Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: :  Background: Continuity of care and of caregiver are thought to be important influences on women's experience of maternity care. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of two aspects of continuity of caregiver in the antenatal period on women's overall rating of antenatal care: the extent to which women saw the same caregiver throughout pregnancy, and the extent to which women thought that their caregiver knew and remembered them and their progress from one visit to the next. Methods:An anonymous, population-based postal survey was conducted of 1,616 women who gave birth in a 14-day period in September 1999 in Victoria, Australia. Multivariate methods were used to analyze the data. Results:Most women saw the same caregiver at each antenatal visit (77%), and thought that caregivers got to know them (65%). This finding varied widely among different models of maternity care. Before adjustment, women were much more likely to describe their antenatal care as very good if they always or mostly thought the caregiver got to know them (OR 5.86, 95% CI 4.3, 7.9), and if they always or mostly saw the same caregiver at each visit (OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.0, 4.3). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, parity, risk status of the pregnancy, and several specific aspects of antenatal care revealed that seeing the same caregiver was no longer associated with rating of care (adjusted OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.3,1.2), but women who thought that caregivers got to know and remember them remained much more likely to rate their care highly (adjusted OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.0, 5.1). Conclusions:These findings suggest that changing the delivery of antenatal care to increase women's chances of seeing the same caregiver at each visit is not by itself likely to improve the overall experience of care, but time spent personalizing each encounter in antenatal care would be well received. The analysis also confirmed the importance that women place on quality interactions with their doctors and midwives. (BIRTH 32:4 December 2005)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: :  Background: Cesarean delivery avoids perineal trauma and has therefore often been assumed to protect sexual function after childbirth. We sought to examine this assumption by using data from a study of women's sexual health after childbirth to assess whether women who underwent cesarean section experienced better sexual health in the postnatal period than women with vaginal births. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted of 796 primiparous women, employing data from obstetric records and a postal survey 6 months after delivery. Results:Any protective effect of cesarean section on sexual function was limited to the early postnatal period (0–3 months), primarily to dyspareunia-related symptoms. At 6 months the differences in dyspareunia-related symptoms, sexual response-related symptoms, and postcoital problems were much reduced or reversed, and none reached statistical significance. Conclusions:Outcomes from this study provide no basis for advocating cesarean section as a way to protect women's sexual function after childbirth. (BIRTH 32:4 December 2005)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: :  Three recent papers, a large observational study, a systematic review, and a patient preference randomized controlled trial, addressed the perinatal outcome of water birth. Although their conclusions differ as much as their study design, all three reached conclusions that are substantially flawed because they are not supported by the data and/or display a profound disregard for what a particular research methodology can and cannot do. (BIRTH 32:4 December 2005)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: :  Background: Assessing the quality of prenatal care received by Hispanic women is particularly important, given the rapidly growing Hispanic population in the United States. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the prevalence of Hispanic mothers who perceived their prenatal care to be patient-centered, to determine whether Hispanic mothers were less likely to perceive their prenatal care to be patient-centered than non-Hispanic mothers, and to better understand Hispanic women's perceptions of the patient-centeredness of their prenatal care. Methods:Semistructured interviews were conducted with a proportionate, stratified random sample of 359 women initiating prenatal care in their first trimester and 68 women initiating prenatal care in their third trimester who delivered at 10 Palm Beach County, Florida, maternity hospitals between May and December 2003. Interviews assessed three aspects of patient-centered prenatal care using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results:Hispanic mothers were less likely than non-Hispanic mothers to perceive that doctors and nurses treated them with respect during their prenatal care appointments (adjusted OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10–0.86), and to perceive that office staff treated them with respect during their prenatal care appointments (adjusted OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12–0.73). Hispanic mothers were more likely to experience language or communication problems than non-Hispanic mothers (adjusted OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.40–7.76). Qualitative analyses found that lack of patient-centered care limited Hispanic mothers’ ability to understand information given during prenatal visits, ability to ask questions about their prenatal care, and desire to return for subsequent appointments. Conclusions:Hispanic women could benefit from prenatal care that is more culturally and linguistically competent as well as care that is responsive to the group's cultural norms. One recommendation is the use of group prenatal care, which encourages groups of women with similar gestational ages to articulate and discuss cultural norms and attitudes about pregnancy during structured prenatal care sessions. (BIRTH 32:4 December 2005)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: :  Background: The relatively low use of maternity services at the primary health care level in Vietnam has highlighted the need for economic evaluations of the current maternal health delivery network. This study measured willingness-to-pay for obstetric delivery preferences in rural Vietnam. Methods: An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 200 postpartum and 196 pregnant women, and 196 men in Quang Xuong district, Thanh Hoa province of Vietnam, using the payment card technique. Results: A kappa score of 0.98 showed very good agreement between the two interviewers administering the survey. An association was found between willingness-to-pay and satisfaction with the quality of maternity services. No significant differences were found in willingness-to-pay values between prenatal and postpartum groups, and between male and female participants. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the willingness-to-pay instrument is a feasible tool, and is relatively reliable to measure the benefit of different alternatives of delivery services in rural Vietnam. For wider application of the instrument, its validity should be investigated further. Meanwhile, health care managers and decision makers should be encouraged to apply the instrument in the evaluation of maternal health programs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: :  Background: Patient choice cesarean refers to elective primary cesarean in the absence of a medical or obstetrical indication. The purpose of this study was to determine obstetricians’ attitudes and practices with respect to patient choice cesarean in Maine, United States. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all Maine Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists actively practicing obstetrics, after receiving institutional review exemption. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Fisher exact, or chi-square tests. Results: Seventy-eight of 110 (70.9%) obstetricians responded. Of these, 60 of 71 (84.5%) respondents performed or were willing to perform patient choice cesarean. However, 15 of 71 (21.1%) preferred a cesarean delivery for themselves (women) or partners (men). Indications included urinary continence (53.3%), adverse previous birth experience (41.7%), anal continence (35.0%), concern for fetal death or injury (33.3%), and fear of childbirth, preservation of sexual function, or pelvic organ prolapse (26.7% each). Less frequent were pain (11.7%), convenience (8.3%), and provider availability (10.0%). In addition, 82.1 percent believed medical evidence and 85.9 percent believed ethical issues sometimes or always supported patient choice cesarean. Responses were similar by gender, age, and time interval from training completion with two exceptions. Women under age 35 years were more likely to opt for a cesarean delivery themselves (p = 0.04), and 42.9 percent of respondents under age 35 years interpreted the medical literature as supporting cesarean in all cases versus 4.2 percent of older colleagues (p = 0.008). Sixty-four of 78 (82.1%) respondents would find a randomized trial of planned vaginal versus planned cesarean delivery helpful in addressing the issue of patient choice cesarean. Conclusions: Although Maine obstetricians were willing to perform patient choice cesarean, few preferred this delivery mode for themselves or their partners. A randomized trial of planned vaginal versus planned cesarean delivery is highly desired.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Background: A more current estimate to evaluate ethnic and acculturation differences in breastfeeding is warranted, given the rapid growth of the Hispanic population in the United States and the proliferation of breastfeeding promotion programs. The study objective was to describe current national estimates of the prevalence of breastfeeding and evaluate differences in reasons not to breastfeed by acculturation status. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000 was performed on a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic white women born in the U.S. and Hispanic women with at least one live birth. Acculturation status among Hispanics was assessed using a validated language scale, and prevalence of breastfeeding was based on maternal self-report. Results: Prevalence of breastfeeding was higher in less acculturated Hispanic women (59.2%) than high acculturated Hispanic women (33.1%) and white women (45.1%). Less acculturated Hispanic women were more likely to cite their child's physical/medical condition as a reason not to breastfeed (53.1%), whereas whites and more acculturated Hispanics were more likely to cite their child preferred the bottle (57.5% and 49.8%, respectively). A logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in likelihood to breastfeed between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics after controlling for education, age, and income. Higher acculturated women were less likely to breastfeed their children than low acculturated women (95% CI: 0.14–0.40) even after education, age, and income were taken into account. Conclusions: Acculturation differences in prevalence of breastfeeding and reasons not to breastfeed may be the result of attitudinal changes that occur due to acculturation. Further research into the acculturation process and its impact on breastfeeding may help to prevent the decline in breastfeeding that occurs as mothers become more acculturated. Meanwhile, patient education that addresses women's perceptions of the child's health condition and benefits of breastfeeding would be helpful. (BIRTH 32:2 June 2005)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Background: Kangaroo (skin-to-skin contact) care facilitates the maintenance of safe temperatures in newborn infants. Concern persists that infants will become cold while breastfeeding, however, especially if in skin-to-skin contact with the mother. This concern might be especially realistic for infants experiencing breastfeeding difficulties. The objective was to measure temperature during a study of mothers and infants who were having breastfeeding difficulties during early postpartum and were given opportunities to experience skin-to-skin contact during breastfeeding. Method:Forty-eight full-term infants were investigated using a pretest-test-posttest study design. Temporal artery temperature was measured before, after, and once during 3 consecutive skin-to-skin breastfeeding interventions and 1 intervention 24 hours after the first intervention. Results:During skin-to-skin contact, most infants reached and maintained temperatures between 36.5 and 37.6 °C, the thermoneutral range, with only rare exceptions. Conclusions:The temperatures of study infants reached and remained at the thermoneutral range during breastfeeding in skin-to-skin contact. The data suggest that mothers may have the ability to modulate their infant's temperature during skin-to-skin contact if given the opportunity. Hospital staff and parents can be reassured that, with respect to their temperature, healthy newborn infants, with or without breastfeeding difficulties, may safely breastfeed in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers. (BIRTH 32:2 June 2005)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Background: Few studies have explored the influence of postpartum depression on later life among mothers in Taiwan. The present follow-up study aims to explore the effects of postpartum depression on the psychosocial health of mothers and on the overall development of their infants. Methods: Follow-up evaluations were carried out on 29 postnatally depressed and 31 nondepressed mothers and their infants at 1 year after childbirth. Dependent variables were measured by means of five structured questionnaires. Results: Postnatally depressed mothers reported significantly higher perceived stress, but lower social support and self-esteem than nondepressed mothers at 1 year after childbirth. The participants’ postpartum depression had no significant effect on their infants’ eight developmental areas, nor did depression influence their plans about the number of children to have in the future. Conclusions: Postpartum depression may have a negative influence on the psychosocial health of women, but it does not appear to influence the overall development of their infants and their family planning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract:  Adverse childbirth experiences can evoke fear and overwhelming anxiety for some women and precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of this study was to assess a midwife-led brief counseling intervention for postpartum women at risk of developing psychological trauma symptoms. Method: Of 348 women screened for trauma symptoms, 103 met inclusion criteria and were randomized into an intervention (n = 50) or a control (n = 53) group. The intervention group received face-to-face counseling within 72 hours of birth and again via telephone at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Main outcome measures were posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, self-blame, and confidence about a future pregnancy. Results: At 3-month follow-up, intervention group women reported decreased trauma symptoms, low relative risk of depression, low relative risk of stress, and low feelings of self-blame. Confidence about a future pregnancy was higher for these women than for control group women. Three intervention group women compared with 9 control group women met the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 months postpartum, but this result was not statistically significant. Discussion: A high prevalence of postpartum depression and trauma symptoms occurred after childbirth. Although most women improved over time, the intervention markedly affected participants’ trajectory toward recovery compared with women who did not receive counseling. Conclusions: A brief, midwife-led counseling intervention for women who report a distressing birth experience was effective in reducing symptoms of trauma, depression, stress, and feelings of self-blame. The intervention is within the scope of midwifery practice, caused no harm to participants, was perceived as helpful, and enhanced women's confidence about a future pregnancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Birth 32 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1523-536X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this research, 47 wine samples produced from 2001 to 2002 harvest period in four Turkish regions were analyzed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA). Based on the results, the OTA levels of red wines are generally higher than those of white and rose wines. However, the wines from two wine regions (Aegean and Thrace) are much more contaminated with OTA compared with the others.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recently, a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) in the skeletal muscle of silver carp was identified. MBSP could be dissociated from myofibrils by treatment at pH 4.0. Following ultrafiltration concentration and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, High Q ion-exchange and affinity column of Arginine Sepharose-4B, MBSP was partially purified. The enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 28 kDa cleaves synthetic fluorogenic substrates specifically at the carboxyl sites of arginine and lysine residues. MBSP activity is suppressed by serine proteinase inhibitors such as Pefabloc SC, lima bean trypsin inhibitor and benzamidine; it is insensitive to Pepstatin, l-3-carboxy-trans-2, 3-epoxypropionyl-l-leucine-4-guanidinobutylamide and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting MBSP is a trypsin-like serine proteinase. Optimal profiles of pH and temperature of the enzyme are 8.5 and 55C, respectively. Hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins such as myosin heavy chain, actin and tropomyosin by purified MBSP occurred especially at around 55C, consistent with our proposal that MBSP plays a significant role in the Modori phenomenon.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The fractionation of cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) from chicken blood plasma was carried out using polyethylene glycol-4000 or ammonium sulfate (AS) precipitation. The addition of PEG at the level of 400 g/L, on the basis of the original volume of plasma protein, was more effective to fractionate CPI than using AS. CPI in the PEG fraction had a molecular weight of about 46 kDa with intramolecular disulfide bond. CPI containing fraction was colorless and had no absorbance in the range of 700–360 nm. The fraction was stable in the temperature range of 40–90C for 10 min and still retained high inhibitory activity toward papain after incubation at 90C for 60 min. NaCl, at 0–3.0% concentration, did not affect the inhibitory activity of the CPI containing fraction. The fraction was stable at pH 8.0, and the minimal inhibitory activity against papain was found at pH 5–6. Therefore, PEG fractionation effectively isolated the CPI from chicken plasma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Intact carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets were packaged under vacuum and pressurized at 100, 140, 180 and 200 MPa at 4C for 15 or 20 min. Changes in the lipid fraction and color of the fillets as well as the electrophoretic profiles of the fish proteins were studied to establish the best conditions (time and pressure) for pressure-shift freezing the carp fillets. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, free fatty acid (FFA) content and color parameters (L*, a*, b*) increased as the pressure level and pressurization time were increased. After 15 min of treatment at any pressure level, the intensity of the protein band with MW 〈 36 kDa decreased. With these results, the carp fillets were frozen using either pressure-shift freezing (PSF) (140 MPa, −14C for 12 min) or air-blast freezing (ABF) (−20C for 4 m/s) and then stored at −20C for 75 days. Changes in TBA values, FFA content, texture, total drip losses and size of ice crystal were evaluated. The TBA values and FFA content were relatively lower in the PSF samples than in the ABF samples. The freezing procedure did not seem to have a significant effect (P 〉 0.05) on the texture of carp fillets. PSF was more effective in reducing total drip losses in cooked samples compared to ABF treatment. Ice crystals found in the PSF fish samples were mainly intracellular, smaller and more regular in shape than those found in the ABF samples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of sodium chloride on activity and stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC1.14.18.1) from Fuji apple was investigated. Partially purified PPO was activated with 0.17–3.4 M NaCl. Purified PPO stored with NaCl was stable for 2 months at 4C. PPO in the presence of NaCl (0–5.1 M) was scanned by Differential UV from 240 to 300 nm and spectral analysis showed that there were conformational changes as a function of NaCl concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We report the cytotoxicity of the ginseng saponin metabolite, Compound K (20-O-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, IH901) on various human leukemia cell lines. Compound K had the most effect on U937, a human monocytic leukemia cell line among the tested cell lines. Compound K-treated U937 cells showed characteristics of apoptosis: an exposure of phosphatidylserine from the inner cell membrane to the outer cell membrane, the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Compound K induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bax, disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential, and by activating caspase 9 and caspase 3. Therefore, we suggest that Compound K inhibits U937 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of Bax and caspase activation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The antioxidant response mechanism by which phenolic phytochemicals show their positive benefits in plants and animals is not very well understood. The ability of cranberry juice powder (CP), ellagic acid (EA), rosmarinic acid (RA) and their synergies to elicit a phenolic response in germinating fava bean was investigated. Results indicated that elicitation with CP, EA, RA and their synergies resulted in increased endogenous phenolic synthesis linked to the stimulation of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Further, the stimulation of PPP was linked to the accumulation of free proline, suggesting a possible coupling of proline biosynthesis with PPP. Elicitation also resulted in the stimulation of guaiaicol peroxidase, suggesting a possible involvement in modulating structural development of the germinating sprout. Exogenous phenolic elicitation also resulted in the formation of malondialdehyde, which was gradually reduced because of the activation of antioxidant enzyme systems superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results indicate that the possible mode of action of exogenous phenolic phytochemicals in dark germinating fava bean could be by stimulating the PPP linked to proline biosynthesis and by the activation of the antioxidant enzyme system. The results also suggest that pure exogenous phenolics, EA and RA appeared to be effective when they were present in a cranberry phenolic background, suggesting a possible synergistic mode of action between EA, RA and cranberry phenolics in generating an endogenous fava bean antioxidant enzyme response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of fermentation period on biochemical composition of fermented blue mussel was investigated in three fermentation stages. Fermented blue mussel sauces (FBMSs) were prepared with 25% NaCl (w/w) at 20C for different fermentation periods. The FBMSs were desalted below 1% (w/w) by an electrodialyzer. It was observed that content of protein increased and carbohydrate decreased throughout the fermentation. In addition, the changes of free amino acids were investigated, and the levels of amino acids such as glycine, alanine, proline, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were higher, which may be important for the taste of fish and shellfish sauce.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two isozymes of trypsin (TR-I and TR-II) were purified from the viscera of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonica) by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Final enzyme preparations were nearly homogeneous in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the molecular weights of both enzymes were estimated to be 24,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the TR-I, IVGGYECQAHSQPHTVSLNS, and TR-II, IVGGYECQPYSQPHQVSLDS, were found. Both TR-I and TR-II had maximal activities at around pH 8.0 and 60C for hydrolysis of Nα-p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. The TR-I and TR-II were unstable at above 50C and below pH 5.0 and were stabilized by calcium ion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bacillus subtilis JM-3 was isolated from anchovy sauce naturally fermented in an underground cellar at 15 ± 3C for 3 years. The activity of the B. subtilis protease was highest in the 40–60% ammonium sulfate fraction. The yield of the purified protease was 5.3%, and its purification ratio was 35.6 folds. The molecular weight of the B. subtilis protease was 17.1 kDa, and its Km and Vmaxvalues were 1.75 μg/mL and 318 μM 1/min, respectively. The optimal temperature for protease activity was 60C, but optimal stability temperature was 30C. The optimal pH for protease activity and stability was 5.5. Therefore, the B. subtilis JM-3 protease was classified as an acid protease. The relative activities of the B. subtilis JM-3 protease were 69, 21 and 1.3% at 10, 20 and 30% NaCl concentrations, respectively. The best substrate for the B. subtilis JM-3 protease was benzyloxycarbonyl-glycine-p-nitrophenyl ester followed by bovine serum albumin. p-Toluene-sulfonyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone was the strongest inhibitor followed by soybean trypsin inhibitor, but N-ethylmaleimide did not inhibit this enzyme. The B. subtilis JM-3 protease was therefore presumed to be a trypsin-like serine protease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Aeromonas sp. DYU-Too 7 was screened to produce chitinases. The enzymes had an optimal reaction temperature of 50C and an optimal pH of 7.0. The best concentration of chitin in the fermentation process is 4%. Higher concentrations of chitin inhibited microbial growth and influenced the production of reducing sugars, the enzymatic activity and the protein content in the culture. N-acetylglucosamine, the main product in the hydrolysate, was 0.7 g/L at 36 h of cultivation. The concentration of N-acetylchitobiose was 0.16 g/L for the regular chitin broth and 0.28 g/L for the phosphorus-limiting chitin broth, with the highest concentration of N-acetylchitohexaose at about 0.062 g/L in both media. Experimental results showed that cultivation under a phosphorus-limiting condition substantially reduced the production of biomass, chitinases as well as N-acetylchitooligosaccharides.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food biochemistry 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bovine phospholipase A 2 (PPLA 2 ) was immobilized onto controlled pore glass (CPG) beads using four different immobilization methods. PPLA 2 was immobilized directly to CPG using glutaraldehyde without and with reduction by sodium borohydride (PP1 and PP2). Whey protein isolate was directly immobilized to CPG as a spacer followed by immobilization of PPLA 2 without and with reduction (PP3 and PP4). Immobilized enzyme samples were characterized with respect to total amount of protein immobilized, activity with a fluorescent substrate and stability over 3 weeks. Among the methods, PP2 and PP4 showed the highest enzyme activity. All methods but PP2 showed a significant decrease in enzyme activity over 3 weeks. Enzyme immobilized by two methods (PP2 and PP4) were compared with soluble enzyme for the hydrolysis of egg phospholipids. Soluble and immobilized enzyme (PP4) resulted in similar free fatty acid values.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The content ofTrans C18:1,Trans C18:2 and cis9trans11 C18:2 (CLA) in the marketed fat blends was evaluated by capillary gas chromatography and silver thin-layer chromatography. For comparison, the level of these acids was also determined in commercial butter, purchased at the same time. The content ofTrans C18:1 in fat blends showed that half of the examined products containedTrans C18:1 at 1.9–4.4%, while the other half contained 8.2–24.2%Trans fatty acids. The fat blends with a high total content ofTrans C18:1 were characterized by a high proportion ofTrans 6–8 andTrans 9 isomers. TheTrans 9 C18:1 in these products constituted 15.0–22.5% of the totalTrans C18:1. The level ofTrans C18:2 in fat blends examined ranged from 0.3 to 1.1%. Seven of the 18 tested fat blends contained, apart from cis-trans andTrans-cis C18:2, alsoTrans-trans C18:2 in the 0.03–0.4% range. In all fat blends examined, CLA was present. The products with a low level ofTrans C18:1 contained CLA at 0.3–1.0%. The content of CLA in the fat blends with high level ofTrans C18:1 did not exceed 0.3%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Liver and muscle tissue from two-banded sea bream, Diplodus vulgaris, were analyzed. The total lipid content recorded was 1.1 ± 0.3% in the edible muscle tissue and 4.5 ± 1.0% in the liver. The fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols and polar (phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) lipid fractions from the liver and muscle tissue were determined. The major fatty acids in both tissues were saturates: palmitic (20.8–43.4%) and stearic acids (6.3–33.7%); monounsaturates: oleic (10.0–33.6%) and palmitoleic acids (2.1–11.0%); and polyunsaturates: arachidonic (1.5–8.6%), docosatrienoic (0.8–11.6%), eicosapentaenoic (1.1–5.5%) and docosahexaenoic acids (1.5–9.9%). The liver contained more n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with the muscle tissue. A statistically significant difference in the relative amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid was found in the phosphatidylethanolamine between muscle and liver tissue (P 〈 0.01). The relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid was statistically significantly higher in liver triacylglycerols (P 〈 0.0005) and phosphatidylcholine (P 〈 0.05) compared with the muscle tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) via enzymatic glycerolysis in a simple and efficient operation was evaluated. The sunflower oil was used as the starting material to produce MAGs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Three commercial immobilized lipases, namely Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM and Novozym 435, were employed in a batch reaction system. Novozym 435 showed better properties in glycerolysis. The increased temperature and high glycerol/oil ratio had little effect on the yield of MAGs in such a system. The reaction in a packed bed reactor (PBR) gave lower yield of MAGs because of the insufficient contact between the oil and the glycerol in the continuous reactor. The low homogeneity in the enzymatic glycerolysis system was the obstacle to improve the MAG yield; thus, tert-butanol was used in the reaction system. The equilibrium yield of up to 70% MAGs in the selected reaction system was easily obtained within 2 h in a simple batch reactor. The reaction in a PBR was also conducted in tert-butanol medium with a conjugated linoleic acid oil. The MAG yield of 70% was also obtained with a residence time of only 30 min. The pressure drop of the system was less than 1 bar per m/h linear flow rate, indicating that the operation could be used in practical applications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: New Zealand Greenshell mussels and hoki are caught throughout the year and oil is extracted from the processing discards. However, there is little information on the variability in the lipid profile during the annual cycle. The livers of male and female hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae), Greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis aoteanus) and rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata) were therefore collected four times during a 12-month period, and their lipid and lipid-soluble components were analyzed. The yield of oil obtained from hoki livers ranged from 21 ± 1 to 70 ± 2% (w/w), with a low yield occurring during their winter spawning season. Female livers generally contained a higher level of lipid than male livers. The yield of oil from whole shellfish was relatively small, ranging from 0.5 to 2% (w/w), with a higher lipid content in the summer season than in winter. Levels of omega-3 fatty acids in hoki liver oil, 18–22% (w/w) of oil, were consistent throughout the year. Omega-3 fatty acids in the three shellfish species were present at 9–20% (w/w) of oil, and showed large variations in quantity at different sampling dates. Blue mussels and rock oysters both produced lower levels of oil and omega-3 fatty acids, and showed more variability compared with Greenshell mussels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Studies with experimental animals have shown that dietary sphingolipids significantly reduce the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and tumor formation, but knowledge about the amount and structure of sphingolipids in foods, especially foods of plant origin, is sparse because of lack of effective identification and quantification methods. Also, it is critical to know the structure of sphingolipids in plants in order to understand the potential link between diet and cancer. In this study, we developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization positive ion mode to separate, identify and quantify ceramide and cerebroside species simultaneously in 10 plant samples. The ceramides found in the samples contained mainly trihydroxy bases, especially 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1). Both nonhydroxy fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids were found, and these were mostly very long chain fatty acids (C 〉 20). Cerebrosides of the plant samples had both dihydroxy and trihydroxy bases, with dihydroxy base 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2) dominating. The fatty acids were composed mainly of α-hydroxy fatty acids. Using an external calibration method, the major cerebroside found in the plants examined was quantified. This is the first report of sphingolipid content in most of the species studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To prepare a liposoluble antioxidant, the esterification reaction between octadecanoyl chloride and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) from green tea was conducted. The main reaction product, EGCG–octadecanoate (EGCGO), was isolated from the reaction mixture; and its antioxidant activity was assayed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of peroxide formation in soybean oil. The solubility of EGCGO in soybean oil was 11.7 g/L. The relative antioxidant power of EGCGO was 78% of that of the EGCG's and 278% of that of the butylated hydroxytoluene's based on DPPH radical scavenging activity. The relative antioxidant activity was 2.4 times that of vitamin E's on the basis of inhibiting peroxide formation in soybean oil. The results show that it was feasible to prepare a liposoluble antioxidant through the esterification of EGCG.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Phenolic compounds were extracted from defatted almond seeds using 80% aqueous acetone. Crude extract was applied onto a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction I consisting of low-molecular-weight phenolics was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction II consisting of tannins was obtained using water-acetone (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phases. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions showed antioxidant and antiradical properties as revealed following studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed highest values when tannins (fraction II) were tested. For example, TAA of tannin fraction was 3.93 mmol Trolox/g, whereas the crude extract and fraction I showed values of only 0.24 and 0.09 μmol Trolox/mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction II was the highest (80.4 mg/g). The content of tannins in this fraction determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g was 2436. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of almond seed crude extract showed the presence of phenolic compounds, namely vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic acids (after basic hydrolysis), quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin (after acidic hydrolysis), delphinidin and cyanidin (after n-butanol-HCl hydrolysis) and procyanidin B2 and B3.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The essential oils of Thymbra capitata, Thymus mastichina and Thymus camphoratus, collected during the vegetative phase, were predominantly composed of oxygen-containing monoterpenes (61–76%). Carvacrol was the dominant component of T. capitata oil (72%), 1,8-cineole (49%) dominated that of Th. mastichina, and linalool (17%), linalyl acetate (15%) and 1,8-cineole (11%) dominated Th. camphoratus oil. The essential oils and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) showed weak free radical scavenging ability in peanut oil when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In sunflower oil, both the essential oils and the synthetic antioxidants exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Significant differences in the acid value were detected after several days’ storage. From day 55 of storage until the end of the experiment, the acid value for both peanut and sunflower oil with added essential oils was similar and significantly lower than that of the control, but significantly higher than those with added BHA and BHT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A rapid method to determine butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in refined bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil and RBD palm olein was developed. The two sets of 50 stripped oils of RBD palm olein and RBD palm oil were spiked with known amounts of BHA concentrations up to 300 mg/kg (ppm) for calibration samples. The “leave-one-out” cross-validation procedure was used to verify the calibration model. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models for predicting BHA were developed by using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy spectral regions from 3486 to 3140 cm −1 and 1140 to 898 cm −1 . The accuracy of the method was comparable to that of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) , with coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9939 from calibration samples of RBD palm olein and an R2of 0.9884 for RBD palm oil samples. The results indicate that FTIR in conjunction with PLS is a useful analytical tool for simple and rapid quantitation of BHA in RBD palm oil and RBD palm olein for routine analysis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Glass and polyethylenterephthalate (PET) bottles filled with sunflower oil were stored under both light and dark and with/without headspace to determine the effects of light, air, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids, soap content and iodine number were measured to determine stability of sunflower oil every 3 months until 9 months. Glass bottles recorded lower oxidation values than oils packaged in PET. The oxidation proceeded faster in packages stored in light than in darkness, and in those with headspace. The best quality oil was found stored in the dark, free of air and packed in glass and then in PET. Even though glass gave the best protection against oxidation, PET bottles offer adequate protection (especially in the dark). This study showed that air, packaging and storage time all have an effect on the stability of sunflower oil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Thirty commercial Kasar cheeses were analyzed for their free fatty acids (FFAs) and gross composition as well as flavor profiles. The flavor notes and chemical parameters were grouped by factor analyses and correlated. The predominant free fatty acids in Kasar cheeses were palmitic (C 16:0 ) , oleic (C18:1 ), myristic (C14:0 ) and stearic (C18:0 ) acids. Factor analysis showed that the last group of FFA consisted of butyric, caprylic, capric and palmitic acids. The Kasar cheeses were mainly described by panelists as pungent, sour and rancid as well as having an animal-like flavor. Butyric, caproic, caprylic, capric and lauric acids exhibited these flavors notes and were also statistically correlated with flavor (taste-odor) (P 〈 0.05). The desirable-flavored Kasar cheeses had intermediate concentrations (mg/kg cheese) of individual FFA: 665 for butyric acid, 398 for caproic acid, 254 for caprylic acid, 476 for capric acid, 688 for lauric acid, 2153 for myristic acid, 5559 for palmitic acid, 1703 for stearic acid, 3701 for oleic acid and 15,597 for total FFA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nine different brands of commercial vanaspati were analyzed for their various physicochemical characteristics. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed the characteristic peak at 966/cm corresponding to trans compounds for all the samples examined. The fatty acid composition showed that the trans fatty acid (elaidic acid) content ranged from 5.9 to 30.0%. The other fatty acids were palmitic acid followed by oleic, stearic and linoleic acids. The solid fat content determined by differential scanning calorimetry showed that the samples contained 54–67% solids at 20C, 42–59% at 25C and 0.2–19% at 40C. The slip melting point varied between 39 and 40C. The textural evaluation was carried out using cone penetrometry at 3, 20 and 25C. The fat having the highest trans content showed the highest hardness index. However, there was no direct correlation between the fatty acid composition and consistency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The fatty acid distribution of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and major phospholipids (PLs) in kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. The lipids extracted from five cultivars were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) into seven fractions. The major lipid components were TAGs and PLs, while hydrocarbons (HCs), steryl esters (SEs), free fatty acids (FFAs) and diacylglycerols (DAGs) (sn-1,3 and sn-1,2) were also present in minor proportions. With a few exceptions, the dominant phospholipid components were phosphatidylcholine (PC), followed by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). Significant differences (P 〈 0.05) in fatty acid distributions existed when different kidney bean cultivars were examined. However, the principal characteristics of fatty acid distributions in the TAGs were evident among five cultivars; unsaturated fatty acids were predominantly concentrated in the sn-2-position, and saturated fatty acids primarily occupied the sn-1- or sn-3-position in the oils of the beans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Processed rice bran oils (RBOs) – refined chemically (cRBO) and physically (pRBO) – were studied for frying performance compared to sunflower oil. Their physicochemical differences showed in appearance, color and oryzanol content, partial acylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter. Bhujia was prepared in sunflower and RBOs and their frying performance measured in the oil from the bhujia. Oils after frying had deeper color (23.9–137.5% increase) and higher peroxide (101.4–274.3% increase) and free fatty acid values (−4.7 to +27.3% change) compared to the starting oils, but the RBOs studied showed lesser changes compared to the control. Oil in the bhujia was slightly lower (−7.9%) for a low-oryzanol cRBO while it was slightly higher (+7.0%) for a high-oryzanol pRBO. Both showed mild foaming compared to the control sunflower oil while retaining oryzanol in the oil and bhujia during frying (when partial acylglycerols caused some foaming). The bhujia retained the RBO's healthy oryzanol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple, fast, sensitive and accurate turbidimetric assay of lipids in the milled seeds was developed. The procedure is based on the extraction of lipids into acetone followed by their turbidimetric reaction with a 1.5% solution of sulfosalicylic acid and turbidimetric measurements. The spectral measurement was made at 440 nm against a blank of the reagents. A standard curve was constructed using raw fat extracted from the species being analyzed. For analysis of a large number of solvents, the standardization of the turbidimetric method may be accomplished using Soxhlet values for a few representative samples. A negative relationship between the hardness of maize particles and their content of raw fat was observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Performance of four selected adsorbents, namely silica gel (SG), aluminum oxide (AO), synthetic brominated polyaromatic SP 207(SP) and functionalized polyaromatic Dowex Optipore L-285 (DO), for adsorption/desorption of vitamin E from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was compared. Vitamin E from PFAD was preconcentrated and dissolved in hexane. Batch mode adsorption experiments were carried out by reacting the vitamin E solution with the adsorbents separately in an orbital shaker under controlled conditions. It appeared that increasing initial vitamin E concentration favored adsorption process as indicated by an increase in adsorption capacity and percentage of vitamin E uptake. Results showed that the adsorption process was exothermic for all adsorbents. Isopropanol was used to recover vitamin E from the adsorbents. It was found that increasing reaction temperature resulted in a higher vitamin E recovery. SG was the most suitable adsorbent for separation of vitamin E as it possessed the highest adsorption capacity and recovery among adsorbents under experimental conditions employed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flesh and skin of Anguilla japonica and Conger myriaster were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate and diethyl ether extracts (4 mg/mL) after extracting with methanol were tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging (FRS) activity for flesh and skin of each eel species. The values were compared with α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Extracts showing positive results, when tested for DPPH FRS, were examined for dose effect, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide scavenging assays and heat stability. All extracts of A. japonica showed a dose-dependent DPPH FRS and significant hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (〉65%). The diethyl ether extract of the flesh of A. japonica showed the highest superoxide scavenging activity. Diethyl ether extracts of A. japonica were heat stable, and ethyl acetate extracts were stable up to 75C. Thus, it can be concluded that A. japonica is rich with heat stable and nonpolar antioxidants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The physico-chemical properties of oil from Carica papaya were determined following extraction with petroleum ether and aqueous-enzymatic methods. Four commercial enzymes were used for the enzymatic extraction, namely, Termamyl 120 L, Type L (α-Amylase), Neutrase®0.8 L (Neutral protease), Celluclast®1.5 L FG (Cellulase) and Pectinex®Ultra SP-L (Pectinase). The melting point of the oil was 9.7–10.5C and showed that there was no significant difference (P 〉 0.05) between the oil obtained from enzyme and solvent extractions. Generally, the color of the oil was reddish yellow. Solvent-extracted oil tended to have more yellow and red color (24 Y + 4.0 R) compared to enzyme-extracted oil (20 Y + 3.0 R). The iodine and the saponification values of the solvent-extracted oil were found to be 66.0 and 154.7, respectively, while those of the enzyme extracted oil were 66.2–69.3 and 154.2–161.7, respectively. The unsaponifiable matter of the oil extracted using different enzymes ranged between 2.07 and 2.90% and were significantly different (P 〈 0.05) from that of the solvent-extracted oil (1.39%). The predominant fatty acid in the oil was oleic acid (72–78%), with some palmitic (12–14%), stearic (4–5%) and linoleic (2.5–3.5%) acids with no significant difference in fatty acid compositions between oil extracted using solvent and enzymes. The main triacylglycerols (TAGs) were sn-glycerol-oleate-oleate-oleate (OOO) (43.5–45.5%) and 1-palmitoyl-dioleoyl glycerol (POO) +stearoyl-oleoyl-linoleoyl glycerol (SOL) (29.5–30.5%).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of blend composition of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil and sunflower oil and that of different types of stirrers during fractionation on the yield and physicochemical characteristics of the oleins was investigated. Blends of 80% palm oil with 20% sunflower oil, and 60% palm oil with 40% sunflower oil were fractionated at 21C, and the oil samples were agitated with stirrers 1, 2, 3 and 4. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained with 60% palm oil and 40% sunflower oil blend when stirrer 2 was used to agitate the sample. There was a significant difference in iodine value (IV) of samples agitated with stirrers 3 and 4. The difference was not significant when stirrers 1 and 2 were used. Blending palm oil with sunflower oil followed by fractionation produced oleins of much higher IV than either commercially available regular palm olein or superolein. The major fatty acids in the oleins obtained after fractionating blend of 80% palm oil and 20% sunflower oil were palmitic (31.8–33.2%), oleic (38.1–39.3%) and linoleic (21.6–24.1%) acids. With higher amount of sunflower oil of 40% in the oil blend, the amount of palmitic acid significantly decreased (25.1–26.3%). After fractionation, the blend containing 60% palm oil and 40% sunflower oil produced liquid fractions which were lower in dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (POP), palmitoyl-oleoyl-stearoyl-glycerol (POS), palmitoyl-dioleoyl-glycerol (POO) and dipalmitoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (PLP) compared to the blend containing 80% palm oil and 20% sunflower oil. The blend with a higher level of sunflower oil at 40% produced oleins of much lower cloud point (3.5–3.7C) than the blend containing only 20% sunflower oil. The type of stirrer did not have any significant effect on the cloud point.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of food lipids 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4522
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Low-calorie structured lipids (SL) containing behenic and oleic acids were prepared using interesterification of olive oil with hydrogenated high erucic acid rapeseed oil and acidolysis of olive oil with behenic acid. The reactions were catalyzed by the Lipozyme RM IM enzyme. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), obtained by interesterification (TAG SLHE ), contained 20.9 and 45.3% of behenic and oleic acids, respectively, whereas those obtained by acidolysis (TAG SLB ) contained 34.6 and 49.6% of these acids, respectively. In both cases, behenic acid was mainly incorporated in the sn-1,3 positions of the TAG molecules (∼93%). The distribution of oleic acid in the individual positions was different for each product. The content of oleic acid in the sn-2 position of TAG was 50.2 and 80.3% for TAGSLHEand TAGSLB, respectively. The melting temperature of TAGSLHE(45.5%) was higher than that of TAGSLB(37.5%). Because of the suitable solid fat content characteristics of TAGSLBas a function of temperature, it is possible to use TAGSLBin bakery and in confectionery industries for production of margarines and blends, among others.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of various parameters, i.e., size of shrimp, level and pattern of inlet drying air temperature, on the drying kinetics and various quality attributes of dried shrimp viz. shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture and color during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. It was found that the use of a constant inlet air temperature of 100C yielded dried shrimp of the best quality in terms of low percentage of shrinkage, high percentage of rehydration, low maximum shear force and high value of redness compared to shrimp dried using other conditions. A simple mathematical model that enables prediction of the drying behavior of shrimp in a jet-spouted bed dryer has also been developed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: ASTM A-36 medium carbon steel, 110 copper, 3003-H14 aluminum, polyvinylchloride (PVC) type 1 and 304 stainless steel coupons were immersed in electrolyzed (EO) water, chlorine water, modified EO water and deionized water for a period of 8 days, and the properties of these types of water, weights and surface roughness of the coupons were monitored. EO water significantly increased (P 〈 0.05) the surface roughness of carbon steel, aluminum and copper with time; however, chlorine water, modified EO water and deionized water produced minimal changes on these materials. Regardless of the treatment water used, the surface roughness of stainless steel and PVC essentially remained the same. Carbon steel, copper, aluminum and stainless steel had a fair, good, good and outstanding corrosion resistance in EO water, respectively. Chlorine and modified EO water had a much less corrosive effect than EO water on all the materials tested.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rupture stress (RS) of fried potato slices (1.60 mm thick) and of the crust of fried potato slabs (FPS) having lengths of 60 mm and sides of 8, 10 and 12 mm, was determined during the post-frying period by a puncture test. The RS of fried potato slices decreased as water activity increased from 0.22 to 0.85. The RS of FPS diminished in the first 5–6 min when exposed to ambient conditions and remained almost constant thereafter. A novel videotape technique and image analysis were used to follow deflection of FPS in the post-frying period. An apparent modulus based on the composite structure of FPS and calculated from beam mechanics decreased with time in a trend similar to that of the textural parameters. We concluded that changes in physical properties of the crust because of moisture accumulation are the major causes of loss of texture (limpness) in FPS during the post-frying period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this work was to predict the outcome of a practical cleaning test for closed food-process equipment by examining wall shear stress distributions in the equipment estimated from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Such predictions make evaluation and improvement of hygienic design of equipment prior to prototype production possible. To do this, knowledge of hydrodynamic cleaning effects is required. The importance of hydrodynamics was shown by cleaning tests on a mix-proof valve (MPV) and a straight pipe. The MPV was easier to clean than a straight pipe. An explanation to this was sought in this work by the idea of a critical wall shear stress. A radial flowcell (RFC) was used for prediction of the critical wall shear stress. Prediction of cleanability in the MPV was performed by comparison of wall shear stress estimated in the MPV by CFD to the critical wall shear stress found in the RFC. Cleanability was under-predicted by the use of simulated wall shear stress compared with cleanability estimated from actual cleaning trials.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article presents a mathematical model describing the unsteady heat and mass transfer during the freeze drying of biological materials. The model was built from the mass and energy balances in the dried and frozen regions of the material undergoing freeze drying. A set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations permitted the description of the temperature and pressure profiles, together with the position of the sublimation interface. These equations were transformed to a finite element scheme and numerically solved using the Newton-Raphson approach to represent the nonlinear problem and the interface position. Most parameters involved in the model (i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, heat and mass transfer coefficients etc.) were obtained from experimental data cited in the literature. The dehydration kinetics and the temperature profiles of potato and apple slabs were experimentally determined during freeze drying. The simulation results agreed closely with the water content experimental data. The prediction of temperature profiles within the solid was, however, less accurate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Four species of Brettanomyces (intermedius, bruxellensis, custersianus, clausenii) were examined to ascertain their acetic acid production capacity. The results showed that B. bruxellensis was the strain with the best volumetric productivity  and  specific  production  rate  (P = 0.065 gL−1 h−1;  Vp = 0.43 gg−1h−1). The best kinetic parameters were reached (P = 0.133 gL−1 h−1; Yp/s = 0.23; Pmax = 11.64 gL−1)  at  an  airflow  of  288 Lh−1 (0.6 vvm,  OTR = 124 mgO2L−1 h−1), and substrate inhibition was not observed. The influence of temperature and agitation on acetic acid production by B. bruxellensis in a glucose medium was investigated at different levels, 26, 30, 34C and 250, 350, 450 rpm, respectively. Temperature and agitation were shown to be deci-sive factors (P 〈 0.05) in acetic acid production at 288 Lh−1(0.6 vvm, OTR = 124 mgO2L−1 h). The optimal conditions for a high volumetric productivity were 30C and 250 rpm, respectively.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Industrial continuous pasta cookers are filled with thousands of liters of cooking water. During the cooking process, the starch leaches from the cooked pasta. As the starch concentration increases, the cooked pasta becomes less firm and stickier. Starchy water must be constantly released to reduce the starch concentration. This requires addition of fresh makeup water and energy used to reheat it. The effects of presteaming freshly extruded pasta and posttreatment at high temperature and pressure of the starchy cooking water on the pasta cooking quality was tested. The posttreatment consisted of elevating the water temperature to 120C and the pressure to 1.0297 × 10 5  Pa. The viscosity of cooking water decreased from 1.039 × 10−5 m2/s to 7.280 × 10−6 m2/s as a result of the temperature degradation of amylose. Applying high pressure/temperature treatment to the cooking water, as well as straining it through a tight mesh screen, makes it possible to use the same cooking water for a longer period of time. This, in turn, reduces the wastewater produced in continuous cookers, without decreasing the quality of cooked pasta. This results in the conservation of the water and energy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ultrafiltration (UF) of sucrose and pectin solutions, their mixtures and enzymatically treated mosambi (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) juice has been performed on a batch unstirred membrane cell. Thin film composite polyamide membrane of molecular weight cut-off 50,000 was used. The sucrose solution's permeate flux declined marginally, but for the pectin solution, it decreased rapidly over time. The sucrose–pectin mixture exhibits a flux decline similar to that of the pectin solution. The gel-type pectin layer over the membrane's surface governs the flux decline of the sucrose–pectin mixture. The nature of the flux decline and the values of the permeated total soluble solids of enzymatically treated mosambi juice show similar behavior as compared with that of the UF of the sucrose–pectin mixture. The permeate of the enzyme-treated mosambi juice contains almost all the soluble solids and acids (in terms of citric acid) with a remarkable improvement in juice clarity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article presents empirical correlations to predict the density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and rheological power–law parameters of liquid egg yolk over a temperature range compatible with its industrial thermal processing (0–61C). Moreover, a mathematical model for a pasteurizer that takes into account the spatial variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient throughout the plate heat exchanger is presented, as are two of its simplified forms. The obtained correlations of thermophysical properties are applied for the simulation of the egg yolk pasteurization, and the obtained temperature profiles are used for evaluating the extent of thermal inactivation. A detailed simulation example shows that there is a considerable deviation between the designed level of heat treatment and that this is predicted through process simulation. It is shown that a reliable mathematical model, combined with specialized thermophysical property correlations, provide a more accurate design of the pasteurization equipment that ensures effective inactivation, while preserving nutritional and sensorial characteristics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Extruded corn balls were subjected to dip coating with sucrose solutions (0–70%) at different temperatures (20–50C) to determine several coating characteristics such as total uptake, uptake of solid and dimensionless uptake (sucrose solution uptake/water uptake). Textures of the wet sample, as well as the dried sample, were determined under compressive loading, to obtain the maximum force offered and the deformability modulus. A progressive increase in solid uptake occurs with an increase in concentration and/or temperature while the effect of the latter is low. The deformability modulus of the samples drastically increases because of the absorption of sucrose and because of drying. The desirable high dimensionless uptake can be obtained with a high concentration of sucrose at a low temperature. The uptake of solid generally shows a significant relationship (P ≤ 0.05) with other coating and textural parameters for the wet sample, but not with the dry product.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pasteurization of pineapple juices at 80C for 5 min in the presence of added acids (citric, malic and fumaric) and cane sugar was found to increase its reducing sugar content from 3.5 to 6.5%, which in turn decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased the hygroscopicity of the juice powder. Inversion of sucrose could be avoided by adding sugar and acid to a pasteurized cooled juice. Among the acids, citric acid caused 30% more hygroscopicity than malic and fumaric. Incorporation of additives into the juice prior to freeze-drying helped in reducing the hygroscopic tendency of the juice powder. Among the additives tried, trehalose, beta-cyclodextrin and sorbitol were found to be beneficial as they increase the Tg and reduce the hygroscopic tendency of the juice powder.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Raw skim milk was treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 40 kV/cm, and 30 pulses of 2 μs duration each, or by combining thermal processing at 73 or 80C for 6 s followed by a PEF process at 50 or 30 kV/cm, 30 pulses at 4 or 3 Hz. The microbiological quality of the skim milk was monitored for 14, 22 and 30 days during storage at 4C. The combination of thermal/PEF-processed skim milk exhibited greater microbial quality than PEF or thermally processed skim milk. The bacterial counts of skim milk decreased with increasing electric field intensity and number of pulses. On day 14, the PEF-processed skim milk reached 7.2, 6.5 and 6.3 log cfu/mL after PEF processes at 10, 20 or 30 pulses compared with 7.6 log cfu/mL in unprocessed skim milk. The combination of thermal/PEF-processed skim milk achieved bacteria counts of 4.1 and 4.9 log cfu/mL at the end of the 22 and 30 days of refrigerated storage, respectively. The acidity of skim milk was more affected by heat, and the combination of heat and PEF processes than by PEF alone. During refrigerated storage of skim milk, the bacterial growth was dependent on the electric field intensity, process duration and storage time. A synergistic effect between temperature and pulsed electric fields was observed at 73 and 80C when the skim milk was processed with 50 or 30 kV/cm.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ragi was incorporated at different levels (5, 15 and 25%) to a deep fat fried snack item namely “chakli” to study its effect on fat absorption, sensory and storage parameters. Three sets of products were prepared incorporating untreated, dry heat treated and gelatinized ragi flour. The control products were without ragi flour. Results indicated that the fat absorbed by the control was 19%. Ragi flour incorporation (5%) increased fat content to 24% but on further increase of ragi flour (15 and 25%), it decreased to 19.7 and 18%, respectively. Incorporation of untreated and dry heat treated ragi flour resulted in a slight decline in the sensory ratings of products. The effects were more adverse with higher level of incorporation. On incorporation of gelatinized ragi flour (5%), significantly higher ratings were obtained for texture, flavor and overall quality of products in comparison with the control. The free fatty acid content of products was very low on 0 day and increased during 4 weeks of storage. It can be concluded from the results that incorporation of higher amounts of ragi resulted in lower fat uptake but compromised the sensory quality of the product. However, incorporation at the 5% level had the opposite effect. Gelatinization as a pretreatment was found to improve the quality of the product.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning products namely corn-SUA-90 beans-peanut, corn-peanut-sardines, corn-peanut-sardine-SUA-90 beans, corn-peanut-soaked SUA-90 beans, corn-peanut-germinated SUA-90 beans, sorghum-SUA-90 beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-SUA-90 beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked SUA-90 beans and sorghum-peanut-germinated SUA-90 beans were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content, residual urease activity and amino acid profile. The products were also evaluated for storage stability at ambient conditions, organoleptic quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased when plain corn and sorghum gruels were enriched with SUA-90 beans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the SUA-90 beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (p ≤ 0.05). The corn and sorghum-based composite gruels had short shelf lives when stored under ambient temperatures (28.6C) ranging between four and six hours, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite products except those containing germinated SUA-90 beans were liked and highly accepted by consumers (p ≤ 0.05) similar to the traditional plain corn and sorghum gruels. The corn and sorghum-based composite products therefore have a potential for use as weaning and/or supplementary foods for enhancing growth and rehabilitating undernourished pre-school age children.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Three particular geometrical shapes of parallelepiped, cylinder and sphere were selected from cut beans (length : diameter = 1:1, 2:1, 3:1), potatoes (aspect ratio = 1:1, 2:1, 3:1) and peas, respectively. The dimensional shrinkage behavior was studied in a batch fluidized bed at three drying temperatures of 30, 40 and 50C. Relative humidity of hot air was kept at 15%. Dimensional shrinkage was plotted using a nondimensional moisture ratio and the shrinkage behavior of the selected foods was modeled with simple mathematical models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study was carried out on the microbiological status of local and imported packed onion flakes available at retail markets in Argentina. The effectiveness of selected doses of gamma irradiation to decontaminate imported onion flakes and the effects of irradiation on some technological properties were also investigated. Imported onion flakes were contaminated with a high percentage of spore-forming microorganisms. Imported onion flakes were irradiated at doses of 7, 9, 11, 15, 18 and 23 kGy, and stored at temperatures between 20 and 25C, and relative humidities ranging from 50 to 80%. Irradiation doses between 7 and 11 kGy reduced the aerobic plate count by three log cycles. Doses between 7 and 15 kGy reduced yeast and mold counts by two log cycles. A dose of 7 kGy was sufficient to reduce the sulfite-reducing Clostridia count to less than detectable levels. We concluded that a dose of at least 7 kGy was necessary to decontaminate imported dry onion marketed in Argentina. No variation in water content or water activity was attributed to selected irradiation doses. Irradiation in the 7–11 kGy range markedly increased the saline extract optical index of imported onion flakes. Gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the flavor intensity as determined by enzymatic production of pyruvic acid.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Extrusion cooking of fish and rice-flour blends in a single-screw cooking extruder was studied under a wide range of variables of barrel temperature, screw speed, fish content and feed-moisture content which ranged from 100 to 200C, 70–110 rev/min, 5–45% and 20–60%, respectively. Experiments based on rotatable design showed that the physical properties of expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness and water solubility index (WSI) were significantly affected by all the process variables except screw speed. Barrel temperatures greater than 180C and feed moistures less than 58% result in a steep increase in expansion ratio and a decrease in bulk density. At a fish content of 5% and feed-moisture content of less than 52.5%, the hardness values decreased. When the WSI is at 40–42% of fish content and the feed-moisture content is less than 55%, a steep increase was noticed, but a maximum WSI value of 11.5% was observed at a fish content of 41.37% and a feed-moisture content of 35%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The combination of infrared (IR) and hot-air drying of onion slices was explored, and the effects of processing conditions such as drying temperature, slice thickness, air temperature and velocity on onion slice characteristics were studied. The onion slice quality was evaluated on the basis of the color and the pyruvic acid content, an index of flavor. Drying of thin slices of onion (2 mm) at low temperature (60C) with a moderate air velocity (2 m/s) and air temperature (40C) retained greater flavor and color. An empiric equation developed to correlate the drying process variables and the onion slice moisture with the drying time provided a good fit (R2 = 0.92). Similar equations developed to correlate the drying process variables and the drying time with the pyruvic acid content provided an excellent fit (R2 = 0.96), while the equations fit for the total color change of onion slices were satisfactory (R2 = 0.86). Combination drying resulted in shorter drying process time and in better onion slice quality as compared to IR and hot-air drying applied individually.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The sensory, bacteriological and biochemical qualities of tropical wire-netting reef cod (Epinephelus merra) stored in melting ice were studied. The total bacterial load in immediately iced (II) fish was 10 6 cfu /g on the 17th day of storage. The histamine formers were 10 1 cfu /g on the initial day, whereas the total lactics was 10 1 cfu /g on the third day. The total coliforms decreased from MPN 35 to 0 per gram, while the anaerobic sulfite reducers did not exhibit any consistent trend. The fish delayed for 6 h before icing or delayed iced (DI) fish exhibited bacterial loads of 10 6 cfu /g on the third day, while the total lactics ranged from 10 1to 10 2 cfu /g and the histamine formers ranged from 10 2to 10 4 cfu /g. The total coliforms declined and the anaerobic sulfite reducers increased over a period of 5 days. The pH and hypoxanthine increased during the storage. Both the total volatile base nitrogen and trimethylamine nitrogen attained the maximum limit of acceptability at the end of the storage. The fatty acid content was 0.17% as oleic acid even on the 17th day in II fish. The II fish exhibited a longer shelf life (17 days) when compared to the shorter shelf life (3 days) exhibited by the DI fish.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Tomato dices are typically treated with calcium (Ca) to increase firmness and resistance to mechanical abuse. However, studies have not examined when the application of Ca would provide the greatest protection and result in the greatest firmness. Tomato (cv. P696) dices were dipped in a 600 mg/L calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) solution either before or after undergoing mechanical abuse for 0–240 s in a rotary drum. The drained weight and firmness, which were measured using a Kramer shear cell (Instron Corp., Canton, MA), did not depend on whether Ca was added before or after the mechanical abuse. However, sensory evaluation showed that the panelists preferred the diced tomatoes that were dipped in Ca before undergoing mechanical abuse. These tomato dices appeared to have a larger percentage of undamaged dices, while those that were mechanically abused before dipping in Ca appeared ragged and mushy because of a collapsed structure. Therefore, although there was no significant difference in the drained weight or texture obtained by instrumental measurement, dices that are dipped in Ca before undergoing mechanical abuse appear less damaged to consumers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The optimum levels of vacuum pressure, concentration of osmotic solution and dehydration time for vacuum pulse osmotic dehydration of cantaloupe were determined by response surface methodology (RSM). The response surface equations ( P 〈 0.05 and lack of fit 〉 0.1) explain the 97.6, 88.0 and 97.1% of the variability in weight loss, water loss and °Brix increase, respectively, at 95% confidence level. The canonical analysis for each response indicated that the stationary point is a saddle point for weight loss and °Brix increase, and a point of maximum response for water loss. The region that best satisfied all the constraints (low values in weight loss and °Brix increase, and high value in water loss) is located within the intervals from 49.5 °Brix to 52.5 °Brix for concentration and from 75 min to 84 min for dehydration time at a vacuum pulse of 740 mbar.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc