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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (154,286)
  • Blackwell Science Inc  (7,145)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Glass and polyethylenterephthalate (PET) bottles filled with sunflower oil were stored under both light and dark and with/without headspace to determine the effects of light, air, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids, soap content and iodine number were measured to determine stability of sunflower oil every 3 months until 9 months. Glass bottles recorded lower oxidation values than oils packaged in PET. The oxidation proceeded faster in packages stored in light than in darkness, and in those with headspace. The best quality oil was found stored in the dark, free of air and packed in glass and then in PET. Even though glass gave the best protection against oxidation, PET bottles offer adequate protection (especially in the dark). This study showed that air, packaging and storage time all have an effect on the stability of sunflower oil.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of intestinal microflora on the antioxidant activity of apple juice was assessed using the scavenging of DPPH radical. The culture medium contained 20% of laboratory-made apple juice of Idaret cultivar and 0.2% of sodium citrate neutralizing solution. Thirty-hour anaerobic cultures were characterized by comparable acidity and bacterial profiles of the genera determined, regardless of pure strain coculture or fresh fecal inoculum used. Apple juice showed the highest DPPH scavenging capacity of 59.9%, which was significantly reduced upon fermentation of fecal bacteria to 37.4%, or pure strain coculture to 33.4%. In the 24-h anaerobic monocultures, the degree of DPPH scavenging was differentiated: Lactobacillus 21.4–30.2%, Bifidobacterium 28.4–51.4%, Escherichia 50.9% and Enterococcus 35.9–37.9%. The degree of DPPH scavenging was highly positively correlated (0.824) with pH, and highly/moderately negatively correlated (−0.660) with bacterial count. The results indicate reduction of antioxidant activity of apple juice as influenced by intensive bacterial growth, irrespective of species or strain used.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new degumming protocol has been developed which employs electrolyte solutions to remove nonhydratable gums from soybean, rice bran and mustard oils. It removes nonhydratable gums, mostly phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), which is left out after water degumming, and could not be removed without the use of phosphoric or citric acid. Acid degumming is associated with oil loss (∼10%) due to the emulsifying nature and subsequent washings. However, physical degumming with electrolyte solutions, when combined with water degumming, removes nonhydratable gums with much less oil loss (∼4%). The water-degummed vegetable oils, when treated with 2% of electrolyte solution, prepared by mixing aqueous solution of 1.5% of potassium chloride and 0.5% of sodium chloride in a ratio of 95 : 5 (v/v), yielded degummed soybean, rice-bran and mustard oils with phospholipid contents as low a 0.05, 0.06 and 0.02%, respectively. Gums recovered through this technique can easily be regenerated and used for commercial purposes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A method to quantify β-sitosterol (BSS) and β-sitosteryl glucoside (BSSG) in dietary supplements containing added BSS and BSSG was developed and also validated for the analysis of naturally occurring free and esterified sterols and steryl glucosides in foods. Steryl glucosides were extracted with hexane-diethyl ether (1 : 1, v/v) after the alkaline saponification of a powdered supplement or of total lipid extracts of whole wheat flour, granola bars, soybeans, flaxseed, dried figs, peanut butter, lyophilized mixed vegetables, almonds, pine nuts and a diet homogenate. An oil-based supplement was analyzed directly. Steryl glucosides were isolated by solid-phase extraction, derivatized and quantified as trimethylsilyl ethers using capillary gas chromatography (GC) with a 5% diphenyl−95% dimethylpolysiloxane column. Recovery studies using a commercially available mixed steryl glucoside standard and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses validated the method. Approximately 2–36 mg/100 g (9–37%) of total sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol in the foods was contributed by the glucosides.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The quality changes in rapeseed and soybean oils and hardened frying fat during heating were investigated. Two kilograms of samples were heated at 180 ± 2C in an open deep-fat fryer during six consecutive days (2 × 2 h per day) until the total time of heat treatment was 24 h. The samples were evaluated after every 2 h of heating. The indices used for evaluation of quality changes in fat and oils were: acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. The fatty acid compositions of oils and fat before heating were also determined. The lower intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes during heating, as measured by selected indices of quality, suggests wider use of hardened frying fat for food frying.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Processed rice bran oils (RBOs) – refined chemically (cRBO) and physically (pRBO) – were studied for frying performance compared to sunflower oil. Their physicochemical differences showed in appearance, color and oryzanol content, partial acylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter. Bhujia was prepared in sunflower and RBOs and their frying performance measured in the oil from the bhujia. Oils after frying had deeper color (23.9–137.5% increase) and higher peroxide (101.4–274.3% increase) and free fatty acid values (−4.7 to +27.3% change) compared to the starting oils, but the RBOs studied showed lesser changes compared to the control. Oil in the bhujia was slightly lower (−7.9%) for a low-oryzanol cRBO while it was slightly higher (+7.0%) for a high-oryzanol pRBO. Both showed mild foaming compared to the control sunflower oil while retaining oryzanol in the oil and bhujia during frying (when partial acylglycerols caused some foaming). The bhujia retained the RBO's healthy oryzanol.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple, fast, sensitive and accurate turbidimetric assay of lipids in the milled seeds was developed. The procedure is based on the extraction of lipids into acetone followed by their turbidimetric reaction with a 1.5% solution of sulfosalicylic acid and turbidimetric measurements. The spectral measurement was made at 440 nm against a blank of the reagents. A standard curve was constructed using raw fat extracted from the species being analyzed. For analysis of a large number of solvents, the standardization of the turbidimetric method may be accomplished using Soxhlet values for a few representative samples. A negative relationship between the hardness of maize particles and their content of raw fat was observed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flesh and skin of Anguilla japonica and Conger myriaster were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate and diethyl ether extracts (4 mg/mL) after extracting with methanol were tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging (FRS) activity for flesh and skin of each eel species. The values were compared with α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Extracts showing positive results, when tested for DPPH FRS, were examined for dose effect, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide scavenging assays and heat stability. All extracts of A. japonica showed a dose-dependent DPPH FRS and significant hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (>65%). The diethyl ether extract of the flesh of A. japonica showed the highest superoxide scavenging activity. Diethyl ether extracts of A. japonica were heat stable, and ethyl acetate extracts were stable up to 75C. Thus, it can be concluded that A. japonica is rich with heat stable and nonpolar antioxidants.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of blend composition of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil and sunflower oil and that of different types of stirrers during fractionation on the yield and physicochemical characteristics of the oleins was investigated. Blends of 80% palm oil with 20% sunflower oil, and 60% palm oil with 40% sunflower oil were fractionated at 21C, and the oil samples were agitated with stirrers 1, 2, 3 and 4. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained with 60% palm oil and 40% sunflower oil blend when stirrer 2 was used to agitate the sample. There was a significant difference in iodine value (IV) of samples agitated with stirrers 3 and 4. The difference was not significant when stirrers 1 and 2 were used. Blending palm oil with sunflower oil followed by fractionation produced oleins of much higher IV than either commercially available regular palm olein or superolein. The major fatty acids in the oleins obtained after fractionating blend of 80% palm oil and 20% sunflower oil were palmitic (31.8–33.2%), oleic (38.1–39.3%) and linoleic (21.6–24.1%) acids. With higher amount of sunflower oil of 40% in the oil blend, the amount of palmitic acid significantly decreased (25.1–26.3%). After fractionation, the blend containing 60% palm oil and 40% sunflower oil produced liquid fractions which were lower in dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (POP), palmitoyl-oleoyl-stearoyl-glycerol (POS), palmitoyl-dioleoyl-glycerol (POO) and dipalmitoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (PLP) compared to the blend containing 80% palm oil and 20% sunflower oil. The blend with a higher level of sunflower oil at 40% produced oleins of much lower cloud point (3.5–3.7C) than the blend containing only 20% sunflower oil. The type of stirrer did not have any significant effect on the cloud point.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The physico-chemical properties of oil from Carica papaya were determined following extraction with petroleum ether and aqueous-enzymatic methods. Four commercial enzymes were used for the enzymatic extraction, namely, Termamyl 120 L, Type L (α-Amylase), Neutrase®0.8 L (Neutral protease), Celluclast®1.5 L FG (Cellulase) and Pectinex®Ultra SP-L (Pectinase). The melting point of the oil was 9.7–10.5C and showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the oil obtained from enzyme and solvent extractions. Generally, the color of the oil was reddish yellow. Solvent-extracted oil tended to have more yellow and red color (24 Y + 4.0 R) compared to enzyme-extracted oil (20 Y + 3.0 R). The iodine and the saponification values of the solvent-extracted oil were found to be 66.0 and 154.7, respectively, while those of the enzyme extracted oil were 66.2–69.3 and 154.2–161.7, respectively. The unsaponifiable matter of the oil extracted using different enzymes ranged between 2.07 and 2.90% and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the solvent-extracted oil (1.39%). The predominant fatty acid in the oil was oleic acid (72–78%), with some palmitic (12–14%), stearic (4–5%) and linoleic (2.5–3.5%) acids with no significant difference in fatty acid compositions between oil extracted using solvent and enzymes. The main triacylglycerols (TAGs) were sn-glycerol-oleate-oleate-oleate (OOO) (43.5–45.5%) and 1-palmitoyl-dioleoyl glycerol (POO) +stearoyl-oleoyl-linoleoyl glycerol (SOL) (29.5–30.5%).
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Low-calorie structured lipids (SL) containing behenic and oleic acids were prepared using interesterification of olive oil with hydrogenated high erucic acid rapeseed oil and acidolysis of olive oil with behenic acid. The reactions were catalyzed by the Lipozyme RM IM enzyme. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), obtained by interesterification (TAG SLHE ), contained 20.9 and 45.3% of behenic and oleic acids, respectively, whereas those obtained by acidolysis (TAG SLB ) contained 34.6 and 49.6% of these acids, respectively. In both cases, behenic acid was mainly incorporated in the sn-1,3 positions of the TAG molecules (∼93%). The distribution of oleic acid in the individual positions was different for each product. The content of oleic acid in the sn-2 position of TAG was 50.2 and 80.3% for TAGSLHEand TAGSLB, respectively. The melting temperature of TAGSLHE(45.5%) was higher than that of TAGSLB(37.5%). Because of the suitable solid fat content characteristics of TAGSLBas a function of temperature, it is possible to use TAGSLBin bakery and in confectionery industries for production of margarines and blends, among others.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The content ofTrans C18:1,Trans C18:2 and cis9trans11 C18:2 (CLA) in the marketed fat blends was evaluated by capillary gas chromatography and silver thin-layer chromatography. For comparison, the level of these acids was also determined in commercial butter, purchased at the same time. The content ofTrans C18:1 in fat blends showed that half of the examined products containedTrans C18:1 at 1.9–4.4%, while the other half contained 8.2–24.2%Trans fatty acids. The fat blends with a high total content ofTrans C18:1 were characterized by a high proportion ofTrans 6–8 andTrans 9 isomers. TheTrans 9 C18:1 in these products constituted 15.0–22.5% of the totalTrans C18:1. The level ofTrans C18:2 in fat blends examined ranged from 0.3 to 1.1%. Seven of the 18 tested fat blends contained, apart from cis-trans andTrans-cis C18:2, alsoTrans-trans C18:2 in the 0.03–0.4% range. In all fat blends examined, CLA was present. The products with a low level ofTrans C18:1 contained CLA at 0.3–1.0%. The content of CLA in the fat blends with high level ofTrans C18:1 did not exceed 0.3%.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Four species of Brettanomyces (intermedius, bruxellensis, custersianus, clausenii) were examined to ascertain their acetic acid production capacity. The results showed that B. bruxellensis was the strain with the best volumetric productivity  and  specific  production  rate  (P = 0.065 gL−1 h−1;  Vp = 0.43 gg−1h−1). The best kinetic parameters were reached (P = 0.133 gL−1 h−1; Yp/s = 0.23; Pmax = 11.64 gL−1)  at  an  airflow  of  288 Lh−1 (0.6 vvm,  OTR = 124 mgO2L−1 h−1), and substrate inhibition was not observed. The influence of temperature and agitation on acetic acid production by B. bruxellensis in a glucose medium was investigated at different levels, 26, 30, 34C and 250, 350, 450 rpm, respectively. Temperature and agitation were shown to be deci-sive factors (P < 0.05) in acetic acid production at 288 Lh−1(0.6 vvm, OTR = 124 mgO2L−1 h). The optimal conditions for a high volumetric productivity were 30C and 250 rpm, respectively.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of various parameters, i.e., size of shrimp, level and pattern of inlet drying air temperature, on the drying kinetics and various quality attributes of dried shrimp viz. shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture and color during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. It was found that the use of a constant inlet air temperature of 100C yielded dried shrimp of the best quality in terms of low percentage of shrinkage, high percentage of rehydration, low maximum shear force and high value of redness compared to shrimp dried using other conditions. A simple mathematical model that enables prediction of the drying behavior of shrimp in a jet-spouted bed dryer has also been developed.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fouling is a common food industry-wide issue during thermal treatment using heat exchangers. It directly contributes toward increased energy costs in operation and maintenance, production losses and energy and water losses because of the repetitive cleaning operation, i.e., every 5–10 h in fluid food industry. There has been a considerable amount of work on modeling of the fouling process as well as the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic performances of heat exchangers. A variety of different fouling kinetics exists depending upon food components, types of heat exchangers and operating conditions. The available information on existing fouling models is summarized in terms of fouling mechanisms, dynamic performances of heat exchangers and integrated fouling dynamics. This review provides the basis for developing a vision of further research for understanding, quantifying and minimizing fouling of food materials in heat exchangers.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The efficient and effective cleaning of milk protein – based deposits from heat transfer equipment is essential in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two-stage cleaning using acid and caustic. Stainless steel discs were fouled during heat transfer by skimmed milk and whey protein. The discs were then cleaned with acid and sodium hydroxide solutions under controlled mass transfer conditions using spinning disc techniques. The use of 0.5% nitric acid, and a commercial acid known as Triplex, as a rinse before caustic cleaning increased the cleaning rate by 2.5 times. The foulant was found to swell about 40% and calcium was leached out within 5 min after exposure to acid. The acid treatment is believed to cause a reduction in the viscosity, and hence an increase in dissolution, of the gel layer formed when caustic cleaning takes place.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Increasing attention has been given to spray drying because of its popularity in the manufacturing of various powders with prerequisite quality. A large number of theoretical and experimental studies have been published during the last five decades to study spray-drying operations. Despite this progress, there is still lack of information on the selection of an accurate and simple drying kinetics model to characterize the droplet drying process. This article has particularly focused on the comparison of two simple and effective drying kinetics models: the characteristic drying-rate curve and reaction-engineering approach (REA) models. This article reported mathematical models that can be used to design the spray-drying operation and to predict the particle's characteristics for realistic dryer-wide situations. Both the physical and biochemical quality attributes were investigated regarding their sensitivity to the model parameters used in the two drying kinetics models. The REA model was found to deliver more realistic predictions during the modeling of the droplet drying process for all the sets of conditions tested.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli inoculated into carrot juice by pulsed electric field (PEF) was investigated, and the experimental data were fitted to Hülsheger and Peleg models. The electric field strength ranged from 5 to 20 kV/cm, and the number of pulses was from 207 to 1449. The level of E. coli inactivation increased with the increment of the electric field strength and the number of pulses. As the number of pulses increased, the kinetic constants bE and Eca (Hülsheger model) varied from 0.2429 to 0.5778 cm/kV and from 7.1301 to 5.7842 kV/cm, respectively. The k and Ecb obtained using the Peleg model varied from 2.3277 to 1.4725 kV/cm and from 12.2523 to 7.4755 kV/cm, respectively. The fitting performance of the two models was evaluated by using a series of indices including accuracy factor, bias factor, sum of the squares of the differences of the natural logarithm of the observed and predicted data, correlation coefficient and the root mean square error between the observed and the predicted data. A comparison among these corresponding parameters indicates that the Peleg model better describes the inactivation kinetics of E. coli by PEF than the Hülsheger model.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article presents the field performance of a solar tunnel drier for drying jackfruit bulbs and leather. The drier consists of a transparent plastic-covered flat-plate collector and a drying tunnel connected in series to supply hot air directly into the drying tunnel using two direct-current fans operated by a photovoltaic module. The drier has a loading capacity of 120–150 kg of fruits. Sixteen experimental runs were conducted for drying jackfruit bulbs and leather (eight runs each). The use of a solar tunnel drier led to a considerable reduction in drying time and dried products of better quality in comparison to products dried under the sun. A multilayered neural network approach was used to predict the performance of the solar tunnel drier. Using solar drying data of jackfruit bulbs and leather, the model has been trained using backpropagation algorithm. The prediction of the performance of the drier was found to be excellent after it was adequately trained. It can be used to predict the potential of the drier for different locations, and can also be used in a predictive optimal control algorithm.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores by high pressure at high temperatures (HP–HT) in phosphate buffer was investigated in a lab-scale temperature-controlled HP system (QFP-6) with an internal heater to maintain the sample temperature. Some inactivation of spores occurred during the pressurization come-up time (CUT) and depressurization time. The inactivation of PA 3679 was found to be exponential during the adiabatic holding period of the HP cycle at constant pressures and temperatures. The inactivation rate increased with both pressure and temperature. The kinetic parameters – such as D-values at tested temperatures and pressures that are necessary for the design of process parameters of HP sterilization process – were determined. Within the pressure range of 600–800 MPa, the calculated D-values ranged from 270.3 to 357.4 and 49.0 to 67.6 s at 91 and 108C, respectively. These studies provided basic data on the effects of pressure and temperature on the inactivation of PA 3679 spores under conditions applicable to the development of preservation specifications for commercial HP–HT processing of low acid foods. The spore strips of C. sporogenes were used as indicators for microbiological verification of delivered lethality of HP–HT sterilization process at different processing conditions in a pilot scale HP vessel.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nuts have high nutritive value and have different kinds of consumption properties in some food treatments such as salting, roasting, vacuum packaging or under inert gas. The quality of nuts are affected by biochemical changes such as oxidation and rancidity in nut oils, which contain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this research, the nutrients, proximate composition and minerals, and biochemical changes in nuts were determined according to consumption types: hazelnuts (Corylus avelana L.), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.). In Turkey, the consumption types of nuts depend on some food treatments such as roasting, salting, vacuum packaging and eating habits such as shelled, unshelled, unroasted and even fresh nuts or combinations of them. The storage periods of the samples which were almost 2 weeks in the market were very short. The protein contents of groundnuts were higher than hazelnuts and pistachio nuts. The fat contents of pistachio nuts were higher than hazelnut and groundnut samples. The total carbohydrate levels of hazelnuts and groundnuts were almost same and were higher than pistachio nuts. Moisture content is the highest for hazelnuts and pistachio nuts, respectively. The mean mineral contents of these nuts are (mg/100 g) Na (0.98, 1.30, 9.38), Mg (140.09, 173.47, 116.90), K (514.01, 558.22, 642.07), Ca (106.16, 67.29, 171.69), Cu (0.99, 0.75, 0.75), Zn (2.96, 0.44, 2.77) and Fe (0.56, 0.41, 0.58). The biochemical changes in nuts were examined in nut oils, iodine value, free fatty acids, anisidine value, UV absorption (λ: 233, 262, 268 and 272 nm). The results had shown that important quality changes did not occur as explained in the conditions of the research samples. Also, positive correlation among the nut samples had not been found. It was established that the changes in the biochemical values depend on the polyunsaturated fatty acids composition of nut oil. The results of the analysis of the levels of oxidation had exhibited differences among the nut oil samples because of polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios rather than because of the different kinds of consuming properties.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This study was undertaken to determine the pressure and time required to inactivate Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Listeria innocua on apples and blueberries while maintaining a “fresh-like” fruit texture and color.d-values for inactivation of S. cerevisiae and L. innocua inoculated on diced apples and blueberries following ultra high pressure treatment at 300 and 375 MPa at room temperature were determined.d-values for inactivation of S. cerevisiae at 300 MPa ranged from 19.7 s on diced apples to 22.4 s on blueberries.d-values for inactivation of L. innocua at 375 MPa ranged from 67.1 s on diced apples to 46.7 s on blueberries. Ultra high pressure is an efficient and effective option for inactivating S. cerevisiae and L. innocua on apples, blueberries or other fruit while preserving a fresh appearance and texture.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the present study, 177 Enterococci isolated from 78 raw milk samples were identified by the API 20 Strep system and conventional biochemical tests. Enterococcus faecalis (54.2%) and E. faecium (29%) were the most frequently isolated species, followed by E. durans (6.2%), E. hirae/dispar (5.0%), E. gallinarum groups (3.0%), E. mundtii (2.2%) and E. raffinosus (0.5%). A disk-diffusion method was applied to assay in vitro activity of antibiotics against Enterococcal isolates obtained from raw milk. There was a high frequency of oxacillin, streptomycin and erythromycin (E) resistance in enterococcal isolates (95, 97 and 86%). Vancomycin (VA) and teicoplanin resistance was observed in 48 and 52% of E. faecalis isolates, respectively. The corresponding values were 26 and 33% for E. faecium. Resistance to VA was significantly associated to E, rifampin, gentamycin, ampicillin and ceftriaxone resistance. Implications and public health aspects of antibiotic resistance, especially VA-resistant Enterococci in food, are discussed.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ginger, sorbic acid and cloves either singly or in combination was reported in this study. The spices and sorbic acid at concentrations equivalent to the MIC were used to produce nine batches of fura, and their effect during the storage at room temperature (25 ± 3C) was studied. Fura is a semisolid dumpling cereal meal produced from moist pearl millet flour, blended with spices, compressed into balls and boiled for 30 min. Additives rather than storage time have significant effect (P < 0.05) on color, mold growth, odor and overall acceptability of the fura samples. The fura samples had a shelf life of≥2 days as compared to locally produced fura with a shelf life of 1 day. As a result of antagonistic interactions between ginger and cloves, fura prepared with 2.0% ginger + 0.5% cloves gave a reduced shelf life (2 days) compared to that which was prepared with only 2% ginger (3 days). A combination of 2.0% ginger +  0.5% cloves + 0.1% sorbic acid with or without 0.25% citric acid was effective in arresting mold growth in fura, thereby giving fura an improved shelf life of 4 months.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flow and viscoelastic properties of pressurized avocado puree were evaluated. Avocado puree with pH adjusted to 4.1 was treated with ultra high pressure (UHP) at 517, 600 or 676 MPa at 21C. Each pressure was applied in oscillation mode, three pulses of 6 min each. Flow curves were obtained for each treatment, and hysteresis areas were also evaluated. The corrected flow curves were fitted using the Herschel-Bulkley model, and flow index (n), consistency index (k), and yield stress (τ0) were reported. The storage (G′) and loss (G″) moduli of avocado puree were obtained through oscillatory testing. The results showed that the Herschel-Bulkley model fitted the curves with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.85 to 0.97; however, good correlation was not observed after 20/s of shear rate. Pressurized avocado puree exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics and time dependency. The flow index values were <1 for all pressure treatments. The magnitudes of elastic modulus (G′) and complex viscosity increased with increased intensity of UHP treatments.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The acceptability of the sensory properties of a peanut-chocolate bar was optimized for consumer acceptance using response surface methodology. The factors studied included sugar, peanuts, cocoa powder and a process variable, degree of roast. Twenty-seven peanut-chocolate bar formulations with two replications were evaluated for consumer acceptance (n = 168) for overall liking and acceptance of color, appearance, flavor, sweetness and texture using 9-point hedonic scales. In terms of overall liking, the use of dark-roasted peanuts received the largest number of acceptable formulations when compared to the medium- and light-roasted peanuts. Sensory evaluation indicated that sweetness acceptance was the limiting factor for acceptability. An acceptable peanut-chocolate bar can be obtained by using formulations containing 44–54% dark-, medium- or light-roasted peanuts, 1–4% cocoa powder and 41–55% sugar.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Grey relational analysis (GRA), an approach totally different from traditional statistical analysis used to calculate the relational grade between two sequence data, was applied to classify dried roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). In this study, 49 groups of roselle calyces representing five treatments – (1) frozen at −20C; (2) cold-air-dried at 25C, or (3) hot-air-dried at 50C; (4) 75C; or (5) 85C – were investigated. Five calyces from each group of treated roselle calyces were selected at random as reference samples and were built into the database. The rest of the treated roselle calyces were selected as test calyces to validate the feasibility of the developed Grey identification system. A GRA calculation procedure is demonstrated step-by-step and results are compared with the results of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA exhibited no distinguishable cluster pattern on the PCA plot of roselle calyces hot-air-dried at 50C or 75C. The GRA grades identified and classified all undried and dried roselle calyces correctly.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Raw skim milk was treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 40 kV/cm, and 30 pulses of 2 μs duration each, or by combining thermal processing at 73 or 80C for 6 s followed by a PEF process at 50 or 30 kV/cm, 30 pulses at 4 or 3 Hz. The microbiological quality of the skim milk was monitored for 14, 22 and 30 days during storage at 4C. The combination of thermal/PEF-processed skim milk exhibited greater microbial quality than PEF or thermally processed skim milk. The bacterial counts of skim milk decreased with increasing electric field intensity and number of pulses. On day 14, the PEF-processed skim milk reached 7.2, 6.5 and 6.3 log cfu/mL after PEF processes at 10, 20 or 30 pulses compared with 7.6 log cfu/mL in unprocessed skim milk. The combination of thermal/PEF-processed skim milk achieved bacteria counts of 4.1 and 4.9 log cfu/mL at the end of the 22 and 30 days of refrigerated storage, respectively. The acidity of skim milk was more affected by heat, and the combination of heat and PEF processes than by PEF alone. During refrigerated storage of skim milk, the bacterial growth was dependent on the electric field intensity, process duration and storage time. A synergistic effect between temperature and pulsed electric fields was observed at 73 and 80C when the skim milk was processed with 50 or 30 kV/cm.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pasteurization of pineapple juices at 80C for 5 min in the presence of added acids (citric, malic and fumaric) and cane sugar was found to increase its reducing sugar content from 3.5 to 6.5%, which in turn decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased the hygroscopicity of the juice powder. Inversion of sucrose could be avoided by adding sugar and acid to a pasteurized cooled juice. Among the acids, citric acid caused 30% more hygroscopicity than malic and fumaric. Incorporation of additives into the juice prior to freeze-drying helped in reducing the hygroscopic tendency of the juice powder. Among the additives tried, trehalose, beta-cyclodextrin and sorbitol were found to be beneficial as they increase the Tg and reduce the hygroscopic tendency of the juice powder.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ragi was incorporated at different levels (5, 15 and 25%) to a deep fat fried snack item namely “chakli” to study its effect on fat absorption, sensory and storage parameters. Three sets of products were prepared incorporating untreated, dry heat treated and gelatinized ragi flour. The control products were without ragi flour. Results indicated that the fat absorbed by the control was 19%. Ragi flour incorporation (5%) increased fat content to 24% but on further increase of ragi flour (15 and 25%), it decreased to 19.7 and 18%, respectively. Incorporation of untreated and dry heat treated ragi flour resulted in a slight decline in the sensory ratings of products. The effects were more adverse with higher level of incorporation. On incorporation of gelatinized ragi flour (5%), significantly higher ratings were obtained for texture, flavor and overall quality of products in comparison with the control. The free fatty acid content of products was very low on 0 day and increased during 4 weeks of storage. It can be concluded from the results that incorporation of higher amounts of ragi resulted in lower fat uptake but compromised the sensory quality of the product. However, incorporation at the 5% level had the opposite effect. Gelatinization as a pretreatment was found to improve the quality of the product.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning products namely corn-SUA-90 beans-peanut, corn-peanut-sardines, corn-peanut-sardine-SUA-90 beans, corn-peanut-soaked SUA-90 beans, corn-peanut-germinated SUA-90 beans, sorghum-SUA-90 beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-SUA-90 beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked SUA-90 beans and sorghum-peanut-germinated SUA-90 beans were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content, residual urease activity and amino acid profile. The products were also evaluated for storage stability at ambient conditions, organoleptic quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased when plain corn and sorghum gruels were enriched with SUA-90 beans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the SUA-90 beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (p ≤ 0.05). The corn and sorghum-based composite gruels had short shelf lives when stored under ambient temperatures (28.6C) ranging between four and six hours, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite products except those containing germinated SUA-90 beans were liked and highly accepted by consumers (p ≤ 0.05) similar to the traditional plain corn and sorghum gruels. The corn and sorghum-based composite products therefore have a potential for use as weaning and/or supplementary foods for enhancing growth and rehabilitating undernourished pre-school age children.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this study, the influences of processing and pasteurization on color values and total phenolic compounds of pomegranate juices were investigated. Pomegranate juices were produced by different clarification techniques (conventional fining, conventional fining together with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone [PVPP], ultrafiltration). Nonclarified juice was also produced as control. Clarification methods, heat treatments and methods and heat treatments together significantly (P < 0.05) affected the color values of pomegranate juices. Moreover, conventional fining together with PVPP treatment was found to be the most effective method to remove phenolic compounds.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Potato chips were coated with 5 seasonings: cocoa, barbecue (BBQ), nacho cheese (NC), sour cream and onion (SCO) and salt and vinegar (SV). The evenness of the seasoning on each chip was measured by colorimetry, image analysis and sensory evaluation. Regression analysis was used to determine which parameters measured by colorimetry and image analysis best correlated to sensory evaluation for each seasoning. For colorimetry, the parameters with the strongest correlation to sensory ratings were the SD of L for cocoa and BBQ, a for NC and b for SCO seasonings. No single parameter correlated significantly for SV. The best correlation for the image analysis method was the percentage of chip covered for BBQ and NC, and the RSD of the percentage of chip covered for cocoa, SCO and SV. Both colorimetry and image analysis are fast, accurate analytical alternatives to sensory evaluation for determining coating evenness.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article describes the influence of combined ohmic heating (OH) and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on the juice extraction from sugar beet cuts of different sizes. The experiments were carried out on a laboratory filter-press cell connected to OH and PEF-treatment systems. OH (60 V/cm, 50 Hz) was used to attain different temperatures (30–70C), which were maintained during a fixed time (10–30 min). It was followed by a PEF treatment (600 V/cm, 0.04 s). OH noticeably enhances the extraction kinetics even at a moderate temperature of 50C. With the increase of OH temperature to 60C, the juice yield obtained by pressing is comparable to the one obtained after PEF treatment. The results show that combining OH and PEF treatment leads to some synergetic effect, promoting 85–87% of juice extraction even from middle and coarse cuts. This effect might result from both the electropermeabilization of cell membranes and the thermal softening of tissues.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF), conventional heating (H) at 60 or 65C for 21 s and PEF + heat (PEFH) treatments on the total growth of aerobic bacteria and the shelf life of skim milk was investigated. The PEF-processed skim milk was equivalent to conventionally heat-treated skim milk. After 14 days of storage, PEF-processed skim milk exhibited a total bacteria count of 5.4 log cfu/mL when treated at 28, 32 and 36 kV/cm for 84 μs, whereas heat-treated skim milk exhibited 5.9 and 5.3 log cfu/mL. PEFH treatment of skim milk produced a superior product in bacterial and shelf-life quality compared to either PEF or conventional heating alone and prolonged the shelf life of skim milk to 30 days when stored at 4C. Thus, the shelf life of skim milk stored at 4C was extended beyond 14 days.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Accepted opinion among wine connoisseurs is that size and shape of a glass used to serve wine can affect color and flavor of wine. Glass manufacturers and the wine industry could benefit from a greater understanding of the relationship between glass shape and wine appreciation. However, extensive oxidation may reduce antioxidative properties of polyphenolics that are highly prized in red wines. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of geometries of three glass types (Flute, Bordeaux, Martini) on sensory perception and concentration of polyphenolic compounds in Merlot wine as a function of time. Sensory evaluation was conducted with a 12-member panel. Triangle tests were chosen to determine whether any difference in flavor could be perceived between samples stored for 0, 15 and 30 min in the three glass types. Phenolic compounds, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin and vanillin, were quantified using HPLC. Results indicated that the panelists could not perceive differences between wine served in different glasses even if it was exposed to air for 30 min at room temperature. Although concentration of phenolics, especially gallic acid, was affected by the exposure to air, changes were not profound enough to affect the sensory qualities of Merlot wine as judged by occasional wine drinkers.
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  • 38
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Quarantine regulations require domestic cherries exported to Japan be treated to control for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The current procedure, methyl bromide fumigation, uses a restricted chemical, reduces fruit quality, and involves health, safety and environmental concerns. Single and double hot water dips were evaluated using fresh ‘Bing’ and ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherries from Washington state as a potential replacement. The double dip procedure had a pretreatment bath at 40C for 5 min. For both procedures, submersions in heated water from 48 to 55C for 2–14 min were examined for treatment efficacy against third-instar codling moth and fruit quality. Although a 100% mortality response was found for each temperature and procedure, the submersion durations significantly damaged fruit and stem parameters for both cultivars. Thus, hot water dips are not feasible for Pacific Northwest cherries at this time.
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Selected characteristics of whey-fortified banana beverages stored at 4, 20, 30 and 40C were monitored at specific time intervals over a 60-day storage period. The particle volume mean diameter (D43) remained unchanged for the entire study and the particle surface area mean diameter (D32) changed only in the first week. The products remained light-colored (L*∼71) for 60 days; redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and saturation (C*) increased with time at elevated storage temperatures. The Hue (H*) was smaller at elevated temperatures. A sensory descriptive analysis panel generated terms to describe and quantify the sensory characteristics of the whey-banana beverage stored at 4C. The product was a sour, sweet, smooth beverage, with distinctive banana flavor and minimum off-flavor. A consumer panel indicated that sourness and acidity were critical quality factors. The main differences detected were for sedimentation (greater at 40C) and serum separation (minimum at 4C).
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Acoustic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess ripeness of bananas at various stages of maturity. Two distinctly different varieties of bananas were selected for the study. Bananas were also bruised, and an acoustic response spectrum was taken before and after bruising. A dynamic impact force was applied to the base over which the fruit was kept horizontally with the help of a coupling agent. The output response was picked up by a hydrophone coupled, in turn to the base to the top (vertically opposite) of the fruit coupled. The signal was analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform. Response resonance frequencies decreased while damping ratio increased as the fruit ripened. Bruising of fruits resulted in decreased resonance frequency due to tissue damage. The values of resonance frequency and damping ratio could be correlated to the color changes due to ripeness of fruits as a result of either increased rates of respiration or external damage of tissue from mechanical or temperature abuse.
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  • 41
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 42
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Paprika from the region of La Vera (Cáceres) is prepared using a particular process of mild, slow drying in traditional drying barns heated by oakwood fires. This makes it possible for the fruit to maintain its natural components at the same time as contributing certain organoleptic characteristics that are highly appreciated by consumers. We analyzed the changes in the aromatic fraction that occur over the course of this traditional drying technology, using dynamic head space as the isolation method and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry as the identification system. We identified 96 compounds, 55 of which presented significant differences (P < 0.05) between different days of the drying process. Some 40% of the aromatic potential of the end product corresponded to volatile compounds that appeared during the drying process, originating from the wood smoke or as the result of typical reactions of the dehydrated products.
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  • 45
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The objective of this study was to determine the importance of raw material and processing variables that influence pretzel quality by utilizing a screening experiment design. Eleven variables were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a two-level-11-factor (2 11 ) fractional factorial experimental design was used to screen the variables. Several responses were measured for dough before and after extrusion, for half-baked and fully baked pretzels. These responses are important indicators of consistency and quality during pretzel processing. Results indicated that flour protein content, the amount of water added to make dough and dough mixing time were important variables influencing dough behavior. Caustic concentration affected brightness of half-baked pretzels but did not influence the color of the final product. Baking time was the most important factor for both half-baked product and final product qualities. The hardness of fully baked pretzels was influenced by baking time, temperature in baking oven zone 1, drying time and drying temperature. The color of final products was significantly influenced by baking time, while both baking time and drying temperature affected the moisture content of the final product. A key observation was that none of the raw material or dough processing parameters, within the range tested, influenced final pretzel quality as defined by pretzel moisture content, hardness or color.
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Most information regarding the suitability of wine and cheese pairs is anecdotal information. The objective of this research was to provide recommendations based on scientific research for the most desirable “wine & cheese pairs” using nine award-winning Canadian cheeses and 18 BC wines (six white, six red and six specialty wines). Twenty-seven wine and food professionals rated the wine and cheese pairs using a bipolar structured line scale (12 cm). The “ideal pair,” scored at the midpoint of the scale, was defined as a wine and cheese combination where neither the wine nor the cheese dominated. For each cheese, mean deviation-from-ideal scores were determined and evaluated by analysis of variance. Scores closest to six were considered “ideal,” while higher or lower scores represented pairs where the “wine” or the “cheese” dominated, respectively. In general, white wines had mean scores closer to six (“ideal”) than either the red or specialty wines. The late harvest, ice and port-type wines were more difficult to pair . Judges varied considerably in their individual assessments reflecting a high degree of personal expectation and preference.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Yields of press juice for Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and ssp. mongolica cv. Indian Summer were 69.2% and 62.8%, respectively. Centrifugation of the press juices at 4C, 4480 × g for 15 min provided yields of cream, serum and pellet of 1.72, 95.6 and 0.68% for ssp. sinensis, and 5.4, 92.3 and 0.32% for ssp. mongolica cv. Indian Summer. All percentages are percentage (w/w). The particulate of each juice was characterized microscopically and the particulate of cv. Indian Summer was much larger than that of ssp. sinensis. Much more oil was apparent microscopically in the cv. Indian Summer cream as expected from the yield data mentioned above. Pellet material was not distinguishable between the two ssp. Trichomes were visualized in greater detail, a particular particle that may be exclusive to cv. Indian Summer was described and the presence of crystalline material in aggregated particles was observed.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Wounding during processing triggers physiological reactions that limits shelf life of fresh-cut apples. Exposure of “Empire” and “Crispin” apples at harvest to the ethylene antagonist, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on the maintenance of fresh-cut quality was evaluated in combination with post-cut dipping of NatureSealTM Efficacy of 1-MCP on fresh-cut physiology and quality depended on the storage duration and apple cultivar. Ethylene production of apple slices was inhibited by 1-MCP but not by NatureSeal. Total volatiles produced by fresh-cut apples were not affected by NatureSeal but by 1-MCP when 1-month stored “Crispin” apples were used. 1-MCP influenced the quality attributes of fresh-cut slices prepared from apples stored either 4 months in cold storage or 6 months in controlled atmosphere. Enzymatic browning and softening of the cut-surface, TSS and total microbial growth were suppressed by 1-MCP in “Empire” apples. The influence of 1-MCP on quality attributes in “Crispin” apple slices was marginal.
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Due to increased concern about the safety of fruit, vegetable and juice products, the FDA has mandated that these must undergo a 5-log reduction in pathogens. The development of various processing methods for juice products has caused the need to determine the effects of these methods on said products. The effect of thermal pasteurization, UV irradiation and ozone treatment on apple cider quality and consumer acceptability was studied over 21 days. Thermally pasteurized samples were different in color and less preferred in all areas of consumer acceptability. UV-irradiated samples were lower in soluble solids for the first 7 days and showed no significant difference in consumer acceptability. Ozone-treated cider had greater sedimentation, lower sucrose content and a decrease in soluble solids by day 21. UV irradiation allows for a more cost-effective method to produce safe apple cider with minimal quality and consumer acceptability differences.
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  • 50
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Standard domestic refrigerators store food between 1 and 5C (33.8–41F). A manufacturer recently developed a refrigerator capable of storing food in the “ultra-chilled region” (−3 to −7C) and claimed that storage of fresh meat in this region better maintains quality. To understand quality in terms of chemical reaction rates, microbial growth and texture and flavor changes, three common consumer meat products – steak, ground beef patty and salmon – were stored for a selected period of time, as determined by microbial testing, in five refrigerator models with different environmental conditions (constant temperature and temperature fluctuation). At the end of the storage period, consumer panelists assessed the quality of the cooked samples by ranking them according to preference. In addition, instruments were used to measure the color and shear cutting force (for steak only) of each sample. Results from the consumer Ranking R-Index Test indicate that panelists preferred samples stored under or near ultra-chilled conditions rather than samples stored under standard refrigerated conditions. The ultra-chilled samples not only had higher panelist rankings and more favorable comments, but also had lower microbial aerobic plate counts. The instrument readings, however, highly varied and did not correlate well with sensory data.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: “Aromas,”“Diamante” and “Selva” strawberries were harvested in early and mid-season and evaluated for quality attributes, flavor components, fermentative metabolites and physiological characteristics. Preference and flavor tests by consumer panels were also conducted. Cultivar variation was greater than harvest date variation as were differences in color, concentrations of anthocyanins, firmness, total soluble solids, sugars, pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids and aroma compounds. “Diamante” and “Selva” had higher aroma quality than “Aromas” fruits. The levels of fermentative metabolites were too low to have an impact on the aroma quality. “Diamante” and “Selva” strawberries had better overall flavor quality and were more preferred by consumers than “Aromas.” These differences were consistent over two harvest dates.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Maintaining the quality of a fresh-cut fruit or vegetable product is a major concern and a priority in the development and in the production of fresh-cut produce products of the industry. The industry has been searching for alternative methods to protect fresh-cut produce from decay and to prolong shelf life. The objective of this research is to enhance the quality and the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple by exposure to methyl jasmonate (MJ). The exposure of the diced pineapple to a MJ emulsion at a concentration of 10 −4  M for 5 min in a sealed container decreased microbiological growth by 3 logs after 12 days of storage at 7C, compared with the control pineapple. Methyl jasmonate as vapor or as dip did not affect the firmness or the color of the fruit. Methyl jasmonate may be a practical treatment to ensure the safety and the quality of fresh-cut pineapple and other fruits and vegetables.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Low-fat Italian sausage was prepared with hydrated oat flakes at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w), and precook times of 0, 2 and 4 min. Cook loss and expressible moisture, cutting force and texture profile analysis, color and consumer sensory analysis were analyzed by response-surface methodology. Minimum cook loss occurred at 16.3% of the hydrated oat and 0.76 min precook time, while expressible moisture decreased with increasing oat levels and decreasing precook time. In general, both cutting force and hardness decreased with hydrated oat level. Measurements of L*, a* and b* showed a slightly lighter product and a shift to more red and yellow cooked product at intermediate oat levels and precook times. For sensory attributes, both oat level and precook time were significant. Greatest flavor and texture likeability were attained with hydrated oat levels of 3–12%, and precook times of 1.5–3 min. Greatest overall likeability occurred over a region of 0–14% hydrated oat, and 1.1–3.3 min precook time.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Many U.S. consumers add a sweetener or creaming agent to their brewed coffee. An ideal creamer, when added to coffee, should remain stable, dissolve readily, and provide whitening ability. In general, these properties are imparted by the protein component. Four different proteins – sodium caseinate, isolated wheat protein, soy protein isolate and whey protein concentrate – were used to formulate coffee creamers, individually and in combination, and the resultant creamers were evaluated for functionality. Coffee creamers containing plant proteins had significantly greater apparent viscosity but lower L* values than did creamers made with dairy proteins. Creamers made with higher concentrations of isolated wheat protein exhibited syneresis, whereas no syneresis occurred if sodium caseinate was the predominant protein. Only the creamer formulated with soy protein isolate alone exhibited feathering when added to hot, brewed coffee. These results indicate that coffee creamers can be formulated with plant proteins and sodium caseinate.
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  • 55
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One hundred and forty samples of Turkish confectionery and 96 instant drink powders marketed in Turkey, colored with a single colorant, were analyzed for colorants using both quantitative and qualitative UV/VIS spectrophotometer determinations. Six and five synthetic food colorants were determined in confectionery and instant drink powders, respectively. All the synthetic colorants determined in confectionery, except for Erythrosine, are permitted for use by the Turkish Food Codex and European Community (EC). The permitted colorant levels in 63 (43.7%) of 135 confectionery and in 35 (36.45%) of 96 instant drink powder samples were determined to be higher than the maximum tolerable limit in the Turkish Regulations. Continuous surveillance programs may be warranted to monitor regularly the level of colorant in confectionery and instant drink powder consumed, especially by children.
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food quality 28 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 57
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food safety 25 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in chorizos (Mexican-style sausages) was modeled in relation to initial water activity (aw0) and storage conditions using the Weibull cumulative distribution function. Twenty survival curves were generated from chorizos formulated at aw0 = 0.85–0.97 then stored under four temperature (T) and air inflow velocity (F) conditions. The Weibull model parameters (α and β) were determined for every curve. Predicted survival curves agreed with experimental curves with R2 = 0.945–0.992. Regression models (R2 = 0.981–0.984) were developed to relate α and β to operating conditions. The times to one- and two-log reduction in count (t1D and t2D) were derived from the Weibull model in terms of α and β. A parametric study revealed that L. monocytogenes survival was most sensitive to aw0 between 0.90 and 0.95. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes could be maximized with higher T and lower aw0; however, F did not significantly influence survival.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The aim of this research was to investigate the potential relationship, if any, between the acquisition/possession of antibiotic resistance genes in strains of Salmonella and its resistance to heat stress. Chicken pieces were inoculated with antibiotic sensitive (AS) strains of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, its laboratory-acquired antibiotic-resistant (AR) mutant strains (nalidixic acid and streptomycin), or a multiresistant strain of S. Typhimurium DT104. Half of these samples were heat-shocked (48C for 30 min) and all were heat-challenged at 55C for up to 30 min. Samples were then plated on xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) and tryptone soya agar (TSA) overpoured with XLD. Heat-shocked cultures of S. Typhimurium DT104 had significantly higher D-values (the time required for a 1 log reduction in the number of bacteria) than their non-heat-shocked counterparts (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between AR and their AS. However, the D-values for S. Typhimurium DT104 were significantly higher than the D-values for S. Typhimurium (AS) and S. Enteritidis (AS) (P < 0.05). This study concluded that laboratory-acquired antibiotic-resistant mutation did not affect heat resistance of the Salmonella strains studied and suggested a potential link between multiantibiotic resistance and heat resistance in S. Typhimurium DT104.
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  • 59
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food safety 25 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: All Gram-negative bacteria tested were normally resistant to the bactericidal action of pediocin P of Pediococcus pentosaceous Pep1, which had been isolated from vacuum-packaged sausages. However, when they were subjected to sublethal stress (exposure to physical and chemical stresses such as freezing, heating and acid treatment) and were treated with pediocin P, gram-negative bacterial cells that were normally resistant to pediocin P developed sensitivity to it and pediocin P reduced the viability of bacterial cells surviving sublethal stresses, although the extent of reduction varied with strain and type of treatment. When the combined effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sublethal heat and pediocin P was studied by adding EDTA and pediocin P to cell suspensions right before heating them, there was a considerable reduction in the number of viable cells, even at the lowest concentration of pediocin P tested. The results of our preliminary studies showed that sublethal injury can make the gram-negative bacterial cells sensitive to pediocin P.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Food safety experts have a key role in constructing food risk messages and thus their perceptions will influence how food risk issues are communicated to the public. This research examined the perceptions of food safety experts regarding public understanding of food risk issues and food risk messages on the island of Ireland. It also looked into expert views of the barriers to effective food risk communication and how to improve food risk messages. One hundred and forty-three experts, working in areas related to food safety, completed an online questionnaire. Questionnaire and statement design was guided by the results of four in-depth interviews with food safety experts. The findings indicate that most experts surveyed have little confidence in the public's understanding of food risk issues, their assessment of food risks, their ability to deal with scientific information and their food safety practices. Experts are of the view that the public under-assesses the risk associated with some microbiological hazards and over-assesses the risk associated with other hazards such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The opinion of experts with regard to GMOs is not supported by previous consumer research. Experts noted that the level of education and age were important determinants for the level of understanding of food risk issues and messages. Experts were of the view that early intervention via school curricula was the best method to improve public understanding of food risk messages in the long term. Furthermore, experts are of the view that the media have the ability to improve awareness and knowledge about food risk issues but believe that the media tend to communicate information that is misleading. The majority of experts also believe that they should communicate uncertainty but are not confident that the public is able to cope with this uncertainty. Many of the experts also indicated a desire for training on how to interact with the media. The results may be used by those experts who are involved in the construction of food risk messages to improve the design and communication of food risk messages.
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  • 61
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food safety 25 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pediococcus pentosaceous DT10, isolated from ready-to-eat fish products, produced a bacteriocin active against Gram-positive bacteria, many of which are associated with food spoilage and food-related health hazards. The bacteriocin, named pediocin DT10, was partially purified and was observed to kill sensitive Leuconostoc mesenteroides cells by acting on their cytoplasmic membrane. Exposure of cell suspensions of L. mesenteroides to pediocin DT10 produced cell-viability loss, as shown by the reduction in colony-forming units after treatment. The activity of pediocin DT10 against L. mesenteroides cells was bactericidal in nature, and also induced an important efflux of intracellular material. The transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of L. mesenteroides cells confirmed the way pediocin DT10 causes lysis of the sensitive L. mesenteroides cells.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The differences in attachment and penetration ability of Campylobacter jejuni were determined by analyzing C. jejuni isolates obtained from chicken carcasses and from humans exhibiting symptoms of campylobacteriosis. INT 407 cells, a human cell line originating from the jejunal/ileal region, were used as the in vitro model, and attachment and penetration abilities were evaluated for each isolate. There were no significant differences between the attachment and penetration abilities of chicken isolates and human isolates (HUMN). In addition, a wide range of attachment and penetration abilities was found for the isolates, with many of the HUMN possessing low attachment and penetration abilities. These data indicate that C. jejuni attachment and penetration into the human ileal and jejunal regions may not be primary virulence factors and may only be important in causing more acute symptoms.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Storage experiments were conducted to follow the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, deliberately inoculated on fresh-cut cactus-pear fruits before packaging under modified and control atmosphere and stored at four different temperatures (4, 8, 12 and 20C). L. monocytogenes was able to proliferate during storage at different temperature both in control and modified atmosphere. By comparing the sanitary-risk values with those of shelf life, it is possible to conclude that the storage of cactus-pear samples at temperatures greater than 4C, both in control and in modified atmospheres, could lead to a significant health-time risk, and that this is strictly affected by temperature. E. coli O157:H7 was able to proliferate only in the sample stored at 4 and 8C in both package atmospheres. On the contrary, this species was completely suppressed at the higher temperatures. In our study, E. coli O157:H7 appeared to be much less suited for survival on the surface of the fruit than L. monocytogenes.
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  • 64
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food safety 25 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 65
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The microbial load and nutritional composition of the Bunaea alcinoe larvae were investigated. The bacterial population of the skin and intestinal content were 8.16 × 106and 5.70 × 105 cfu/g while the fungal populations were 2.07 × 106and 1.32 × 106 cfu/g, respectively. Twenty bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Acinetobacter were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus occurred on both the skin and intestinal content. The nutritional composition of the larvae revealed high protein (55%) followed by fat (25%). Total available carbohydrate, moisture and ash were 4, 8 and 8%, respectively. The public health implication of the presence of S. aureus is highlighted. B. alcinoe larva is a rich source of protein and can be recommended in the diet of communities where protein is scarce or expensive.
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  • 66
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food safety 25 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fresh, different meat types and offal were examined for the occurrence of Aeromonas species by the direct-plating and enrichment methods. The enrichment method (coefficient of variation = 15.1%) enhanced the recovery of Aeromonas species. The major Aeromonas species identified were A. sobria (67.3%) and A. hydrophila (21.2%). Other species occurred in minor proportions and were A. caviae, A. proteolytica and A. salmonicida. Out of the 52 isolates, 50 were motile species except two which were not motile and identified as the species A. proteolytica. Sixteen motile species occurred in cow, 18 in goat and 16 in lamb. The motile species and the two nonmotile species were hemolytic. They were all sensitive to chloramphenicol (30 mg) and resistant to ampicillin (10 mg). The nonmotile A. proteolytica were all resistant to tetracycline. Aeromonas caviae, A. salmonicida, A. hydrophila and A. sobria were killed after exposure to 50C (decimal reduction time, D10 = 30 s). Aeromonads are unlikely to pose a public health problem in Nigeria where meat undergoes prolonged cooking. Meat is a possible factor in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis in man.
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  • 67
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food safety 25 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis. Using a tissue culture system, researchers have found that spiral forms of C. jejuni are more pathogenic than coccoid forms of the same strain. The objective of this research was to investigate genomic changes associated with the dimorphism in C. jejuni using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of flaA gene of C. jejuni isolated from chicken carcasses and human stool samples. C. jejuni isolates were cultured for 18 h (spiral form) and 72 h (coccoid form). PFGE profiles of both forms of C. jejuni showed 100% genetic similarity. For sequence analysis of the flaA gene of C. jejuni, its short-variable region (SVR) was analyzed. For the two forms of the same isolate, the nucleic-acid sequences of the SVR of flaA showed 95–100% similarity. It is concluded that morphological dimorphism of C. jejuni was not associated with genetic changes as measured by the mentioned tests.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Antimicrobial resistance was determined for 73 isolates of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from foods involved in human foodborne outbreaks that occurred in the South of Brazil, from 1999 to 2000. The isolates were individually tested against 10 antimicrobial agents using a disc diffusion method. Most isolates were susceptible to all drugs tested. No S. enteritidis isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim or chloramphenicol. The predominant resistance observed was to streptomycin (S) (37%), gentamicin (GEN) (13.7%) and nalidixic acid (NAL) (13.7%), while intermediate resistance was observed most often for tetracycline (53.4%), neomycin (NEO) (30.1%) and GEN (15.1%). Resistance was verified in 40 isolates (54%), which were grouped in 15 different patterns. Multiple resistance was presented in 17 (23%) of the isolates, and one isolate exhibited resistance to four drugs (NEO, kanamycin, S and NAL), demonstrating the involvement of multiresistant S. enteritidis strains with foodborne outbreaks.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1745-4565
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The growth and survival of Bacillus cereus, a known pathogen commonly found in cereals, during lactic acid fermentation of boza, a traditional Turkish cereal beverage, was studied. In the boza base inoculated with both the starter culture and B. cereus, the acidity developed to pH 2.6 and 0.8% titratable acidity after 72 h; the growth of B. cereus was reduced from 3.9 log cfu/mL to 1 log cfu/mL within 72 h. The control boza base to which starter was not added had a pH of 3, titratable acidity of 0.8%. The B. cereus in this boza base to which no starter culture was added dropped to 1 log cfu/mL after 72 h. No strains of lactic acid bacteria were found to produce bacteriocins antagonistic to B. cereus. Low pH and acidity were found to be the major factors inhibiting growth of B. cereus in boza.
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  • 70
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of RN genotype on the sensory perception of cured-smoked loins were investigated in 30 female pigs crossbred with Hampshire. RN– carriers (RN–/rn+) were more tender, juicy and acidic than noncarriers (rn+/rn+). They were also more patty-like and less salty. Further, they were more homogeneous in cured pink color and tended to have more pores than noncarriers. Despite the superior eating quality, in terms of higher tenderness and juiciness, most consumers preferred cured-smoked loins from noncarriers. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that sensory tenderness, juiciness, acidity, number of pores and homogeneity of cured pink color were inversely related to instrumental tenderness measurements, but not well related to ultimate pH and water-holding capacity. Instrumental tenderness measurements explained 44% of the variation in sensory tenderness, and RN genotype 41% of the variation in sensory juiciness. RN genotype best explained the variations in sensory attributes, followed by hardness.
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  • 71
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    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of muscle foods 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Use of a simpler, faster and reliable method for identification of species of origin in fresh and processed meat products is required to prevent unethical practices that may occur in the meat industry. The effectiveness of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method for identification of fresh meats from cattle, goat, sheep, camel, pork, wild swine, donkey, cat, dog, rabbit or bear origin was evaluated using a 10-base primer (ACGACCCACG). The method was also used to determine the species in a 1 : 1 mix of raw minced meat from sheep-pork, horse-beef or beef-sheep. Characteristic RAPD profiles for each species were obtained. However, efficacy of the technique in identifying species in meat mi