy and language skills. Finally, the evidence for four models that have been proposed to account for the link between behavior and learning is reviewed and critically analyzed. Suggestions are made for future research that might resolve important questions only partially addressed in studies to date.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Depression in children and adolescents is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in this population. It is a common disorder that affects 2% of children and up to 6% of adolescents. Although antidepressants are used frequently for the treatment of this disorder, there has been recent controversy about the efficacy and safety of these medications in this population. This review examined the available evidence from clinical trials of antidepressants in adolescents and children with depression.Methods:  Clinical trial data reviewed were obtained from published reports, including peer review journals and meeting abstracts, as well as unpublished data in the public domain. Clinical trials in this review included large RCTs of antidepressants in youth under the age of 19 with depression. Studies were identified in 2 stages: 1) all RCTs included in the 2004 FDA safety report were reviewed; and 2) to ensure that no additional studies not reported to the FDA were missed, MEDLINE and PSYCH Info were searched from inception until December 2004. A total of 8 published studies and 9 unpublished studies were identified and reviewed.Results:  Efficacy and safety results from each study are reviewed in detail. There are significant differences in remission and response rates between different antidepressants but also between placebo groups across studies. Adverse events are common in clinical trials involving children and adolescents with depression. Due to lack of access to full data sets, effect sizes could not be calculated.Conclusions:  With the variability in trial methodology and the variation in the drug/placebo response rates within a single trial, clinicians need to be judicious in their interpretation of research data on pediatric antidepressant trials. Significant methodological issues may also have affected the efficacy and safety results from these clinical trials.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Behavioral genetic studies provide strong evidence that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a substantial genetic component. Yet, due to the complexity of the ADHD phenotype, questions remain as to the specific genes that contribute to this condition as well as the pathways from genes to behavior. Endophenotypes, or phenotypes that are more closely linked to the neurobiological substrate of a disorder, offer the potential to address these two issues simultaneously (Freedman, Adler, & Leonard, 1999). Thus far, potential endophenotypes for ADHD have not been systematically studied.Method:  The current paper reviews evidence supporting the use of deficits on neurocognitive measures of executive functions for this purpose.Results:  Such deficits are a correlate of ADHD and show preliminary evidence of heritability and association with relevant candidate genes. Nonetheless, studies that have assessed the familial and genetic overlap of neurocognitive impairments with ADHD have yielded inconsistent results.Conclusions:  In order for executive function deficits to be used as an endophenotype for ADHD, we recommend greater attention to the neurocognitive heterogeneity of this disorder and to the precision of measurement of the neuropsychological tests employed. We also discuss empirical strategies that may be necessary to allow such research to progress prior to full resolution of the pathophysiological basis of ADHD.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  A causal relationship between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been claimed, based on an increase in ASD in the USA and the UK after introduction of the MMR vaccine. However, the possibility that this increase is coincidental has not been eliminated. The unique circumstances of a Japanese MMR vaccination program provide an opportunity for comparison of ASD incidence before and after termination of the program.Methods:  This study examined cumulative incidence of ASD up to age seven for children born from 1988 to 1996 in Kohoku Ward (population approximately 300,000), Yokohama, Japan. ASD cases included all cases of pervasive developmental disorders according to ICD-10 guidelines.Results:  The MMR vaccination rate in the city of Yokohama declined significantly in the birth cohorts of years 1988 through 1992, and not a single vaccination was administered in 1993 or thereafter. In contrast, cumulative incidence of ASD up to age seven increased significantly in the birth cohorts of years 1988 through 1996 and most notably rose dramatically beginning with the birth cohort of 1993.Conclusions:  The significance of this finding is that MMR vaccination is most unlikely to be a main cause of ASD, that it cannot explain the rise over time in the incidence of ASD, and that withdrawal of MMR in countries where it is still being used cannot be expected to lead to a reduction in the incidence of ASD.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Previous work on visual selective attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has utilised spatial search paradigms. This study compared ADHD to control children on a temporal search task using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). In addition, the effects of irrelevant singleton distractors on search performance were examined.Method:  In each condition, subjects reported the identity of a red letter ‘probe’ in a sequence of white letters which appeared one after the other at a central fixation point. The temporal position of the probe varied from an initial target, which was distinguished by surrounding asterisks. The target was reported in addition to the probe in condition 2, but not in the baseline condition 1. In a third condition, the initial target was not reported, but one of the asterisks appeared as a colour singleton on some trials.Results:  All children displayed an ‘attentional blink’ with probe detection reduced when it appeared at close temporal relations relative to the target. This ‘blink’ reduced over time, and there were no group differences in the recovery of performance, although ADHD children made more errors overall. The ADHD group were also more vulnerable than controls to distraction from irrelevant singletons in condition 3.Conclusion:  Although the basic mechanisms of selective attention were not impaired in children with ADHD, these children appeared to require more resources to execute the task and were more vulnerable to distraction by irrelevant singletons, indicating deficits in the maintenance of attentional control.
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  • 21
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Prisoners’ children appear to suffer profound psychosocial difficulties during their parents’ imprisonment. However, no previous study has examined later-life outcomes for prisoners’ children compared to children separated from parents for other reasons. We hypothesise that parental imprisonment predicts boys’ antisocial and delinquent behaviour partly because of the trauma of separation, partly because parental imprisonment is a marker for parental criminality, and partly because of childhood risks associated with parental imprisonment.Method:  This study uses prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD includes data on 411 Inner London males and their parents. We compare boys separated by parental imprisonment during their first 10 years of life with four control groups: boys who did not experience separation, boys separated by hospital or death, boys separated for other reasons (usually disharmony), and boys whose parents were only imprisoned before their birth. Individual, parenting, and family risk factors for delinquency were measured when boys were aged 8–11. Eleven antisocial and delinquent outcomes were assessed between ages 14 and 40.Results:  Separation because of parental imprisonment predicted all antisocial–delinquent outcomes compared to the four control conditions. Separation caused by parental imprisonment was also strongly associated with many other childhood risk factors for delinquency. After controlling for parental convictions and other childhood risk factors, separation caused by parental imprisonment still predicted several antisocial–delinquent outcomes, even up to age 32, compared with other types of separation.Conclusions:  Prisoners’ children are a highly vulnerable group with multiple risk factors for adverse outcomes. Parental imprisonment appears to affect children over and above separation experiences and associated risks. Further research on possible moderating and mediating factors such as stigma, reduction in family income and reduced quality of care is required to identify the mechanisms by which parental imprisonment affects children.
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  • 22
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability (‘g’) in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment was also assessed.Methods:  We used these data to conduct a behavioural genomic analysis of the five SNPs and a composite of them (‘SNP set’) that explored developmental, multivariate, and genotype–environment (GE) issues.Results:  The ‘g’ SNP set identified at 7 years yielded significant associations with ‘g’ as early as 2 years. In multivariate analyses at 7 years, the ‘g’ SNP set was more strongly associated with verbal than nonverbal ability and with reading more than mathematics performance. GE correlations were found between the SNP set for ‘g’ at 7 years and preschool proximal measures of the family environment (chaos and discipline) rather than distal measures (maternal education and father's occupational class), suggesting evocative rather than passive GE correlation. Significant GE interactions were found for discipline, education and occupation in which the association between the SNP set and ‘g’ at 7 years is stronger in low-risk environments.Conclusions:  Although the effect sizes of the five SNP associations are very small, behavioural genomic analyses using a ‘g’ SNP set illustrate how developmental, multivariate and GE questions can be addressed as more DNA associations are identified for complex traits such as ‘g’.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  This special section on molecular genetics was invited in order to raise awareness of the potential of molecular genetic approaches to inform child psychologists, psychiatrists and related professionals. As much of the terminology is specific to the field, this introductory guide aims to aid readers who may be unfamiliar with the approaches of this discipline.Methods:  Basic terminology and genetic processes are described, with sections covering ‘The Human Genome’ and ‘Genetic Markers’.Results:  The range of genetic markers is growing all the time, but those that are thought to be functional and/or are highly variable are particularly useful.Conclusions:  Genotyping approaches that offer high efficiency, thus allowing for large numbers of genotypes on large numbers of individuals, are likely to come to the fore in the next few years.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with fronto-striatal dysfunction. There is debate as to the extent to which TS is associated with cognitive impairment. Some authors argue that any impairments seen are attributable to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology, whilst others have suggested that uncomplicated TS is associated with mild deficits limited primarily to inhibitory processes. The present study was designed to examine this issue using carefully screened participants with TS and experimental measures thought to involve different areas of the frontal lobes.Methods:  Adolescents with TS who were screened for comorbid psychiatric disorder were compared with a healthy control group on a set of executive measures. Two tasks involving behavioural inhibition were used: a Sentence Completion task in which sentences had to be completed first with straightforward and then with nonsensical endings, and a Flanker task in which a central stimulus was surrounded by either compatible or incompatible flankers. Working memory was assessed using an N-back task, and reward learning was assessed using a Gambling task. Both accuracy and reaction times were measured for each task.Results:  The TS group differed significantly from the control group on both the Sentence Completion task and on the Flanker task. On the Sentence Completion task, they were slower to make both sensible and nonsensical completions, and they had higher error scores on the nonsensical completions. On the Flanker task, the TS participants were less accurate than the control group, since they were poorer on the incompatible but not the compatible trials. A similar interaction with trial type was found for speed, where the TS participants were slowed more by the incompatible versus compatible trials, although overall their performance tended to be faster than the controls. The TS group did not differ significantly from the control group on measures of working memory or reward learning.Conclusions:  The findings provide further evidence that uncomplicated TS is not associated with widespread executive impairments. However, it was not clear that any differences between the groups could be attributed solely to selective inhibitory impairment.
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  • 27
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Unusual responses to sensory stimuli are seen in many children with autism. Their presence was highlighted both in early accounts of autism and in more recent first-person descriptions. There is a widespread belief that sensory symptoms characterize autism and differentiate it from other disorders. This paper examines the empirical evidence for this assumption.Method:  All controlled experimental laboratory investigations published since 1960 were identified through systematic searches using Medline/PubMed and PsycInfo search engines. A total of 48 empirical papers and 27 theoretical or conceptual papers were reviewed.Results:  Sensory symptoms are more frequent and prominent in children with autism than in typically developing children, but there is not good evidence that these symptoms differentiate autism from other developmental disorders. Certain groups, including children with fragile X syndrome and those who are deaf-blind, appear to demonstrate higher rates of sensory symptoms than children with autism. In reviewing the evidence relevant to two theories of sensory dysfunction in autism, over- and under-arousal theory, we find that there is very little support for hyper-arousal and failure of habituation in autism. There is more evidence that children with autism, as a group, are hypo-responsive to sensory stimuli, but there are also multiple failures to replicate findings and studies that demonstrate lack of group differences.Conclusions:  The use of different methods, the study of different sensory modalities, and the changing scientific standards across decades complicate interpretation of this body of work. We close with suggestions for future research in this area.
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  • 28
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  On October 29, 1998, around 400 young people were gathered in an old warehouse in Göteborg, Sweden, for a discotheque party. A fire erupted and spread explosively. Adolescents were exposed to dreadful scenes inside and outside the building. In all, 63 young people were killed and 213 physically injured. An 18-month follow-up with 275 adolescents (126 girls) who survived the fire, regarding the effects of the fire on symptoms of posttraumatic stress, school adjustment and performance, is reported.Methods:  Impact of Events Scale (IES), Clinician Administered Posttraumatic Stress Scale (CAPS) and an interview concerning background factors and issues of public and personal support.Results:  The level of posttraumatic stress was generally high, and highest among adolescents with an immigrant background. In all, 25% of the participants met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. Twenty-three percent of the participants reported having either dropped out of school or repeated a class because of the fire. Students’ ratings of how their own school handled the situation, and school absenteeism, were related to ratings of their own performance in school as well as to the level of posttraumatic stress.Conclusions:  Traditional talking cures were more sought out by girls than boys. Broad-scale interventions must be complemented with special treatment opportunities for the most severely afflicted. Victims who suffer from high levels of posttraumatic stress need special support for a long period of time to minimise the effects on scholastic achievement and adjustment. Studies of the effects of traumatic events on child and adolescent development should measure school-related effects better than has hitherto been the case.
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  • 29
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  This paper expands upon recent efforts to advance beyond the examination of concurrent comorbidity between affective and behavioral disorders by testing developmental sequences among disorders. Doing so allows for improved tests of theories, such as Capaldi and Patterson's failure model of Conduct Disorder (CD) and depression. Furthermore, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is rarely considered distinctly from CD, minimizing the ability to identify distinct effects among behavioral disorders.Methods:  This paper used data from the Developmental Trends Study, a clinic-referred cohort of 177 boys, along with their parents, who were assessed regularly using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive set of other measures. Boys were recruited when they were between the ages of 7 and 12, and were reassessed annually until age 18. Predictive regression models tested the continuities among disorders, with depression, overanxious disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), ODD and CD examined separately as outcomes.Results:  Each disorder showed homotypic continuity, but a clear developmental sequence of heterotypic continuity also emerged. ADHD was predicted by no other disorders, and exclusively predicted ODD. CD was predicted only by ODD. However, ODD was also directly predictive of future anxiety and depression, and anxiety predicted future depression as well. A specific test of the failure model of CD and depression supported that model.Conclusions:  ODD appears as a pivotal developmental disorder in young males, in that ODD is notably influential in both subsequent behavioral and affective disorders. CD influences later depression only indirectly, through psychosocial impairment. Anxiety precedes depression, and ADHD is not predicted by other disorders.
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  • 30
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is being increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. Yet comparatively little attention has been given in the literature to management.Methods:  Description of the main features of the disorder, precipitating and maintaining factors and diagnostic assessment. Outline of different views on the nature and treatment of CFS in childhood. Description of a rehabilitation program based on cognitive behavior therapy and graded activity.Results:  Using adult research criteria, CFS can be diagnosed in children and adolescents. In its severe form it is often triggered by infectious illness episodes. It is commonly associated with mood disorders in the child and with mental distress and high levels of emotional involvement in parents. A number of patient support groups hold the view that CFS is a medical disorder, contest a psychiatric contribution and advocate ‘pacing’ as an approach to rehabilitation which includes avoiding activities. To date there is no empirical evidence for the efficacy of this approach. Research in adults, open and clinical reports in children support the use of graded activity and family cognitive behavior therapy. The main aim is to enable children, with the help of their family, to carry out their own rehabilitation with some support and guidance from a health professional. Engaging the child and family in treatment and forming a therapeutic alliance is a continual process and a crucial aspect of management, as many families view the condition as a medical disorder and are initially ambivalent towards this approach.Conclusions:  There is controversy about the nature and management of CFS in childhood but a rehabilitation program based on family cognitive behavior therapy can be implemented and seems to hold most promise in the management of children with CFS. Family engagement is a crucial aspect of management.
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  • 31
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  The seven papers in this special section chart where we are in the quest for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in key areas of child psychology and psychiatry such as reading and hyperactivity. But we are not there yet.Methods:  This commentary considers some new developments that are likely to accelerate the journey towards the identification of QTLs.Results:  The single most important factor is the need for very large samples to attain adequate power to detect and replicate QTLs of very small effect size. Another important development is the microarray, which makes it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of SNPs simultaneously. Using microarrays in association studies allows SNPs across the whole genome to be genotyped. Microarrays will boost power even more when they contain all functional polymorphisms in the genome, including functional non-coding DNA.Conclusions:  Once replicable QTLs are identified in areas such as reading and hyperactivity, the real journey will begin. Future studies will use sets of QTLs as genetic risk indicators in top-down behavioural genomic research, leading to gene-based diagnoses, gene-based treatments tailored to the individual, and early warning systems and interventions. These discoveries will eventually help to prevent or at least ameliorate childhood disorders before they cast their long shadow over development.
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  • 32
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Movement clumsiness (or Developmental Coordination Disorder – DCD) has gained increasing recognition as a significant condition of childhood. However, some uncertainty still exists about diagnosis. Accordingly, approaches to assessment and treatment are varied, each drawing on distinct theoretical assumptions about the aetiology of the condition and its developmental course.Method:  This review evaluates the current status of different approaches to motor assessment and treatment for children with DCD. These approaches are divided according to their broad conceptual origin (or explanatory framework): Normative Functional Skill Approach, General Abilities Approach, Neurodevelopmental Theory, Dynamical Systems Theory, and the Cognitive Neuroscientific Approach.Conclusions:  Each conceptual framework is shown to support assessment and treatment methods with varying degrees of conceptual and psychometric integrity. The normative functional skill approach supports the major screening devices for DCD and cognitive (or top-down) approaches to intervention. The general abilities approach and traditional neurodevelopmental theory are not well supported by recent research. The dynamical systems approach supports promising trends in biomechanical or kinematic analysis of movement, ecological task analysis, and task-specific intervention. Finally, and more recently, the cognitive neuroscientific approach has generated some examples of process-oriented assessment and treatment based on validated (brain–behaviour) models of motor control and learning. A multi-level approach to movement assessment and treatment is recommended for DCD, providing a more complete representation of motor development at different levels of function – behavioural, neurocognitive, and emotional.
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  • 33
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 34
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  There has been ongoing interest in the role of intelligence in longer-term educational and occupational achievement and social adjustment. The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which IQ in middle childhood (8–9 years) was prognostic of future outcomes when due allowance was made for confounding personal and social factors.Methods:  Data were gathered on (WISC-R) IQ at ages 8–9 years and a range of educational and social adjustment measures over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children.Results:  IQ assessed at ages 8–9 years was related to a range of outcomes: later crime (offending, arrest/conviction); substance use disorders (nicotine dependence, illicit drug dependence); mental health (anxiety, suicidality); sexual adjustment (number of sexual partners, pregnancy); educational achievement (school leaving qualifications, tertiary qualifications); and occupational outcomes (unemployment, income). However, intelligence was largely unrelated to many of these outcomes: crime, mental health, sexual behaviours, and illicit substance dependence after statistical adjustment for early behaviour problems and family background. Strong relationships remained between childhood intelligence and later educational and occupational outcomes.Conclusions:  Much of the association between early intelligence and later social adjustment is mediated by childhood conduct problems and family social circumstances. However, strong relationships exist between early intelligence and later academic achievement and income independently of these factors.
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  • 35
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Physicians, including child and adolescent psychiatrists, show variability and inaccuracies in diagnosis and treatment of their patients and do not routinely implement evidenced-based medical and psychiatric treatments in the community. We believe that it is necessary to characterize the decision-making processes of child and adolescent psychiatrists using theories and methods from cognitive and social sciences in order to design effective interventions to improve practice and education. This paper selectively reviews the decision-making literature, including recent studies on naturalistic decision making, novice–expert differences, and the role of technology on decision making and cognition. We also provide examples from other areas of medicine and discuss their implications for child psychiatry.
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  • 36
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    International journal of cosmetic science 27 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-2494
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    Topics: Medicine
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    International journal of cosmetic science 27 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-2494
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 38
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    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 19 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-3083
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 39
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    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 19 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine
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    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 19 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine
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    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 19 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 42
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    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 19 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 43
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Type IV secretion systems are employed by a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms for the translocation of macromolecules across the cell envelope. The translocated substrates (proteins, protein–DNA complexes and DNA) are as diverse as the organisms on the donor and recipient side of the translocation process. Over the course of evolution, these macromolecular transporters were adapted to many different purposes, but their basic mechanism was conserved. They impact human life in various ways, as there are driving forces of horizontal gene transfer, which spreads biodegradative capabilities of environmental bacteria as well as antibiotic resistance of pathogens in hospitals. Also, they translocate toxins and other effectors, which have an effect on host cell metabolism and are essential for the virulence of bacterial pathogens. We here present recent developments of research on the mechanism of type IV secretion focusing on the energetization of transport and assembly processes, formation of the translocation channel and of surface-exposed pili, which initiate host cell interactions.
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  • 44
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to elicit broad effects on nuclear gene expression. We show here that transcription dependent on the prototypical acidic activator Gal4 is responsive to mitochondrial dysfunction. In cells with no mitochondrial DNA, Gal4-dependent gene expression is elevated. A minimal Gal4 activator containing the DNA binding and activation domain is sufficient for this response. Transcription dependent on a fusion of Gal4 to a heterologous DNA binding domain is similarly elevated in a mitochondrial mutant. Analysis of different Gal4-dependent promoters and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on Gal4 activity is related to increased DNA binding to the cognate Gal4 element. Given that fermentation is the only means to obtain energy in respiratory deficient cells, it is possible that higher Gal4 activity in cells with dysfunctional mitochondria works to promote more efficient fermentation of galactose.
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  • 45
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Pseudomonas putida vanillate-O-demethylase consisting of VanA and VanB was expressed in Escherichia coli strain K-12. Recombinant E. coli strain K-12 cells expressing VanAB efficiently converted vanillate into protocatechuate with glucose consumption. Mutant lacking either pgi or zwf showed higher or lower converting activity than the parental strain, respectively. Formaldehyde, which is the by-product of the demethylation, was converted into formate in the cellular reaction. Formate accumulation was blocked by gene disruption of the E. coli frmA that coded glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase.
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  • 46
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 outbreak caused by salted salmon roe that occurred in Japan, 1998, a food isolate (F2) was NaCl-resistant and a patient isolate (P5) was sensitive to NaCl. We show here that hydrogen peroxide, like NaCl, induced a significant loss of culturability in P5. The BacLight assay suggested that the EHEC O157:H7 entered a viable but nonculturable (VNC) state. We used the passage through mice in an attempt to model this transition in phenotype. Mouse-passaged isogenic variants of F2 became NaCl- and oxidation-sensitive, entered the nonculturable state in response to either of these stresses, and could be resuscitated by sodium pyruvate. Since the expression of RpoS in response to these stresses correlated with the isolates' culturabilities, we concluded that in vivo passage negatively modulated RpoS expression, and the subsequent stress exposure induced the VNC state in the EHEC O157:H7 isolates.
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  • 47
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the present study a procedure combining a cell extraction method and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for molecular monitoring and quantification of bacteria in soil and aquifer samples is presented. FISH was applied to bacterial cells extracted from the matrix by density gradient centrifugation. This separation method was applied to soil and aquifer samples and produced high cell recovery of 76.5%± 4.4 and 78.0%± 3.2, respectively. FISH, performed on the harvested cells, permitted a perfect visualization and quantification of bacteria. This approach is therefore promising for in situ detection of indigenous bacterial communities in complex samples.
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A screening for h ydrogen up take (hup) genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates from different locations within Spain identified no Hup+ strains, confirming the scarcity of the Hup trait in R. leguminosarum. However, five new Hup+ strains were isolated from Ni-rich soils from Italy and Germany. The hup gene variability was studied in these strains and in six available strains isolated from North America. Sequence analysis of three regions within the hup cluster showed an unusually high conservation among strains, with only 0.5–0.6% polymorphic sites, suggesting that R. leguminosarum acquired hup genes de novo in a very recent event.
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  • 49
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Recent molecular approaches for the study of microbial communities such as PCR-cloning have enabled the detection and identification of as-yet-unculturable taxa. Cloning and sequencing of multiple samples is extremely laborious and expensive to perform thoroughly due to the large diversity involved. For this purpose, techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) may be better suited. There is increasing evidence suggesting that DGGE of complex polymicrobial communities may be limited by co-migration of different sequences. In this study, we attempt to address this limitation by excising individual bands and running them through a shorter denaturant gradient, a process we have termed “denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gel expansion” (DGGEGE).
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  • 50
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: As an initial step to understand the mobile nature of class II mercury resistance transposon TnMERI1, the effect of the recA gene on translocation of mini-TnMERI1 was evaluated. A higher transposition frequency in the LE392 strain (2.4 ± 1.2 × 10−5) than in the recA-deficient DH1 strain (1.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6) indicated participation of the recA gene in mini-TnMERI1 transposition. Introduction of the recA gene into the DH1 strain complemented the transposition frequency at the same level as in LE392 and confirmed participation of the recA gene in transposition. However, treatment of cells by stress agents, including irradiation of up to 3000 J m−2 UV doses, did not alter the transposition frequency and suggested independence of RecA from the SOS stress response. Further analysis of transconjugants indicated participation of RecA in the resolution of the cointegrate structure of the transposon. These results suggested that RecA is a constitutive cellular factor that increases translocation of mini-TnMERI1 and may participate in dissemination of TnMERI1-like transposons.
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  • 51
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The chromosome of Bacillus subtilis codes for seven extracytoplasmic function sigma factors the activity of which is modulated normally by a cognate anti-sigma factor. While inducing factors and genes for four of them (σM, σW, σX, and σY) have been identified, those of the remaining three sigma factors including σV remain elusive. The objective of the present study was the unequivocal identification of its anti-sigma factor and of genes controlled by σV. In many cases reported so far the gene coding for the anti-sigma factor is located immediately downstream of the gene coding for the sigma factor, and both form a bicistronic operon. We could show by two different experimental approaches that this is also the case for sigV and rsiV. Under conditions of overproduction of σV, 13 genes could be identified being induced several-fold by the DNA macroarray technique. Induction of three of them was confirmed by Northern blots, and the potential promoter of sigV was identified by primer extension. This led to the deduction of a consensus sequence recognized by σV.
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  • 53
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Noroviruses are positive strand RNA viruses that have received increased attention in recent years because their role as etiologic agents in acute gastroenteritis outbreaks is now clearly established. Much has been learned about the epidemiology of these viruses and the extent of genetic diversity among circulating strains. In contrast, progress on understanding the basic mechanisms of virus replication has been far slower due to the inability to cultivate virus in the laboratory. Despite this limitation, significant progress has been made in defining some basic functions of the norovirus proteins, and the structures of two have been solved to near atomic resolution. This minireview summarizes these recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the norovirus proteins and provides speculation about what roles they may play in the virus replication cycle.
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    FEMS microbiology letters 253 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The contribution of target gene mutations and active efflux to varying levels of quinolone resistance in Irish Campylobacter isolates was studied. The Thr-86-Ile modification of GyrA did not correlate with the level of quinolone resistance. The efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-Naphthylamide (PAβN) had no effect on the MICs to ciprofloxacin. In contrast, a PAβN sensitive efflux system contributed to the low-level nalixidic acid resistance phenotype. The lack of effect of PAβN in high-level resistant nalidixic isolates may be attributable to mutations identified in the CmeB efflux pump of these isolates. PAβN may have limited diagnostic value in the assessment of the contribution of efflux pump activity to ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter.
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  • 55
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    FEMS microbiology letters 252 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have constructed a dam mutant of Yersinia pestis GB. In BALB/c mice inoculated subcutaneously, the median lethal dose of the mutant was at least 2000-fold higher than the wild type. Mice inoculated with sub-lethal doses of the mutant were protected against a subsequent challenge with virulent Y. pestis. The effect of dam inactivation on gene expression was examined using a DNA microarray, which revealed increased expression of a number of genes associated with the SOS response. These results confirm the key role of Dam in the regulation of virulence, and its potential role as a target for the generation of attenuated strains of pathogenic bacteria.
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  • 56
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    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Physiologically significant levels of intracellular coenzyme A were identified in Pyrococcus furiosus, Thermococcus litoralis, and Sulfolobus solfataricus, suggesting a role for CoA as an important low molecular mass thiol in the thermophilic Archaea. In P. furiosus, cells grown in the presence of sulfur showed significantly higher levels of oxidized CoA compared with those grown in the absence of S0. T. litoralis showed strikingly similar CoA levels, although with low disulfide levels in both the presence and absence of S0. S. solfataricus showed similarly high levels of CoA thiol, with correspondingly low levels of the CoA disulfide. These results are consistent with the identification of a coenzyme A disulfide reductase (CoADR) in P. furiosus and horikoshii as well as the presence of CoADR homologues in the genomes of S. solfataricus and T. kodakaraensis.
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    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An inactive (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein:coenzyme A transacylase (PhaGPm) was cloned from a newly isolated Proteobacteria Pseudomonas mendocina LZ. It is the first characterized native inactive PhaG protein. Sequence analysis indicated that there were only two sites where the amino acid sequence differed between this inactive protein and the functional PhaGPp from P. putida. The differences were located at position 78 and in the region 109–113 in the amino acid sequence. Mutagenesis was carried out to investigate these two sites. A recombinant strain harboring a S78C PhaGPp mutant accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) at 11.9% of the cellular dry weight, as compared to the 21.6% PHA produced by the recombinant harboring the wild-type PhaGPp. On the other hand, the changes in the amino acid region 109–113 of PhaGPp to its corresponding region of PhaGPm resulted in negligible PHA accumulation. This demonstrated that region 109–113 in PhaG is relatively important for transacylase activity, while position 78 just plays a supporting role for the enzyme. Furthermore, 3-D structural models of PhaGPp and PhaGPm developed by computational prediction revealed that the variation in amino acids at 109–113 leads to the destruction of the PhaG catalytic center, resulting in the loss of enzyme activity.
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 252 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An isogenic mutant of Listeria monocytogenes EGD with a deletion of the response regulator gene degU showed a lack of motility due to the absence of flagella. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass-spectrometry and microarray analyses to identify the listerial genes that depend on DegU for expression. We found that the two L. monocytogenes operons encoding flagella-specific genes and the monocistronically transcribed flaA gene are positively regulated by DegU at 24 °C, but are not expressed at 37 °C.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei are trypanosomatid protozoa of insects that normally contain intracellular symbiotic bacteria. The protozoa can be rid of their endosymbionts by antibiotics, producing a cured cell line. Here, we analyzed the glycoconjugate profiles of endosymbiont-harboring and cured strains of B. culicis and C. deanei by Western blotting and flow cytometry analyses using lectins that recognize specifically sialic acid and mannose-like residues. The absence of the endosymbiont increased the intensity of the lectins binding on both trypanosomatids. In addition, wild and cured strain-specific glycoconjugate bands were identified. The role of the surface saccharide residues on the interaction with explanted guts from Aedes aegypti gut was assessed. The aposymbiotic strains of B. culicis and C. deanei presented interaction rates 3.3- and 2.3-fold lower with the insect gut, respectively, when compared with the endosymbiont-bearing strains. The interaction rate of sialidase-treated cells of the wild and cured strains of B. culicis and C. deanei was reduced in at least 90% in relation to the control. The interaction of B. culicis (wild strain) with explanted guts was inhibited in the presence of mucin (56%), fetuin (62%), sialyllactose (64%) and α-methyl-d-mannoside (80%), while in C. deanei (wild strain) the inhibition was 53%, 56%, 79% and 34%, respectively. Collectively, our results suggest a possible involvement of sialomolecules and mannose-rich glycoconjugates in the interaction between insect trypanosomatids and the invertebrate host.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium found in freshwater environments that is responsible for pneumonia. People become infected through inhalation of contaminated droplets from water devices, such as cooling towers and showers. It is important to find new treatments that decrease the development of Legionella. We found a Staphylococcus warneri strain that inhibits Legionella growth. This activity is due to a molecule secreted by S. warneri. This molecule displayed a high heat-stability and its activity was lost after protease treatments, suggesting that it might be a bacteriocin. Its purification led us to conclude that this anti-Legionella molecule is an highly hydrophobic peptide. It has an original and very specific spectrum of activity, directed only toward the Legionella genus. This is the first description of an antibacterial peptide active against Legionella.
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  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 252 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The antibiotic susceptibility of wild Listeria monocytogenes strains and their corresponding nisin resistant variants was assessed. The resistant strains were more sensitive to most of the tested antibiotics than their wild-type counterparts. A slight increase in MIC was observed for a few antibiotics including the membrane disturbing polymixin B. Cross-resistance was detected with two synthetic antimicrobial peptides. A lower C15/C17 ratio in the membrane fatty acid composition of the nisin resistant strains was found, and one strain pair showed a significant difference in surface hydrophobicity. As judged by these results, no clear correlation could be established between resistance to nisin and to worldwide-used antibiotics.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An Escherichia coli–Laribacter hongkongensis shuttle vector (pPW380) was constructed by ligating the 4701-bp Eco RI digested fragment of pHLHK8 to Eco RI digested pBK-CMV. An E. coli–L. hongkongensis inducible expression shuttle vector was further constructed by ligating a 2105-bp fragment that contains the tetracycline repressor and tetracycline-inducible promoter region of pALC2084 to the 8897-bp fragment of pPW380, deletion of the green fluorescent protein gene, and insertion of a multiple cloning site. This inducible expression system was able to express two commonly used reporter genes, the green fluorescent protein gene and the glutathione S-transferase gene, efficiently in E. coli and L. hongkongensis.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A moderately halotolerant, Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, spore-forming bacterium, designated as strain YAS1, was isolated from an olive-brine fermentation rich in aromatic compounds, after enrichment on tyrosol. Strain YAS1 grew between 25 and 45 °C and optimally at 37 °C. It grew in the presence of 0–15% (v/w) NaCl, with an optimum of 3–6% (v/w) NaCl. The DNA G + C content was found to be 49.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that this isolate was a member of the genus Bacillus. The newly isolated strain YAS1 represents the first moderately halotolerant bacterium transforming tyrosol to p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (PHPA) in the presence of yeast extract.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sixteen isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis, derived from various soil samples collected in Australia, are highly toxic to larvae of the sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina). The toxin gene from one of the strains (CAA890) was cloned by genome walking, and sequencing of the cloned fragments revealed a new cry gene, encoding a protein of 1134 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 139,209 Da. Based on the amino acid sequence comparison with known Cry δ-endotoxins, the gene was designated cry47Aa. Homology modelling based on known crystal structures of the Cry toxins reveals the differences to be located in the loops of domain II in the putative toxin-receptor binding surfaces between Cry47Aa and the dipteran active Cry2Aa. We also showed that the cry47Aa gene is present in the other isolates that are highly toxic to the sheep blowfly.
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  • 65
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 252 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Condensation (C) domains in the nonribosomal peptide synthetases are capable of catalyzing peptide bond formation between two consecutively bound various amino acids. C-domains coincide in frequency with the number of peptide bonds in the product peptide. In this study, a phylogenetic approach was used to investigate structural diversity of bacterial C-domains. Phylogenetic trees show that the C-domains are clustered into three functional groups according to the types of substrate donor molecules. They are l-peptidyl donors, d-peptidyl donors, and N-acyl donors. The fact that C-domain structure is not subject to optical configuration of amino acid acceptor molecules supports an idea that the conversion from l to d-form of incorporating amino acid acceptor occurs during or after peptide bond formation. l-peptidyl donors and d-peptidyl donors are suggested to separate before separating the lineage of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the evolution process.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: HypR has recently been described as the first transcriptional regulator involved in the oxidative stress response and in the intracellular survival of Enterococcus faecalis within macrophages. In order to characterize the HypR regulon, real-time quantitative RT-PCR experiments were performed. The expression of four genes involved in the oxidative stress response encoding catalase, glutathione reductase, and the two subunits of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase were down regulated in the hypR background under H2O2 condition. These findings show that HypR acts as a transcriptional activator, especially during oxidative stress. In addition, DNAse I footprinting assays allowed us to identify the HypR-protected DNA regions corresponding to the “HypR box” in the hypR promoter. Moreover, the effect of the hypR mutation on the virulence of E. faecalis was evaluated in comparison with the wild-type JH2–2 strain using a mouse peritonitis model. Our results revealed that HypR appears to be an important virulence factor in E. faecalis.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. As iron regulation of gene expression is common in bacteria, in the present studies, we have used microarray analysis to examine the effects of growth in different iron concentrations on the regulation of gene expression in B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. Gene expression profiles for these two bacterial species were similar under high and low iron growth conditions irrespective of growth phase. Growth in low iron led to reduced expression of genes encoding most respiratory metabolic systems and proteins of putative function, such as NADH-dehydrogenases, cytochrome oxidases, and ATP-synthases. In contrast, genes encoding siderophore-mediated iron transport, heme-hemin receptors, and a variety of metabolic enzymes for alternative metabolism were induced under low iron conditions. The overall gene expression profiles suggest that B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are able to adapt to the iron-restricted conditions in the host environment by up-regulating an iron-acquisition system and by using alternative metabolic pathways for energy production. The observations relative to the induction of specific metabolic enzymes during bacterial growth under low iron conditions warrants further experimentation.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the biosynthesis of type B trichothecenes, four oxygenation steps remain to have genes functionally assigned to them. On the basis of the complete genome sequence of Fusarium graminearum, expression patterns of all oxygenase genes were investigated in Fusarium asiaticum (F. graminearum lineage 6). As a result, we identified five cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) genes that are specifically expressed under trichothecene-producing conditions and are unique to the toxin-producing strains. The entire coding regions of four of these genes were identified in F. asiaticum. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, none of the oxygenases were able to transform trichodiene-11-one to expected products. However, one of the oxygenases catalyzed the 2β-hydroxylation rather than the expected 2α-hydroxylation. Targeted disruption of the five CYP genes did not alter the trichothecene profiles of F. asiaticum. The results are discussed in relation to the presence of as-yet-unidentified oxygenation genes that are necessary for the biosynthesis of trichothecenes.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ArcA/ArcB two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli regulates gene expression in response to the redox conditions of growth. In this study, uvrA gene expression was repressed when ArcA was induced in E. coli. Transcription of uvrA increased in ΔarcA and ΔarcB strains more than in the wild-type strain, whose trend was remarkable under the anaerobic condition. In the wild-type strain grown in the presence of DTT (10 mM), the uvrA gene expression was also repressed. Furthermore, the results of in vitro transcription and DNase I footprinting experiments indicated that ArcA specifically bound to the ArcA box [(A/T)GTTAATTA(A/T)] in the uvrA promoter and represses its transcription. These results suggest that the ArcA/ArcB two-component system works to negatively regulate uvrA gene expression.
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  • 70
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118 is a probiotic bacterium that was originally isolated from human intestinal tissues and was subsequently shown in a pilot study to alleviate symptoms associated with mild-moderate Crohn's disease. Strain UCC118 can adhere to animal and human intestinal tissue, and to both healthy and inflamed ulcerative colitis mucosa, irrespective of location in the gut. In this study, an enzymatic technique has been combined with proteomic analysis to correlate bacterial growth phase with the presence of factors present in the cell wall of the bacterium. Using PAGE electrophoresis, it was determined that progression from lag to log to stationary growth phases in vitro correlated with increasing prominence of an 84 kD protein associated with in vitro adherence ability. Isolated proteins from the 84 kD band region were further separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resolving this band into 20 individual protein spots at differing isoelectric points. The protein moieties were excised, trypsin digested and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. The observed proteins are analogous to those reported to be associated with the Listeria monocytogenes cell-wall proteome, and include DnaK, Ef-Ts and pyruvate kinase. These data suggest that at least some of the beneficial attributes of probiotic lactobacilli, and in particular this strain, may be due to nonpathogenic mimicry of pathogens and potentially be mediated through a form of attenuated virulence.
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  • 71
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
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  • 72
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 251 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is unusual among necrotrophic pathogens in its requirement for senescent tissues to establish an infection and to complete the life cycle. A model for the infection process has emerged whereby the pathogenic phase is bounded by saprophytic phases; the distinction being that the dead tissues in the latter are generated by the actions of the pathogen. Initial colonization of dead tissue provides nutrients for pathogen establishment and resources to infect healthy plant tissue. The early pathogenicity stage involves production of oxalic acid and the expression of cell wall degrading enzymes, such as specific isoforms of polygalacturonase (SSPG1) and protease (ASPS), at the expanding edge of the lesion. Such activities release small molecules (oligo-galacturonides and peptides) that serve to induce the expression of a second wave of degradative enzymes that collectively bring about the total dissolution of the plant tissue. Oxalic acid and other metabolites and enzymes suppress host defences during the pathogenic phase, while other components initiate host cell death responses leading to the formation of necrotic tissue. The pathogenic phase is followed by a second saprophytic phase, the transition to which is effected by declining cAMP levels as glucose becomes available and further hydrolytic enzyme synthesis is repressed. Low cAMP levels and an acidic environment generated by the secretion of oxalic acid promote sclerotial development and completion of the life cycle. This review brings together histological, biochemical and molecular information gathered over the past several decades to develop this tri-phasic model for infection. In several instances, studies with Botrytis species are drawn upon for supplemental and supportive evidence for this model. In this process, we attempt to outline how the interplay between glucose levels, cAMP and ambient pH serves to coordinate the transition between these phases and dictate the biochemical and developmental events that define them.
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