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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (154,287)
  • Blackwell Science Inc  (7,145)
  • Hindawi
  • Sage Publications
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Development of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability in solar coronal jets can trigger the wave turbulence considered as one of the main mechanisms of coronal heating. In this review, we have investigated the propagation of normal MHD modes running on three X-ray jets modeling them as untwisted and slightly twisted moving cylindrical flux tubes. The basic physical parameters of the jets are temperatures in the range of 5.2–8.2 MK, particle number densities of the order of  cm−3, and speeds of 385, 437, and 532 km s−1, respectively. For small density contrast between the environment and a given jet, as well as at ambient coronal temperature of 2.0 MK and magnetic field around 7 G, we have obtained that the kink () mode propagating on moving untwisted flux tubes can become unstable in the first and second jets at flow speeds of ≅348 and 429 km s−1, respectively. The KH instability onset in the third jet requires a speed of ≅826 km s−1, higher than the observed one. The same mode, propagating in weakly twisted flux tubes, becomes unstable at flow speeds of ≅361 km s−1 for the first and of 443 km s−1 for the second jet. Except the kink mode, the twisted moving flux tube supports the propagation of higher () MHD modes that can become unstable at accessible jets’ speeds.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Keeping the flying formation of spacecraft is a key problem which needs to be solved in deep space exploration missions. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic model of formation flying is established and a series of transformations are carried out on this model equation. By using SDRE (State-Dependent Riccati Equation) algorithm, the optimal control of flying formation is realized. Compared with the traditional control method based on the average orbit elements and LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) control method, the SDRE control method has higher control precision and is more suitable for the advantages of continuous control in practical engineering. Finally, the parameter values of the sun-earth libration point L2 are substituted in the equation and simulation is performed. The simulation curves of SDRE controller are compared with LQR controller. The results show that the SDRE controllers time cost is less than the LQR controllers and the former’s fuel consumption is less than the latter’s in the system transition process.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present a detailed report of the connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their accompanying supernovae (SNe). The discussion presented here places emphasis on how observations, and the modelling of observations, have constrained what we know about GRB-SNe. We discuss their photometric and spectroscopic properties, their role as cosmological probes, including their measured luminosity–decline relationships, and how they can be used to measure the Hubble constant. We present a statistical summary of their bolometric properties and use this to determine the properties of the “average” GRB-SN. We discuss their geometry and consider the various physical processes that are thought to power the luminosity of GRB-SNe and whether differences exist between GRB-SNe and the SNe associated with ultra-long-duration GRBs. We discuss how observations of their environments further constrain the physical properties of their progenitor stars and give a brief overview of the current theoretical paradigms of their central engines. We then present an overview of the radioactively powered transients that have been photometrically associated with short-duration GRBs, and we conclude by discussing what additional research is needed to further our understanding of GRB-SNe, in particular the role of binary-formation channels and the connection of GRB-SNe with superluminous SNe.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene regulatory network (GRN) reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C) as a direct interaction (A → C). Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main-sequence stars and introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal nonrelativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for nonzero values of the degeneracy parameter. We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification, we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range . An analytic formula for the luminosity evolution allows us to estimate the time period of the nonsteady state (i.e., non-main-sequence) nuclear burning for substellar objects. We also calculate the evolution of very low mass stars. We estimate that ≃11% of stars take longer than  yr to reach the main sequence, and ≃5% of stars take longer than  yr.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for a conformastatic metric with magnetized sources are investigated. In this context, effective potentials are studied in order to understand the dynamics of the magnetic field in galaxies. We derive the equations of motion for neutral and charged particles in a spacetime background characterized by this class of solutions. In this particular case, we investigate the main physical properties of the equatorial circular orbits and related effective potentials. In addition, we obtain an effective analytic expression for the perihelion advance of test particles. Our theoretical predictions are compared with the observational data calibrated with the ephemerides of the planets of the solar system and the Moon (EPM2011). In general, we show that the magnetic punctual mass predicts values that are in better agreement with observations than the values predicted in Einstein’s gravity alone.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature cooccurrences, and other concepts are often captured in biological network representations where nodes represent a certain bioentity and edges the connections between them. While many tools to manipulate, visualize, and interactively explore such networks already exist, only few of them can scale up and follow today’s indisputable information growth. In this review, we shortly list a catalog of available network visualization tools and, from a user-experience point of view, we identify four candidate tools suitable for larger-scale network analysis, visualization, and exploration. We comment on their strengths and their weaknesses and empirically discuss their scalability, user friendliness, and postvisualization capabilities.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict antigenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes within the S1 glycoprotein of M41 and CR88 IBV strains. A conserved linear B-cell epitope peptide, , was identified in M41 IBV strains while three such epitopes types namely, , , and , were predicted in CR88 IBV strains. Analysis of MHCI binding peptides in M41 IBV strains revealed the presence of 15 antigenic peptides out of which 12 were highly conserved in 96–100% of the total M41 strains analysed. Interestingly three of these peptides, GGPITYKVM208, WFNSLSVSI356, and YLADAGLAI472, relatively had high antigenicity index (〉1.0). On the other hand, 11 MHCI binding epitope peptides were identified in CR88 IBV strains. Of these, five peptides were found to be highly conserved with a range between 90% and 97%. However, WFNSLSVSL358, SYNISAASV88, and YNISAASVA89 peptides comparably showed high antigenicity scores (〉1.0). Combination of antigenic B-cells and T-cells peptides that are conserved across many strains as approach to evoke humoral and CTL immune response will potentially lead to a broad-based vaccine that could reduce the challenges in using live attenuated vaccine technology in the control of IBV infection in poultry.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study the modified Friedmann equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with quantum effect. Our modified results mainly stem from the new entropy-area relation and the novel idea of Padmanabhan, who considers the cosmic space to be emerging as the cosmic time progresses, so that the expansion rate of the universe is determined by the difference of degrees of freedom between the holographic surface and the bulk inside. We also discuss the possibility of having bounce cosmological solution from the modified Friedmann equation in spatially flat geometry.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7357
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7365
    Topics: Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We focus on the following elliptic system with critical Sobolev exponents:  ; ; , where , either or , and critical Sobolev exponents and . Conditions on potential functions lead to no compact embedding. Relying on concentration-compactness principle, mountain pass lemma, and genus theory, the existence of solutions to the elliptic system with or will be established.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transition density function plays an important role in understanding and explaining the dynamics of the stochastic process. In this paper, we incorporate an ergodic process displaying fast moving fluctuation into constant volatility models to express volatility clustering over time. We obtain an analytic approximation of the transition density function under our stochastic process model. Using perturbation theory based on Lie–Trotter operator splitting method, we compute the leading-order term and the first-order correction term and then present the left and right skew scenarios through numerical study.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transverse dynamic spin susceptibility is a correlation function that yields exact information about spin excitations in systems with a collinear magnetic ground state, including collective spin-wave modes. In an ab initio context, it may be calculated within many-body perturbation theory or time-dependent density-functional theory, but the quantitative accuracy is currently limited by the available functionals for exchange and correlation in dynamically evolving systems. To circumvent this limitation, the spin susceptibility is here alternatively formulated as the solution of an initial-value problem. In this way, the challenge of accurately describing exchange and correlation in many-electron systems is shifted to the stationary initial state, which is much better understood. The proposed scheme further requires the choice of an auxiliary basis set, which determines the speed of convergence but always allows systematic convergence in practical implementations.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide and its derivatives are potent anticancer agents; these compounds inhibit cancer cells proliferation. A study of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been applied on 40 compounds based on (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide, in order to predict their anticancer biological activity. The principal components analysis is used for minimizing the base matrix and the multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple nonlinear regression have been used to design the relationships between the molecular descriptor and anticancer properties of the sulfonamide derivatives. The validation of the models MLR and MNLR has been done by dividing the dataset into training and test set, the external validation of multiple correlation coefficients was RpIC50 = 0.81 for MLR and RpIC50 = 0.91 for MNLR. The artificial neural network (ANN) showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.96, which concluded that this latter model is more effective and much better than the other models. This obtained model (ANN) has been confirmed by two methods of LOO cross-validation and scrambling (or Y-randomization). The high correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR model.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7985
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OH)S/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE) method and In(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7985
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present explicit formula for the general Randić connectivity, general sum-connectivity, Hyper-Zagreb and Harmonic Indices, and Harmonic polynomial of some simple connected molecular graphs.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We first briefly revisit the original Hamilton-Jacobi method and show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action of tunneling of a fermionic particle from a charged black hole can be written in the same form of that for a scalar particle. On the other hand, various theories of quantum gravity suggest the existence of a minimal length scale, incorporating of which into quantum mechanics implies a modification of the uncertainty principle. In the scenario incorporating the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) into a quantum field theory (QFT) in a covariant way, we derive the deformed model-independent KG/Dirac and Hamilton-Jacobi equations using the methods of effective field theory. For this Lorentz invariant GUP modified QFT, we find that the effect of GUP on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is simply to “renormalize” the mass of the emitted particles, from to . Therefore, in this scenario, the Hawking temperature of a black hole does not receive any corrections from the GUP effect.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7357
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7365
    Topics: Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Although realistic representation of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in the desert region in Northwest China is important for weather forecasts and climate simulations, evaluations of the performance of various planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in simulating the CBL in the region are rare. In this study, the performance of a scale-aware PBL scheme newly implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating the CBL in the Taklimakan desert is evaluated based on a comparison with both the WRF-LES simulations and observations, with the focus on scale dependencies of the simulations compared to the conventional PBL scheme. A series of simulations are performed with a scale-aware PBL scheme (Shin-Hong) and the conventional PBL scheme (YSU) for a deep CBL observed at Tazhong station in the central Taklimakan on 1 July 2016. The CBL was over 5000 m deep with wider and deeper rolls than in a shallow boundary layer. The results showed that the vertical structure simulated with the Shin-Hong scheme was closer to that in both the WRF-LES (large-eddy-simulation) and observations than that simulated with the YSU. The simulation with the scale-aware scheme reproduced cellular rolls similar to those in the WRF-LES, while the conventional PBL scheme struggled to trigger intense convective cells rather than cellular rolls. The results strongly suggest that the scale-aware nonlocal PBL scheme can be used to adequately reproduce the scale and evolution of the observed rolls in the deep CBL in Taklimakan desert at subkilometer resolutions.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: As a fundamental component in material and energy circulation, precipitation with high resolution and accuracy is of great significance for hydrological, meteorological, and ecological studies. Since satellite measured precipitation is often too coarse for practical applications, it is essential to develop spatial downscaling algorithms. In this study, we investigated two downscaling algorithms based on the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), respectively. They were employed to downscale annual and monthly precipitation obtained from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Hengduan Mountains, Southwestern China, from 10 km × 10 km to 1 km × 1 km. Ground observations were then used to validate the accuracy of downscaled precipitation. The results showed that GWR performed much better than MLR to regress precipitation on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM); coefficients of GWR models showed strong spatial nonstationarity, but the spatial mean standardized coefficients were very similar to standardized coefficients of MLR in terms of intra-annual patterns: generally NDVI was positively related to precipitation when monthly precipitation was under 166 mm; DEM was negatively related to precipitation, especially in wet months like July and August; contribution of DEM to precipitation was greater than that of NDVI; residuals’ correction was indispensable for the MLR-based algorithm but should be removed from the GWR-based algorithm; the GWR-based algorithm rather than the MLR-based algorithm produced more accurate precipitation than original GPM precipitation. These results indicated that GWR is a promising method in satellite precipitation downscaling researches and needed to be further studied.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: When the coarse-resolution observations used in the first step of multiscale and multistep variational data assimilation become increasingly nonuniform and/or sparse, the error variance of the first-step analysis tends to have increasingly large spatial variations. However, the analysis error variance computed from the previously developed spectral formulations is constant and thus limited to represent only the spatially averaged error variance. To overcome this limitation, analytic formulations are constructed to efficiently estimate the spatial variation of analysis error variance and associated spatial variation in analysis error covariance. First, a suite of formulations is constructed to efficiently estimate the error variance reduction produced by analyzing the coarse-resolution observations in one- and two-dimensional spaces with increased complexity and generality (from uniformly distributed observations with periodic extension to nonuniformly distributed observations without periodic extension). Then, three different formulations are constructed for using the estimated analysis error variance to modify the analysis error covariance computed from the spectral formulations. The successively improved accuracies of these three formulations and their increasingly positive impacts on the two-step variational analysis (or multistep variational analysis in first two steps) are demonstrated by idealized experiments.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Ice nuclei are very important factors as they significantly affect the development and evolvement of convective clouds such as hail clouds. In this study, numerical simulations of hail processes in the Zhejiang Province were conducted using a mesoscale numerical model (WRF v3.4). The effects of six ice nuclei parameterization schemes on the macroscopic and microscopic structures of hail clouds were compared. The effect of the ice nuclei concentration on ground hailfall is stronger than that on ground rainfall. There were significant spatiotemporal, intensity, and distribution differences in hailfall. Changes in the ice nuclei concentration caused different changes in hydrometeors and directly affected the ice crystals, and, hence, the spatiotemporal distribution of other hydrometeors and the thermodynamic structure of clouds. An increased ice nuclei concentration raises the initial concentration of ice crystals with higher mixing ratio. In the developing and early maturation stages of hail cloud, a larger number of ice crystals competed for water vapor with increasing ice nuclei concentration. This effect prevents ice crystals from maturing into snow particles and inhibits the formation and growth of hail embryos. During later maturation stages, updraft in the cloud intensified and more supercooled water was transported above the 0°C level, benefitting the production and growth of hail particles. An increased ice nuclei concentration therefore favors the formation of hail.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A month-long field observation campaign was conducted, which covered approximately 100 km2 of the Gobi Desert area on the southeast bank of Bosten Lake during the summer of 2016. The purpose of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of the low atmosphere over land-lake nonuniform underlying surfaces in the Gobi Desert of northwestern China. The results of the statistical analysis showed that, during the observational period, the average daytime surface horizontal thermal gradient reached up to −0.2°C/km from the lakeshore to southern Gobi Desert area. The near-surface wind field of the 7 km horizontal extent from the lakeshore was dominated by onshore breezes with average peak wind speeds above 5 m/s. In the atmospheric near-surface layer, an isohumidity layer at a height between 10 and 50 m a.g.l. was observed from 11:00 to 18:00 LST. Also, a case study for the atmospheric boundary layer and local circulation analyses was conducted. The onshore breezes were found to play a major role in the vertical structure of the local atmospheric boundary layer. The numerical simulation results indicated that there was an alternating day-night local circulation in the Bosten Lake area.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: North China Plain, Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province are the major areas facing the decreasing air quality and frequent pollution events in the recent years. Identifying the effect of meteorological conditions on changes in aerosol concentration and the mechanism for forming such heavy pollution in North China Plain has become the focus of scientific research. The influence of atmospheric boundary layer characteristics on air quality has become the focus of attention and research. However, the boundary layer describes that the influences of air pollution have sometimes been duplicated and confused with each other in some of the studies. It is necessary to pay attention to some extent, raising awareness of related pollution mixing layer. The conclusions of the study include the following: The lowered height of pollution mixing layer (H_PML) was favorable for the increase of the PM2.5 density. The lowered height of pollution mixing layer had significant impacts on formation of severe haze. A statistical analysis of large-scale heavy pollution cases in eastern China shows that the H_PML parameters have significant contributions. The feedback effect of the high value of the convection inhibition (CIN), which is unfavorable to vertical diffusion of pollution, causes further reduction of H_PML, resulting in cumulative pollution again.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was computed for October to December (OND) and January to March (JFM) summer subseasons for Free State Province, South Africa, to assess the influence of altitude on drought severity and frequency. The observed spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the SPI variability revealed that factors governing drought interannual variability varied markedly within the region for the two subseasons. Strong correlations between and 0.93 across the clusters in both subseasons were observed. Significant shift in average SPI, towards the high during the OND subseason, was detected for the far western low-lying and central regions of the province around the 1990s. An ANOVA test revealed a significant relationship between drought severity and altitude during the OND subseason only. The impact of altitude is partly manifested in the strong relationship between meridional winds and SPI extremes. When the winds are largely northerly, Free State lies predominantly in the windward side of the Drakensberg Mountains but lies in the rain shadow when the winds are mostly southerly. The relationship between ENSO and SPI indicates stronger correlations for the early summer subseason than for the late summer subseason while overall presenting a diminishing intensity with height over the province.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper shows the experimental results of the flutter speed of thin-flat plates with free leading edge in axial flow as a function of plates’ geometry, fluid densities, and viscosities, as well as natural frequencies of the plates. The experiment was developed based on similitude theory using dimensional analysis and Buckingham Pi Theorem. Dimensional analysis generates four dimensionless numbers. Experiment was conducted by placing the thin-flat plates in a laminar flow wind tunnel in order to obtain the relationship among those dimensionless numbers. The flutter speed was measured by varying the flow velocity until the instability occurred. The dimensional analysis gives a map of the flutter Reynolds number as a function of a new type of dimensionless number that is hereby called flutter fluid structure interaction number, thickness-to-length, and aspect ratios as the correcting factors. This map is a very useful tool for predicting the flutter speed of thin-flat plates in general. This investigation found that the flutter Reynolds number is very high at the region of high flutter fluid structure and thickness-to-length ratios numbers; however, it is very sensitive to the change of those two dimensionless numbers. The sensitivity is higher at lower aspect ratio.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6261
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Overlapping signals separation is a difficult problem, where time windowing is unable to separate signals overlapping in time and frequency domain filtering is unable to separate signals with overlapping spectra. In this work, a simulation under MATLAB is implemented to illustrate the concept of overlapping signals. We propose an approach for resolving overlapping signals based on Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform. The proposed approach is tested under MATLAB, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed approach. The approach is developed using Gerchberg superresolution technique to cope with signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. For practical work, an echo shape determination is required to apply the proposed technique. The experimental results show accurate localization of multiple targets.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI) technique. In the experimental analyses, an acoustic modal analysis of the freezer cavity and a structural modal analysis of the air duct were performed for the validation process. A good agreement was obtained among the results. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed. The validated models were used for optimizing the design. To solve the noise generation mechanism inside the freezer cabinet, the noise primarily generated by the freezer fan unit was measured under normal working conditions of the refrigerator, and the resonance frequencies were obtained. This information was compared with the normal modes of the air duct, and the overlapping frequencies were identified. To reduce the interaction between the source and the structure, a few design modifications were applied to the air duct. Thus, the structural-borne noise radiating from the air duct into the freezer cavity was reduced.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study investigates the acoustical and nonacoustical properties of composites using corn husk fiber (CHF) and unsaturated polyester as the sound-absorbing materials. The influence of the volume fraction of CHF on acoustic performance was experimentally investigated. In addition, the nonacoustical properties, such as air-flow resistivity, porosity, and mechanical properties of composites have been analyzed. The results show that the sound absorptions at low frequencies are determined by the number of lumens in fiber, particularly the absorption coefficient, which increases the amount of fiber. For high-frequency sound, the absorption coefficient is determined by the arrangement of fibers in the composite. An absorption coefficient is close to zero when the fibers are arranged in a conventional pattern; however, when they are arranged in a random pattern, a high absorption coefficient can be obtained. The bond interface between the fiber and resin enhances its mechanical properties, which increases the longevity of the composite panel.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Acoustical holography has been widely applied for noise sources location and sound field measurement. Performance of the microphones array directly determines the sound source recognition method. Therefore, research is very important to the performance of the microphone array, its array of applications, selection, and how to design instructive. In this paper, based on acoustic holography moving sound source identification theory, the optimization method is applied in design of the microphone array, we select the main side lobe ratio and the main lobe area as the optimization objective function and then put the optimization method use in the sound source identification based on holography, and finally we designed this paper to optimize microphone array and compare the original array of equally spaced array with optimization results; by analyzing the optimization results and objectives, we get that the array can be achieved which is optimized not only to reduce the microphone but also to change objective function results, while improving the far-field acoustic holography resolving effect. Validation experiments have showed that the optimization method is suitable for high speed trains sound source identification microphone array optimization.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Research has shown that the soundboard plays an increasingly important role compared to the sound hole, back plate, and the bridge at high frequencies. The frequency spectrum of investigation can be extended to 5 kHz. Design of bracings and their placements on the soundboard increase its structural stiffness as well as redistributing its deflection to nonbraced regions and affecting its loudness as well as its response at low and high frequencies. This paper attempts to present a review of the current state of the art in guitar research and to propose viable alternatives that will ultimately result in a louder and better sounding instrument. Current research is an attempt to increase the sound level with bracing designs and their placements, control of natural frequencies using scalloped braces, as well as improve the acoustic radiation of this instrument at higher frequencies by deliberately inducing asymmetric modes in the soundboard using the concept of “splitting board.” Various mathematical methods are available for analysing the soundboard based on the theory of thin plates. Discrete models of the instrument up to 4 degrees of freedom are also presented. Results from finite element analysis can be utilized for the evaluation of acoustic radiation.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor) were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper reviews the evolution of focused ultrasonic transducers of various kinds for fluid atomization and vaporization. Ultrasonic transducers used for atomization purposes in biomedical, pharmaceutical, or industrial applications, such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers, array of micromachined nozzles, and Fourier horn micromachined nozzles with or without a central channel, are all presented and compared. For simplicity of manufacturing and low cost, we focus on plates and curved and corrugated structures for biomedical humidification.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transmission of sound in a duct with sudden area expansion and extended inlet is investigated in the case where the walls of the duct lie in the finite overlapping region lined with acoustically absorbent materials. By using the series expansion in the overlap region and using the Fourier transform technique elsewhere we obtain a Wiener-Hopf equation whose solution involves a set of infinitely many unknown expansion coefficients satisfying a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical solution of this system is obtained for various values of the problem parameters, whereby the effects of these parameters on the sound transmission are studied.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper examines the spectrum and cepstrum content of vibration signals taken from a helicopter gearbox with two different configurations (3 and 4 planets). It presents a signal processing algorithm to separate synchronous and nonsynchronous components for complete shafts’ harmonic extraction and removal. The spectrum and cepstrum of the vibration signal for two configurations are firstly analyzed and discussed. The effect of changing the number of planets on the fundamental gear mesh frequency (epicyclic mesh frequency) and its sidebands is discussed. The paper explains the differences between the two configurations and discusses, in particular, the asymmetry of the modulation sidebands about the epicyclic mesh frequency in the 4 planets arrangement. Finally a separation algorithm, which is based on resampling the order-tracked signal to have an integer number of samples per revolution for a specific shaft, is proposed for a complete removal of the shafts harmonics. The results obtained from the presented separation algorithms are compared to other separation schemes such as discrete random separation (DRS) and time synchronous averaging (TSA) with clear improvements and better results.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The problem of vibration attenuation in a semiactive vehicle suspension is considered. The proposed solution is based on usage of the information about the road roughness coming from the sensor installed on the front axle of the vehicle. It does not need any preview sensor to measure the road roughness as other preview control strategies do. Here, the well-known Skyhook algorithm is used for control of the front magnetorheological (MR) damper. This algorithm is tuned to a quarter-car model of the front part of the vehicle. The rear MR damper is controlled by the FxLMS (Filtered-x LMS) taking advantage of the information about the motion of the front vehicle axle. The goal of this algorithm is to minimize pitch of the vehicle body. The strategy is applied for a four-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF) vehicle model equipped with magnetorheological dampers which were described using the Bouc-Wen model. The suspension model was subjected to the road-induced excitation in the form of a series of bumps within the frequency range 1.0–10 Hz. Different solutions are compared based on the transmissibility function and simulation results show the usefulness of the proposed solution.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Kaybob compressor failure of 1971 was an excellent historic example of rotordynamic instability and the design factors that affect this phenomenon. In the case of Kaybob, the use of poorly designed bearings produced unstable whirling in both the low and high pressure compressors. This required over five months of vibration troubleshooting and redesign along with over 100 million modern U.S. dollars in total costs and lost revenue. In this paper, the history of the Kaybob compressor failure is discussed in detail including a discussion of the ineffective bearing designs that were considered. Modern bearing and rotordynamic analysis tools are then employed to study both designs that were considered along with new designs for the bearings that could have ultimately restored stability to the machine. These designs include four-pad, load-between-pad bearings and squeeze film dampers with a central groove. Simple relationships based on the physics of the system are also used to show how the bearings could be tuned to produce optimum bearing stiffness and damping of the rotor vibration, producing insights which can inform the designers as they perform more comprehensive analyses of these systems.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper presents the workflow and the results of fluid dynamics and aeroacoustic simulations for an air-cooling system as used in electronic devices. The setup represents a generic electronic device with several electronic assemblies with forced convection cooling by two axial fans. The aeroacoustic performance is computed using a hybrid method. In a first step, two unsteady CFD simulations using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation with Shear Stress Transport (URANS-SST) turbulence model and the Scale Adaptive Simulation with Shear Stress Transport (SAS-SST) models were performed. Based on the unsteady flow results, the acoustic source terms were calculated using Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Propagation of the flow-induced sound was computed using the Finite Element Method. Finally, the results of the acoustic simulation are compared with measurements and show good agreement.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A lumped parameter model is presented for studying the dynamic interaction between two disks in relative rotational motion and in friction contact. The contact elastic and dissipative characteristics are represented by equivalent stiffness and damping coefficient in the axial as well as torsional direction. The formulation accounts for the coupling between the axial and angular motions by viewing the contact normal force a result of axial behavior of the system. The model is used to investigate stick-slip behavior of a two-disk friction system. In this effort the friction coefficient is represented as an exponentially decaying function of relative angular velocity, varying from its static value at zero relative velocity to its kinetic value at very high velocities. This investigation results in the establishment of critical curve defining two-parameter regions: one in which stick-slip occurs and that in which stick-slip does not occur. Moreover, the onset and termination of stick-slip, when it occurs, are related to the highest component frequency in the system. It is found that stick-slip starts at a period nearly equal to that of the highest component frequency and terminates at a period almost three times that of the highest component frequency.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper describes the electricity generation characteristics of a new energy-harvesting system with piezoelectric elements. The proposed system is composed of a rigid cylinder and thin plates at both ends. The piezoelectric elements are installed at the centers of both plates, and one side of each plate is subjected to a harmonic point force. In this system, vibration energy is converted into electrical energy via electromechanical coupling between the plate vibration and piezoelectric effect. In addition, the plate vibration excited by the point force induces a self-sustained vibration at the other plate via mechanical-acoustic coupling between the plate vibrations and an internal sound field into the cylindrical enclosure. Therefore, the electricity generation characteristics should be considered as an electromechanical-acoustic coupling problem. The characteristics are estimated theoretically and experimentally from the electric power in the electricity generation, the mechanical power supplied to the plate, and the electricity generation efficiency that is derived from the ratio of both power. In particular, the electricity generation efficiency is one of the most appropriate factors to evaluate a performance of electricity generation systems. Thus, the effect of mechanical-acoustic coupling is principally evaluated by examining the electricity generation efficiency.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The presented work describes the method development of simultaneous determination of camylofin dihydrochloride (CMF), diclofenac potassium (DCF), and Paracetamol (PCM) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the method was further transferred to a new generation instrument, ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC-PDA). The detailed validation was carried out for the combination tablet formulation of CMF and DCF by UPLC-PDA. From the method development study, Acquity UPLC HSS C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) was finally selected for validation. The satisfactory results were observed for peak shape, retention time, and resolution with a mobile phase of 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.0 with dilute orthophosphoric acid) : methanol (33 : 67 v/v). The isocratic elution of mobile phase was carried out at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min and detection at 220 nm. Both drugs were efficiently separated out in less than 3.5 min with 1.1 and 3.2 min of retention time of the CMF and DCF with 11.87 of resolution. The linearity was obtained in the 20.0–80.0 μg/mL range of concentration with 0.9998 of correlation coefficients for the substances. The method was analyzed for specificity with detailed force degradation study, which is a simple, precise, and accurate method, as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-3510
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Several herbal remedies have been used as topical agents to cure burn wound, one of the most common injuries in worldwide. In this study, we investigated the potential use of Cleistocalyx operculatus essential oil to treat the burn wound. We identified a total of 13 bioactive compounds of essential oil, several of which exhibited the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the essential oil showed the antibacterial effect against S. aureus but not with P. aeruginosa. The supportive effect of essential oil on burn wound healing process also has been proven. Among three groups of mice, wound contraction rate of essential oil treated group (100%) was significantly higher than tamanu oil treated (79%) and control mice (71%) after 20 days ( versus  cm2, resp., ). Histological studies revealed that burn wounds treated with essential oil formed a complete epidermal structure, thick and neatly arranged fibers, and scattered immune cells in burn wound. On the contrary, saline treated burn wound formed uneven epidermal layer with necrotic ulcer, infiltration of immune cells, and existence of granulation tissue. This finding demonstrated Cleistocalyx operculatus essential oil as promising topical dermatological agent to treat burn wound.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Reticulated pigmentation is a unique pigmentary change caused by a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders. This pigmentation is characterized by a mottled appearance, with lesions that vary in size and pigmentary content. This review discusses the hereditary group of the reticulated pigmentation disorders, such as dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria, and reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura. The clinical presentation and histopathological features often overlap, making diagnosis difficult. However, each of these hereditary conditions possesses a unique genetic mutation, and genetic analysis is thus more useful in the diagnosis of these conditions. This article delivers an update regarding the clinical features, detailed histopathological description, and genetic information concerning hereditary reticulate pigmentary disorders and aims to provide useful background for use by clinical dermatologists and histopathologists when approaching this group of hereditary disorders.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Fusarium spp. represent 9 to 44% of onychomycoses caused by fungi other than dermatophytes. This retrospective study describes 17 cases of Fusarium onychomycosis diagnosed at the Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, from 2014 to 2016. It included all patients received in the laboratory for suspicion of onychomycosis between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Seventeen Fusarium onychomycosis cases representing 12.9% of all onychomycoses reported were diagnosed. There were 5 cases on the fingernails and 12 on the toenails in 6 males and 11 females, and the mean age was 44 years (range: 26–64). Onychomycoses were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in a diabetic patient. The mean duration of lesions was 4.9 years (range: 1–15), and distal subungual onychomycosis was predominant. Almost all patients were from suburban areas of Dakar region. The most frequent species isolated belong to Fusarium solani complex. Because of the risk of disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients, realization of susceptibility tests is necessary to ensure better therapeutic management.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective. Mechanism of action of cosmetic products is not often studied. The aim of this study is to determine the histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical changes of a new cosmetic formulation. Methods. Prospective, single-blind, patient-controlled, randomized study in 10 volunteers with mild to moderate skin photoaging on the back of their hands. The product was applied on one hand and a standard cream on the other hand, twice a day for three months. Standardized photographs were taken on basal (T0) and final visit (T1) and skin biopsies were performed. Changes on histological and immunohistochemical markers were studied. Subjective clinical changes were determined. Results. After treatment, a 26.3% improvement on epidermal thickness was detected and a significant increase on collagens I and III, elastin, and fibronectin fibers was achieved (). As the expression of MMPs remained stable, this improvement of dermal matrix was attributed to the stimulation of their synthesis. A significant clinical improvement on the treated hand was obtained, compared to control hand. Conclusion. This new cosmetic product with combination of three registered technologies (IFC-CAF, WGC, and RetinSphere), focused on regenerating dermal matrix and activating proliferation of skin cells, has shown to be efficient in the reversion of skin photoaging.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Melanocytic nevi, including dysplastic or atypical nevi (DN), can recur or persist following shave removal procedures, and recurrence may resemble melanoma, both clinically and histologically (pseudomelanoma). Recurrence may originate from proliferation of the remaining neoplastic melanocytes following incomplete removal. The present study determines the rate and etiology of this event. A cross-sectional analysis of 110 excision specimens showing histological recurrence was performed, and these specimens were compared to the slides of the original shave specimens showing mildly atypical DN. In the second portion of the study, a retrospective review of 167 cases with biopsy-proven mildly atypical DN which were followed up for at least two years was conducted to determine the rate of recurrence/persistence. When followed up for two years, DN, with positive shave margins, defined by extension or very close extension (≤0.2 mm) of the lesions to the lateral margins and into the deep margins through the hair follicles in the shave removal specimens, have a higher probability of recurrence than DN with negative (or clear) margins (odds ratio (OR) = 158; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 36.62–683; ). The overall rate of histologically confirmed recurrence/persistence was approximately 10%.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study an online multisource multisink queueing network control problem characterized with self-organizing network structure and self-organizing job routing. We decompose the self-organizing queueing network control problem into a series of interrelated Markov Decision Processes and construct a control decision model for them based on the coupled reinforcement learning (RL) architecture. To maximize the mean time averaged weighted throughput of the jobs through the network, we propose a reinforcement learning algorithm with time averaged reward to deal with the control decision model and obtain a control policy integrating the jobs routing selection strategy and the jobs sequencing strategy. Computational experiments verify the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed reinforcement learning algorithm applied in the investigated self-organizing network control problem.
    Print ISSN: 1026-0226
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study how to design an optimal contract which provides incentives for agent to put forth the desired effort in a continuous time dynamic moral hazard model with linear marginal productivity. Using exponential utility and linear production, three different information structures, full information, hidden actions and hidden savings, are considered in the principal-agent model. Applying the stochastic maximum principle, we solve the model explicitly, where the agent’s optimization problem becomes the principal’s problem of choosing an optimal contract. The explicit solutions to our model allow us to analyze the distortion of allocations. The main effect of hidden actions is a reduction of effort, but the a smaller effect is on the consumption allocation. In the hidden saving case, the consumption distortion almost vanishes but the effort distortion is expanded. In our setting, the agent’s optimal effort is also reduced with the decline of marginal productivity.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The first-order and second-order PDα-type iterative learning control (ILC) schemes are considered for a class of Caputo-type fractional-order nonlinear systems. Due to the imperfection of the -norm, the Lebesgue-p () norm is adopted to overcome the disadvantage. First, a generalization of the Gronwall integral inequality with singularity is established. Next, according to the reached generalized Gronwall integral inequality and the generalized Young inequality, the monotonic convergence of the first-order PDα-type ILC is investigated, while the convergence of the second-order PDα-type ILC is analyzed. The resultant condition shows that both the learning gains and the system dynamics affect the convergence. Finally, numerical simulations are exploited to verify the results.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A class of boundary value problems of Caputo fractional -difference equation is introduced. Green’s function and its properties for this problem are deduced. By applying these properties and the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem, existence criteria of three positive solutions are obtained. At last, some examples are given to illustrate the validity of our main results.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: How to maximize customer satisfaction is an important research topic in the service quality evaluation. This paper proposes an evaluation method of comprehensive product quality for customer satisfaction based on the intuitionistic fuzzy number. In this method, we design a questionnaire and investigate the customer’s language evaluation information of product quality evaluation, including product expectations and product perception at first. And then, the product quality evaluation model is obtained by Delphi method; that is, the first-level evaluation indexes and the second-level evaluation indexes are obtained and the weight vector of each evaluation index is determined. Next, language evaluation information translates into corresponding fuzzy numbers using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Therefore, the results of the product quality evaluation of the production system are obtained using the weighted mean method. Finally, an example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper investigates the valuation of vulnerable European options considering the market prices of common systematic jump risks under regime-switching jump-diffusion models. The way of regime-switching Esscher transform is adopted to identify an equivalent martingale measure for pricing vulnerable European options. Explicit analytical pricing formulae for vulnerable European options are derived by risk-neutral pricing theory. For comparison, the other two cases are also considered separately. The first case considers all jump risks as unsystematic risks while the second one assumes all jumps risks to be systematic risks. Numerical examples for the valuation of vulnerable European options are provided to illustrate our results and indicate the influence of the market prices of jump risks on the valuation of vulnerable European options.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We propose an exchange economy evolutionary model with discrete time, in which there are two utility-maximizing groups of agents which differ in the preference structure. Assuming an evolutionary mechanism based on the relative utility values realized by the two kinds of agents, we analytically and numerically investigate the existence of equilibria, their stability, and possible phenomena of coexistence between groups, mainly in terms of the heterogeneity degree in the preference structure. We find that our system has two trivial equilibria, at which just one of the two groups is present, and possibly a nontrivial equilibrium, characterized by the coexistence of the two groups of agents. Such nontrivial equilibrium may be stable, attracting all trajectories, or unstable. In the latter case, interesting, periodic, or chaotic, dynamics arise. We prove that the nontrivial equilibrium emerges via a transcritical bifurcation and loses stability via a flip bifurcation, after which the coexistence between groups is oscillatory in nature, presenting a regular or irregular behavior. In order to better investigate the role of the heterogeneity degree parameter, we perform a bifurcation analysis considering different scenarios, characterized by a balanced or unbalanced endowment distribution of the two goods.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The paper examines the generalized rough fuzzy ideals of quantales. There are some intrinsic relations between fuzzy prime (primary) ideals of quantales and generalized rough fuzzy prime (primary) ideals of quantales. Homomorphic images of “generalized rough ideals, generalized rough prime (primary) ideals, and generalized rough fuzzy prime (primary) ideals” which are incited by quantale homomorphism are examined.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper studies the initial-boundary value problem of a porous medium equation with a convection term. If the equation is degenerate on the boundary, then only a partial boundary condition is needed generally. The existence of the weak solution is proved by the monotone convergent method. Moreover, according to the different boundary value conditions, the stability of the solutions is studied. In some special cases, the stability can be proved without any boundary value condition.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study the existence and attractivity of solutions for fractional evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. We establish sufficient conditions for the global attractivity of mild solutions for the Cauchy problems in the case that semigroup is compact.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study a diffusive prey-predator system with a group defense for prey. Under Neumann boundary condition, we analyze local and stability of nonnegative constant steady states and the existence and nonexistence of nonconstant steady states. These results also exhibit the critical role of the system parameters leading to the formation of spatiotemporal patterns.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper describes the peak, fat tail, and skewness characteristics of asset price via a Lévy process. It applies asymmetric GARCH model to depict asset price’s random volatility characteristics and builds a GARCH-Lévy option pricing model with random jump characteristics. It also uses circular maximum likelihood estimation technology to improve the stability of model parameter estimation. In order to test the model’s pricing results, we use Hong Kong Hang Seng Index (HSI) price data and its option data to carry out empirical studies. Results prove that the pricing bias of EGARCH-Lévy model is lower than that of standard Heston-Nandi (HN) model in the financial industry. For short-term, middle-term, and long-term European-style options, the pricing error of EGARCH-Lévy model is the lowest.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely accepted as an effective, minimally invasive treatment for superficial esophageal cancers. However, esophageal stricture often occurs in patients with large mucosal defects after ESD. In this review, we discuss various approaches recently researched to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. These approaches can be classified as pharmacological treatments, esophageal stent treatments, and tissue engineering approaches. Most of the preventive approaches still have their limitations and require further research. With the improvement of current therapies, ESD can be more widely utilized as a minimally invasive treatment with minimal complications.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6121
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a validated quality measure for screening colonoscopy, but there are little data for other indications. The distribution of adenomas is not well described for these indications. Aim. To describe ADR and the adenoma distribution in the proximal and distal colon based on colonoscopy indication. Methods. Outpatient colonoscopies are subdivided by indication. PDR and ADR for the entire colon and for proximal and distal colon. Data were compared using generalized estimating equations to adjust for clustering amongst endoscopists while controlling for patient age and gender. Results. 3436 colonoscopies were reviewed (51.2%: men ()). Indications are screening 49.2%, surveillance 29.3%, change in bowel habit 8.4%, bleeding 5.8%, colitides 3.0%, pain 2.8%, and miscellaneous 1.5%. Overall ADR was 37% proximal ADR 28%, and distal ADR 17%. PDR and ADR were significantly higher in surveillance than in screening (PDR: 69% versus 51%; ADR: 50% versus 33%; ). Adenomas were more often detected in the proximal than in the distal colon, for all indications. Conclusions. Prevalence of polyps and adenomas differs based on colonoscopy indication. Adenoma detection is highest in surveillance and more commonly detected in the proximal colon. For quality assurance, distinct ADR and PDR targets may need to be established for different colonoscopy indications.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Capsule endoscopy has been the first-line examination for small bowel diseases, yet its diagnostic yield is restricted by unsatisfactory bowel preparation. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of different dosages of polyethylene glycol in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials involving polyethylene glycol in preparation for capsule endoscopy. The methodological quality of the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment instrument. In this study, 12 RCTs involving 2072 patients were included in this review. Our review indicated that 4 L and 2 L polyethylene (PEG) before capsule endoscopy (CE) and 500 mL PEG after CE increase the small bowel image quality, whereas 1 L PEG did not improve the small bowel image quality. PEG accelerated the gastric emptying time. There was no significant difference between the PEG group and control group in small bowel transit time, completion rates, and diagnostic yield.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Granulocyte-monocyte apheresis has been proposed for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, although it is limited by costs and variability of results. Aim. To assess effectiveness of granulocyte-monocyte apheresis in patients with steroid-dependent, azathioprine-intolerant/resistant moderate ulcerative colitis. Methods. Consecutive patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were prospectively enrolled, treated by apheresis, and followed up for 12 months. The primary end point of the study was steroid-free clinical remission at 12 months, with no need for biologic therapy or surgery. Results. From January to December 2013, 33 patients were enrolled. After one year of follow-up, 12 (36%) patients had clinical remission, were steroid-free, and had no need for biological therapy or surgery; 3 (9%) cases showed a clinical response (but not clinical remission). Moreover, 12 (36%) patients required biologic therapy, 4 (12%) underwent colectomy, and in the other 2 (6%) a reduction, but not withdrawal, of steroid dose was achieved. Conclusions. Our study shows that a standard course of granulocyte-monocyte apheresis is associated with a 36% steroid-free clinical remission in patients with steroid-dependent, azathioprine-intolerant or resistant moderate ulcerative colitis. Apheresis might represent an alternative to biologic therapy or surgery in this specific subgroup of patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrial.gov NCT03189888.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Endotoxin (LPS), the component of Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for sepsis and neonatal mortality, but low concentrations of LPS produced tissue protection in experimental studies. The effects of LPS applied to the suckling rats on the pancreas of adult animals have not been previously explored. We present the impact of neonatal endotoxemia on the pancreatic exocrine function and on the acute pancreatitis which has been investigated in the adult animals. Endotoxemia was induced in suckling rats by intraperitoneal application of LPS from Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi. In the adult rats, pretreated in the early period of life with LPS, histological manifestations of acute pancreatitis have been reduced. Pancreatic weight and plasma lipase activity were decreased, and SOD concentration was reversed and accompanied by a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA + 4 HNE) in the pancreatic tissue. In the pancreatic acini, the significant increases in protein signals for toll-like receptor 4 and for heat shock protein 60 were found. Signal for the CCK1 receptor was reduced and pancreatic secretory responses to caerulein were diminished, whereas basal enzyme secretion was unaffected. These pioneer studies have shown that exposition of suckling rats to endotoxin has an impact on the pancreas in the adult organism.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective. To investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods. Data from 2051 participants who underwent 13C urea breath test and abdominal ultrasound examinations was collected. Participants were allocated to NAFLD risk group and NAFLD nonrisk group based on definite risk factors for NAFLD. The relationship between H. pylori infection and NAFLD was analyzed. Results. No significant difference was found between rates of H. pylori infection and NAFLD using the chi-square test () or regression analysis (). There was no significant difference between rates of H. pylori infection with and without NAFLD () in the NAFLD risk group or in the NAFLD nonrisk group (). There was no significant difference between rates of H. pylori infection in men () and in women () or in participants aged 18–40 years (), 41–65 years (), and ≥66 years () with and without NAFLD in the NAFLD risk group or between the same sex or age groups (, , , , and , resp.) in the NAFLD nonrisk group. Conclusions. H. pylori infection does not appear to increase the NAFLD prevalence rate or to be associated with, or a risk factor for, NAFLD.
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A simple cloud point preconcentration method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin in Ardisia japonica by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultrasonic assisted micellar extraction. Nonionic surfactant Genapol X-080 was selected as the extraction solvent. The effects of various experimental conditions such as the type and concentration of surfactant and salt, temperature, and solution pH on the extraction of these components were studied to optimize the conditions of Ardisia japonica. The solution was incubated in a thermostatic water bath at 60°C for 10 min, and 35% NaH2PO4 (w/v) was added to the solution to promote the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor. The intraday and interday precision (RSD) were both below 5.0% and the limits of detection (LOD) for the analytes were between 10 and 20 ng·mL−1. The proposed method provides a simple, efficient, and organic solvent-free method to analyze gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin for the quality control of Ardisia japonica.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In the field of applied researches in heritage science, the use of multivariate approach is still quite limited and often chemometric results obtained are often underinterpreted. Within this scenario, the present paper is aimed at disseminating the use of suitable multivariate methodologies and proposes a procedural workflow applied on a representative group of case studies, of considerable importance for conservation purposes, as a sort of guideline on the processing and on the interpretation of this FTIR data. Initially, principal component analysis (PCA) is performed and the score values are converted into chemical maps. Successively, the brushing approach is applied, demonstrating its usefulness for a deep understanding of the relationships between the multivariate map and PC score space, as well as for the identification of the spectral bands mainly involved in the definition of each area localised within the score maps.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying) were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W.) from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying). Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis) were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end-product (AGE) and fluorescent cross-link compound. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the detection and quantification of pentosidine in human urine and plasma. The mobile phase used a gradient system to improve separation of pentosidine from endogenous peaks, and chromatograms were monitored by fluorescent detector set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 328 and 378 nm, respectively. The retention time for pentosidine was 24.3 min and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) in human urine and plasma were 1 nM. The intraday assay precisions (coefficients of variation) were generally low and found to be in the range of 5.19–7.49% and 4.96–8.78% for human urine and plasma, respectively. The corresponding values of the interday assay precisions were 9.45% and 4.27%. Accuracies (relative errors) ranged from 87.9% to 115%. Pentosidine was stable in a range of pH solutions, human urine, and plasma. In summary, this HPLC method can be applied in future preclinical and clinical evaluation of pentosidine in the diabetic patients.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The subject of durability of drugs is a very important problem investigated by researches. The method of accelerated aging is very often used for stability testing. It involves the influence of temperature, humidity, and light exposure. The aim of this work is estimation of contents of diphenhydramine in its standard solutions undergoing the impact of external factors, that is, temperature and UV light. The standard solutions of diphenhydramine were prepared in distilled water. The analysis of contents of compound investigated was carried out by use of HPTLC. Adsorption thin layer chromatography was performed on aluminum HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using mixture of ammonia, methanol, and ethyl acetate as mobile phase. The solutions investigated were exposed to UV light as well as being heated in 40°C. The contents of diphenhydramine were measured in initial solution and during experiment. The additional peaks on densitograms as well as changes in color of solution were observed as a result of exposure to UV light which can give information about new substances, degradation products of diphenhydramine, which were created during experiment.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Javamide-I/javamide-II are phenolic amides found in coffee. Recent reports suggested that they may contain several biological activities related to human health. Therefore, there is emergent interest about their quantities in coffee-related products. Green coffee extract is a powder extract made of unroasted green coffee beans, available as a dietary supplement. However, there is little information about the amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II in green coffee extract products in the market. Therefore, in this paper, javamide-I/javamide-II were extracted from green coffee extract products and their identifications were confirmed by NMR. After that, the amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II were individually quantified from seven different green coffee extract samples using the HPLC method coupled to an electrochemical detector. The HPLC method provided accurate and reliable measurement of javamide-I/javamide-II with excellent peak resolution and low detection limit. In all seven green coffee extract samples, javamide-II was found to be between 0.28 and 2.96 mg/g, but javamide-I was detected in only five samples in the concentration levels of 0.15–0.52 mg/g, suggesting that green coffee extract products contain different amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II. In summary, javamide-I/javamide-II can be found in green coffee extract products sold in the market, but their amounts are likely to be comparatively different in between green coffee extract brands.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and vacuum precooling on quality and antioxidant properties of blackberries (Rubus spp.) were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and path analysis. Results showed that the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by both 1-MCP treatment and vacuum precooling. PCA could discriminate 1-MCP treated fruit and the vacuum precooled fruit and showed that the radical-scavenging activities in vacuum precooled fruit were higher than those in 1-MCP treated fruit. The scores of PCA showed that H2O2 content was the most important variables of blackberry fruit. PLSR results showed that peroxidase (POD) activity negatively correlated with H2O2 content. The results of path coefficient analysis indicated that glutathione (GSH) also had an indirect effect on H2O2 content.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We assembled daily maximum and minimum temperature records for 31 stations throughout Iran over the period 1961–2010. As with many other areas of the world, we found that both the maximum and minimum temperatures were increasing overall with the minimum temperatures increasing twice as fast as the maximum temperatures. We gathered population data for the stations near the beginning and end of the temperature records and found in all seasons and for both the maximum and minimum temperatures the magnitude of population growth positively influenced the temperature trends. However, unlike so many other studies, we found the strongest population growth signal in the winter for the maximum temperatures. We found evidence that this winter-season population-temperature signal is related snow cover. Our results illustrate that any number of processes are involved in explaining trends in historical maximum and minimum temperature records.
    Print ISSN: 2314-4122
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The IPCC climate models predict, for the Maghreb countries, lower rainfall and increased aridity. Current observations in the three countries of central Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) are not consistent with these predictions. To demonstrate this new trend, a detailed regional analysis of rainfall evolution is conducted. This investigation is based on the calculation of the reduced centered index and the chronological graphical method of processing information (MGCTI) of “Bertin matrix” type. The results show extreme variability of this parameter and the severe past drought (more intense for Morocco, in which the drastic conditions from the seventies are observed). The results also show the beginning of a gradual return to wetter conditions since the early 2000s in Algeria and Tunisia and from 2008 for Morocco (this trend is confirmed by recent agricultural production data in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013).
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The nuclear envelope proteins, Nesprins, have been primarily studied during interphase where they function in maintaining nuclear shape, size, and positioning. We analyze here the function of Nesprin-2 in chromatin interactions in interphase and dividing cells. We characterize a region in the rod domain of Nesprin-2 that is predicted as SMC domain (aa 1436–1766). We show that this domain can interact with itself. It furthermore has the capacity to bind to SMC2 and SMC4, the core subunits of condensin. The interaction was observed during all phases of the cell cycle; it was particularly strong during S phase and persisted also during mitosis. Nesprin-2 knockdown did not affect condensin distribution; however we noticed significantly higher numbers of chromatin bridges in Nesprin-2 knockdown cells in anaphase. Thus, Nesprin-2 may have an impact on chromosomes which might be due to its interaction with condensins or to indirect mechanisms provided by its interactions at the nuclear envelope.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8876
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    Topics: Biology
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The serine protease thrombin activates Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs), a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by the proteolytic cleavage of their extracellular N-terminal domain. Four members of this family have been identified: PAR1–4. The activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 1(PAR1), the prototype of this receptor family, leads to an increase in intracellular Ca+2 concentration ([Ca+2]i) mediated by α coupling and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. We have previously shown that the stimulation of PAR1 by thrombin promotes intracellular signaling leading to RPE cell transformation, proliferation, and migration which characterize fibroproliferative eye diseases leading to blindness. Within this context, the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in PAR1 inactivation is of utmost importance. Due to the irreversible nature of PAR1 activation, its inactivation must be efficiently regulated in order to terminate signaling. Using ARPE-19 human RPE cell line, we characterized thrombin-induced [Ca+2]i increase and demonstrated the calcium-dependent activation of μ-calpain mediated by PAR1. Calpains are a family of calcium-activated cysteine proteases involved in multiple cellular processes including the internalization of membrane proteins through clathrin-coated vesicles. We demonstrated that PAR1-induced calpain activation results in the degradation of α-spectrin by calpain, essential for receptor endocytosis, and the consequent decrease in PAR1 membrane expression. Collectively, the present results identify a novel μ-calpain-dependent mechanism for PAR1 inactivation following exposure to thrombin.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1687-806X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8078
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Pyrolysis properties and kinetic analysis of lake sediment, as well as evolution characteristics of the gaseous products at 5°C/min, 10°C/min, and 20°C/min, were investigated by TG-FTIR. Comparison to the TG and DTG curves at different heating rates, the pyrolysis process at 10°C/min could describe the sediment pyrolysis characteristics better than at 5°C/min and 20°C/min; thus the process of sediment pyrolysis could be considered as four stages. From the kinetics analysis, the nth-order chemical reaction model was suitable to describe the sediment pyrolysis reaction well. The values of n were within 2.55–3.42 and activation energy was ranged from 15.83 KJ/mol to 57.92 KJ/mol at different heating rates. The gaseous products of H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, and SO2 and several functional groups (C-H, C=O, and C-O) could be found from the IR spectrum. From the evolution characteristics with the temperature, there were two evolution peaks for CO2 and one peak for CH4 and SO2. However, the evolution of CO always increased. Besides, the evolution peak for CO2, CH4, and SO2 all shifted to the low temperature region with the decrease of heating rate. The results could provide theoretical basis for harmless treatment and resource utilization of lake sediment.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The current work focuses on the development and application of a new finite volume immersed boundary method (IBM) to simulate three-dimensional fluid flows and heat transfer around complex geometries. First, the discretization of the governing equations based on the second-order finite volume method on Cartesian, structured, staggered grid is outlined, followed by the description of modifications which have to be applied to the discretized system once a body is immersed into the grid. To validate the new approach, the heat conduction equation with a source term is solved inside a cavity with an immersed body. The approach is then tested for a natural convection flow in a square cavity with and without circular cylinder for different Rayleigh numbers. The results computed with the present approach compare very well with the benchmark solutions. As a next step in the validation procedure, the method is tested for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a turbulent flow around a surface-mounted matrix of cubes. The results computed with the present method compare very well with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements of the same case, showing that the method can be used for scale-resolving simulations of turbulence as well.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 80